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Human presence in New Mexico can be traced back 20,000 years. and 1200 A.D., Mogollon Indians lived in valleys near the New Mexico-Arizona border. Navaho and Apache tribes arrived from the north around 1500, followed by Utes and Comanches.European exploration was due entirely to the Spanish, at first in search of gold. They rebelled in 1680 and expelled the Spanish authorities, but in 1692, Spanish control was re-established.In the early 1800s, a few Americans began to penetrate the territory. The Santa Fe Trail was opened by William Becknell in 1821, to provide a conduit for trade between Santa Fe and Missouri. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo confirmed American possession of the region.The Territory of New Mexico was organized in 1850. Disputes between cattlemen and others led to the Lincoln County War in the 1870s, which required the territorial government to apply martial law and use troops to restore order.New Mexico became the 47th state in 1912. Research and development facilities were built at Los Alamos, and the first atomic explosion took place in the New Mexico desert at Alamagordo on July 16, 1945.