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Inscribed Water Conduit from Beyazit

Inscribed Water Conduit from Beyazit


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Love and Loss on the Seine

The river is a lure for romantics, tourists, sunbathers, anglers, psychiatric patients—le tout Paris.

Most every morning at nine, the emergency responders assigned to the Seine pull on their wet suits and swim around the Île de la Cité. In the course of their circuit around this teardrop-shaped island in the middle of the river in the middle of Paris, the firemen-divers scour the bottom, retrieving bikes, cutlery (which they clean and use in the nearby houseboat where they live), cell phones, old coins, crucifixes, guns, and once, a museum-grade Roman clasp.

By the Pont des Arts, where lovers affix brass locks inscribed with their names (“Steve + Linda Pour la Vie”), they retrieve keys tossed in the water by couples hoping to affirm the eternal nature of their padlocked love. One bridge upriver, at the Pont Neuf, near the Palace of Justice law courts where divorces are decreed, they find wedding bands, discarded when eternal love turns out to be ephemeral.

As the central artery of Paris, the Seine naturally accrues the detritus of human civilization and relationships. Through centuries it has served as highway, moat, water tap, sewer, and washtub. Its scimitar arc slices the city, dividing it into Left and Right Banks. Historically, Left was bohemian, Right, aristocratic, but distinctions have blurred over time.

On the Île de la Cité itself, in front of the Gothic tracery of stone that is the Cathedral of Notre Dame, is a bronze compass rose set into paving stones. From here—point zéro—all distances from Paris are measured. The Seine centers Paris it is its liquid heart. “For Parisians the Seine is a compass, a way to know where you are,” says Marina Ferretti, an art historian and curator.

It is also, as the French say, fluide, a word with philosophical implications. Surrender to impermanence and flux, it whispers. Nothing stays the same. No use commanding the Seine to sit still. A river stilled is no longer a river. It changes with the time of day and season. Its currents carry the jetsam and flotsam of life and death—lost plastic toys, escaped balloons, cigarette butts (Gauloises, naturally), empty wine bottles, sometimes even a corpse—as they swirl, churn, flood, and flow past the monumental architecture of Paris. You cannot step into the same river twice, Heracleitus tells us. C’est fluide.

The Impressionists distilled its light into quicksilver. Claude Monet kept a floating studio on the river near Argenteuil. Henri Matisse, a post-Impressionist, had a studio on the Quai Saint-Michel. The flat, gray ribbon of water painted by earlier artists danced with opalescence through the lens of the Impressionists. Their art reflected the flow of not just the Seine but the world as well.

“The Impressionists watched the world change and painted in a way corresponding to that new world,” says Ferretti, curator at the Giverny Museum of Impressionisms. The industrial revolution had arrived. Electricity hung pearls of light against the black night. Construction of the Paris Métro was imminent. The rhythm of the world was accelerating. “It was rapid and fluid,” she explains. And so was the brushwork of the Impressionists.

With a nod to them, let us sketch the river that flows in and around the lives of Parisians and serves as a stage for dramas of love and loss. There is the occasional gentle jest, as well, in the guise of vendors who sell cheap, made-in-China copies of the Eiffel Tower. Sometimes the buyer is a Chinese tourist who brings the trinket home, completing an unwitting circuit. The Seine is witness to irony, as well as joy and sorrow.

A coup de foudre is to fall in love suddenly, fiercely. So it is with men and their boats.

One day 34 years ago Claude Tharreau, a young market researcher, was walking along the Seine near the Quai de Conti, when he saw the Cathare, a 70-foot-long Dutch barge built in 1902, for sale.

“I had been actually looking for an apartment,” he says. It was Sunday. On Wednesday he signed the contract.

“It was only afterward I noticed it was a boat with no electricity or water.”

There are 199 houseboats moored in Paris and, undoubtedly, 199 stories of infatuation. In the 1970s, when the economics of transport favored trains and trucks over barges, a boat could be bought cheaply. The lifestyle was inexpensive and unregulated until 1994, when the city instituted a housing tax, a mooring fee, and rules requiring a contract of occupation.

Frédéric Chaslin, a conductor and composer, has a Steinway grand piano in the living room of his boat, Caracalla, and in the kitchen, a trio of espresso machines that whistle the same note in unison when brewing.

“I loved it,” he says of the first boat he bought. “My wife did not. I thought, wife, boat, wife .

“It is something out of the ordinary to buy a boat,” says Eric Piel, a retired psychiatrist and the owner of Orion, a barge moored opposite the Eiffel Tower. “It is not the same as buying an apartment. There’s an element of risk. But … to own a place and have mobility too! It is the best of all possible worlds.”

Piel, who has a wiry frame and a face flushed with tiny riverine capillaries, framed by graying curls, continues. “An apartment is a shoe box, and so you spend your whole life working so you can live in a shoe box? Do you think that is a sign of good health?

“At least I am not trapped in a shoe box,” he muses. “There are other traps, though.”

At 10:58 p.m. on July 19 a flatbed truck with 36 palm trees, escorted by four policemen on motorcycles and a squad car, inched its way down the Champs-Élysées from the Bois de Boulogne, where the trees had spent the winter, and pulled up at the Pont Neuf, which despite its name is the oldest bridge in Paris.

Twenty-six minutes later a crane lifted the first 25-foot-high tree and set it down onto the beach that had materialized in three days on the banks of the Seine in front of City Hall. The palms (Trachycarpus fortunei) are the crowning touch of Paris Plages—an annual tour de force that takes place in summer when three full-blown beaches are installed along the river.

The sandbox-on-the-Seine was initiated 12 years ago by Paris Mayor Bertrand Delanoë. To accommodate the beach, the Georges Pompidou Expressway flanking the Right Bank of the river is blocked off for four weeks. It is as if the mayor of New York blocked off FDR Drive on Manhattan’s East Side to allow New Yorkers to unfold beach towels in the shadow of the United Nations.

“It’s not rocket science,” says project manager Damien Masset. He ticks off the ingredients for an instant beach: 5,500 tons of sand, 250 blue umbrellas, 350 deck chairs, 800 chairs, 250 chaise longues, 40 hammocks, 200 tables, four ice-cream stands, eight cafés, 875 yards of wooden fencing 250 people to put it up, 450 to run it.

For one summer month in Paris the Seine becomes an urban Riviera, an ebb and flow of beach-volleyball players sand-castle engineers samba, tango, and break dancers rock, jazz, soul musicians and sunbathers—who demonstrate the infinite variety of the human form.

“When you have clouds, for a few minutes it is white as salt,” says Jean Esselinck, a retired diplomat who lives on the barge Soleil. “But then it turns black. Look at the river, for now it’s green.”

“Transparent,” says Marie-Jeanne Fournier, then mayor of Source Seine, a village in Burgundy 180 miles from Paris, near where the river originates. Despite the distance, the Seine can be said to begin in Paris, because the fir copse where it bubbles up and starts its 482-mile journey to the sea became the property of Paris in 1864 by order of Napoleon III. Here, in its infancy, the Seine is transparent: clear as eau-de-vie and located in Paris. Technically.

Monet’s river in “Banks of the Seine, Island of the Grande Jatte” is pink, white, and blue Matisse’s Seine in “Pont Saint-Michel” has red in it, but, cautions Doris Alb, an artist who lives on the Sun Day, by the Pont des Arts, you must take care when referring to colors in French. “In German red is red. But in French red could be . well, perhaps it is red . but with a bit of yellow . or verging on pink . or perhaps only the illusion of red.” Alb is a sturdy woman who stands on sturdy shoes, with yellow hair that flies around as if painted by Botticelli. Her eyes are forced into a squint by the sun. She will not wear sunglasses. “It would dull the colors of the world.”

“C’est compliqué. The Seine reflects life and everything around. So its colors are infinite.”

In the 1960s Prime Minister Georges Pompidou delivered the coup de grâce to Paris’s relationship with the Seine. He built expressways on both sides of the river. “Paris must adapt to the car,” he said with “let them eat cake” ease. In truth the disconnect dates back to the 18th century. Until then the riverfront was a vibrant commercial and social space, historian Isabelle Backouche explains. After 1750 the royal administration and the city began to clear out markets, laundry boats, and workshops from the banks to make the Seine more hospitable to navigation. The high embankments engineered in the 19th century cemented the estrangement. “The river was abandoned as a lively space and transformed into a museum unconnected to the everyday life of Parisians,” Backouche says.

Fast-forward to 2013. Enter Socialist Mayor Delanoë, initiator of Paris Plages, city bicycle and electric car share systems, and a pilot program employing four “lawn mower” sheep to clip grass at the city archives. Last June, after years of political bickering, Delanoë closed nearly a mile and a half of expressway on the Left Bank and opened Les Berges—a riverside walk with floating gardens, restaurants, and playgrounds. “The road’s stale air is being blown away, creating an open-air environment where everyone can . enjoy themselves,” he announced happily.

Not everyone was as happy. “I opposed it,” says Rachida Dati, mayor of the affluent 7th arrondissement. Dati, daughter of a Moroccan bricklayer, is a maverick on the political right. She looks defiant behind her desk in the 17th-century town hall where she presides, dressed in skinny jeans, a short black jacket, and impossibly high heels.

“The Berges cost 40 million euros [$55 million],” she argues. “Perhaps instead we could have taken care of the 27,000 children unable to attend a crèche or developed public transport. Three-quarters of Parisians ride the Métro, but there’s been no investment in its infrastructure in years.”

Doesn’t the new space make life in Paris more pleasant?

“Paris is not about pleasure. We need to work.”

On the transformed riverbank in front of the Musée d’Orsay, many seem happy to indulge in its pleasures.

“We are Parisians but don’t feel like we’re in Paris,” enthuses Bertine Pakap, a beautician who lives in Batignolles, in an outlying arrondissement. She has come for a family reunion. Her daughter Elohina raptly watches two mimes perform, while her mother sits at a picnic table. “Normally we wouldn’t come to a chic neighborhood like this,” she says. “It’s almost inaccessible for us. Now it’s more democratic. Also free—we don’t need money to have a good time.”

By 6:20 p.m. three men have lined up in front of the gangway leading to the Fleuron St. Jean, a light green barge moored on the city’s outskirts. The men are about to embark on a one-night voyage that will not entail travel—simply a warm meal and comfortable bed.

“We call them passengers out of respect,” says Adrien Casseron, manager of the floating homeless shelter funded by the Order of Malta in France and 30 Million Friends Foundation, an animal welfare organization (the men are allowed to bring their dogs). The voyage is an interlude in a life that has stalled in the vise of unemployment and poverty.

“In a village if you lose your job, your neighbors help. In a big city you are alone. You lose your job, your family, and you find yourself in the street.

“Don’t imagine the boat holds just the French,” he adds. “If there is a conflict in Mali or Afghanistan, we see it here.”

The men, some with backpacks, some with only the clothes they wear, are greeted with a handshake and shown their bunks. At 7:45 they sit down for dinner. The day’s menu: green beans, fish, cheese, yogurt, and fruit, served “as you would in your own home,” Casseron says.

“I came from Martinique,” says René, who is 58 and wears a gray T-shirt and jeans. In a voice full of wistful sadness, he explains how he lost his most recent job building cabinets for electronics. “They outsourced my work. I lived in my sister’s flat for two months. She threw me out.

“Family stories can be complicated,” he adds ruefully. He will not elaborate.

There is little conversation at the dining table. The men eat hurriedly, reaching eagerly for a second, third, and fourth piece of bread. After dinner three men settle down to a game of Scrabble. Others play cards. René fills his pipe. “During the day I go to exhibitions or the library. But I never give up. You have to be strong. It’s easy to let go. Two beers, a joint. That’s it. You sink.”

Patrick Declerck, anthropologist and author of Les Naufragés (The Castaways), estimated the number of homeless in Paris to be between 10,000 and 15,000 in 2001. According to the National Institute of Statistics, the number has increased by 50 percent since then. No one keeps exact statistics the total could be much higher.

Casseron goes to greet a late arrival. “There are never enough places for everyone,” he says. “The work is rewarding, but I always ask myself if I am doing enough.

“This”—he means the shelter the boat provides—“is a drop of water. Pure. Unpolluted. But just a drop of water in the river that is the Seine.”

On one of those wilting summer days when heat rises from the asphalt in visible waves, the river outside the office of the chief of the police who patrol the Seine looks inviting and cool.

Can you swim in the Seine? I ask Sandrine Berjot, the crisp, no-nonsense police commandant who heads the Brigade Fluviale.

Non, she says flatly. “Thirty-eight euros.” The fine for violation.

What about wading? Dangling your feet?

Other infractions: Waterskiing in certain zones. Tying your boat around a tree with a rope. Protesting or putting up banners. (“That is for the street,” Berjot says.)

More serious is failure to aid someone in distress. The penalty: up to 75,000 euros ($103,000) and five years in jail.

“If someone is drowning, you don’t have to jump in. You do have to call the police,” Berjot explains. Just as well—the lifesaving rings formerly mounted on every bridge are gone. Collectors snitched many. Now the deployment of the Gallic sense of fraternité is enabled by a sign displaying a number to call in an emergency. In France, to be a Good Samaritan is a moral imperative.

“Naturally,” a Paris lawyer once told me, “that doesn’t obligate us to simpler civilities, like giving you the time of day.”

Street fishing—casting a lure in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower or Louvre—has become a popular sport. A festival last year attracted 100 fishermen, but, says Damien Bouchon of the Maison de la Pêche et de la Nature, a nature center at Levallois-Perret, “fishing the Seine is difficult because the embankments are so high. The fish are educated. They’ve seen lots of lures.”

In postwar decades, pollution reduced the species count to five, but French water regulations starting in the 1960s revived the tally to 32, including perch, pike, and the silure—a Quasimodo of a beast (a seven-footer is the record) with a vacuum cleaner mouth, mud-colored skin the texture of rubber, and small, beady eyes. The silure is an opportunist it eats fish, ducks, and pigeons that have the misfortune to alight for a drink near its lurking jaws.

“But they are exciting sport,” Bouchon hurries to add, lest I think unkindly of them. “To catch one is a moment of adrenaline.”

At three in the morning the Seine is quiet and dark as India ink. A resolute line of barges files past the Quai de Conti. The blue umbrellas on the Paris Plage in front of City Hall are furled like morning glories awaiting the sun.

The traffic light on the Right Bank by the Pont Neuf turns red, though there are no cars to heed its warning. The hazard buoy off the tip of the Île de la Cité flashes a Morse code of emerald green. Houseboats rock gently on the wake of the barges mooring lines creak in protest.

A light winks in a window on the top floor of the Louvre above the Quai du Louvre. A guard checking to see that the Old Masters are safely tucked into their frames, perhaps?

Like the motto of Paris—“Fluctuat nec mergitur, tossed by waves but unsinkable”—there are those tossed by waves who remain tenaciously unyielding. René Ballinger, 87, lives on the Siam by the Port de Grenelle with his wife, Nenette, 86. His grandfather built the boat. He was born on it so was his son, Marc. During its working life, the barge crossed Belgium, Holland, Germany, and Switzerland, carrying grain, coal, and steel.

Nenette, who wears gold-rimmed glasses and has skin like parchment and short, feathery, white hair, was not born into a mariner family. “I worked as a secretary in northern France,” she says, seated at her dining table. “I lived beside the water. One day he arrived on a boat.”

“I saw her,” René interjects. His glance said the rest. They married in 1947. She calls him “old scamp.” He says she is his best friend. Their daughter says they argue too much.

“We argue,” Nenette told her, “because we are still alive. When we are dead, we will be quiet.

“He was a mariner. I was of the land. When I married, I asked myself, What kind of tribe have I joined?”

She learned a mariner’s life. She helped paint the boat, pilot it she tolerated stowaway mice and living in less than 100 square feet of space. The adventure of an unfixed, fluid existence compensated for lack of comfort. Every day brought new towns, landscapes, and a freedom unknown to those shackled to an office chair. “We worked as if we were on a holiday,” she says.

Twenty-seven years ago they retired.

“We could have moved to land. He refused,” Nenette says.

“I’d feel trapped,” he replies.

Their son and daughter have their own lives and children. The Siam is not in their plans.

What, then, will become of the boat when they are gone?

“Perhaps when we die, our children won’t be able to do anything with it. The navigation authority will say, You cannot leave it here. It must go,” René says.

He means it will be taken to a shipyard in Conflans, 20 miles northwest of Paris, and scrapped. The word he uses is déchirer. To tear apart.

Can you describe how that is done? I say.

“I cannot. I will not,” he answers. Tears well.

“To imagine destroying my boat is like pulling my heart out. There are too many memories. My whole life is in that boat.

“Suppose we decide to buy an apartment? We clear everything out. The suitcases are on the embankment. The mariner sees his boat and knows it’s all over. Like death.”

A recent illness has left him with a limp. His wife has health issues too. Their daughter worries they are too old to manage.

“You are 87,” I say. “How much longer can you stay?”

“They will have to take us out feet first.”

“The Seine is the most beautiful avenue in Paris,” says Eric Piel, the retired head of psychiatry for the hospitals of central Paris, who lives on the Orion. “I thought, Why shouldn’t others experience it, especially the mentally ill, who are the most excluded in everyday life?” He envisioned a floating psychiatric clinic: open yet protected. Doctors, nurses, and patients collaborated with an architect, and four years ago the Adamant—a structure with walls of glass—was launched. Patients come for coffee, a snack, to confer with the medical staff, create art, or simply enjoy the view.

From the first day aggression evaporated. Why? No one can explain, clinic director Jean-Paul Hazan says.

“Perhaps,” suggests Jacqueline Simonnet, the head nurse, “it’s the rocking of the boat.”

“Traditionally the psychiatric hospital was hidden away,” Hazan says. “You disappear behind locked doors. Here instead of closed, all is open. These are very sick patients, but there has been no violence.” He pauses. “I think it has changed us too, but I can’t say how.”

Four mulberry trees on the quay mark the seasons. Yellow in fall, bare in winter, pale green in spring, dark green in summer. A cormorant swims by, hinting of nature’s grace. The river’s reflected light dapples the interior. The layout is open. The space, Simonnet says, is fluide. Glass erases the divide between inside and out.

It also, metaphorically at least, blurs the boundary between them and us—between the marginalized mentally ill and the presumably normal. “We are all in the same boat,” Gérard Ronzatti, the architect who designed it, told me.

Space, like water, is mutable, changing with the flow of time and events. “After the revolution, many monasteries were used as jails,” he said quietly. “In the same space you can have freedom. Or confinement.” A building, a room, can confine or release, allowing the spirit to expand into the space provided and beyond. In designing the floating clinic, Ronzatti opted for the latter. The Adamant is as beautiful and fluid as the river it floats on.


Archive: A dank relic lies below Howard St. Tunnel

Some 30 million bricks went into this sturdy relic of railroad engineering. Excavated more than 100 years ago, the tunnel is used now by CSX Transportation, which says it is the largest subterranean conduit of rail freight along the Atlantic Coast.

Most days, about 40 trains pound through this cavern, a 1.7-mile channel of Stygian darkness and dank, musty air infused with a dense humidity born of outside water seeping down the curving masonry walls. Drainage shoulders beside the rail tracks ooze industrial slime.

"Inside there, it feels old. It feels wet and dark. It's definitely got an ancient feeling," said Bob Blanding, a CSX track maintenance worker.

The tunnel's construction bankrupted the Baltimore and Ohio railroad when it was built in the 1890s, and it was lightly used for decades. But that is not the case anymore.

Virtually all the Tropicana orange juice sold in the northeastern United States flows under Baltimore in huge orange refrigerator cars that make up what railroaders call the "juice train." It stretches almost a mile long and carries citrus juice to a New Jersey distribution plant.

Other long trains haul tons of Fila-brand athletic shoes and tank cars full of oil used in Frito-Lay snacks. Jumbo-sized freight cars filled with automobiles, General Motors Astro vans, John Deere tractors and coal all rattle through the tube.

The tunnel also has a second use. An MCI fiber-optic cable trunk line suspended on the tunnel's west wall carries thousands of long-distance phone calls.

Civil engineers consider the tunnel shallow, with not much fill on the top.

At Camden Street, its top layer of bricks is but 3 feet below the surface. At its deepest, at Madison Street, the tunnel is 49 feet below ground.

A single CSX freight track runs in the middle of a rounded cavity covered with a century's worth of coal and foamy-looking diesel soot deposits.

The rail tube runs alongside the cellars of such downtown landmarks as the Baltimore Arena, former department stores, Maryland General Hospital and Howard Street's antique shops.

The entire structure stretches from a point alongside the lots at Oriole Park at Camden Yards to just above the Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall.

The oldest part of the tunnel was built between 1890 and 1895 by a contractor born in Cork County, Ireland, who went on to construct New York's first subway. That original portion was lengthened in the late 1980s to accommodate Orioles' parking and light rail construction.

What was new and marveled at in 1895 is today overlooked, often forgotten by Baltimoreans.

When unveiled by the old B&O railroad, it was the longest soft-earth railroad tunnel in the United States. It also had a world-class status with the first section of mainline railroad electrification anywhere.

The one rail classification that does not go through Howard Street is human -- passenger trains use different tunnels in and out of Baltimore.

Passengers have been shut out of the Howard Street Tunnel since 1958 when the B&O withdrew from running passenger trains north of Baltimore.

Other than railroad employees, students at the Maryland Institute College of Art probably know the tunnel best. Nearly 30 years ago the art school bought Mount Royal Station, an 1896 Romanesque Revival building set in a grassy bowl at the tunnel's northern opening. The Mount Royal platforms are the best spot from which to observe the rushing rail traffic.

It is here that remnants of 1890s railroading are most evident.

An iron-framed train shed arches overhead like a metal tent where catbirds fly in and out. Graceful wrought-iron fencing screens off the rails for safety. There's a stand of wild raspberries growing near the tunnel portal and a cornerstone inscribed with its construction history.

Even the most impatient train spotter is rewarded here:

First there's a slight movement of air. Scraps of discarded paper get lifted off the ground as a train enters the tube at the Oriole Park end.

As the locomotive charges north (there's normally a 25 mph limit here), the engine seems to push air through the cavity. It's roughly the same effect of blowing air though a soda straw.

There's still no train in sight at this point, but air begins to rush out of the yawning, dark space. Then, in the distance, is a sound that resembles the lowest note of a huge tuba. The notes grow more audible until a shaft of reflected light glimmers on the train rail. Soon after, three diesel headlights appear.

It can take more than three minutes for a long freight train to pass through Mount Royal Station, cut through a minitunnel at Mount Royal Avenue and twist under the Jones Falls Expressway and the North Avenue bridge.

While the tunnel is fairly straight, train engineers heading north wince after they leave it and head into a rail corkscrew of reverse curves in the Sisson-26th streets-Huntington Avenue area.

The tunnel's history began Sept. 12, 1890, when tunnel contractor John B. McDonald signed the papers. His results were so well regarded that he was selected to build New York's first subway, the Interborough Rapid Transit (IRT).

"The tunnel was undoubtedly the most expensive project the railroad ever took on. It drove the line into receivership in 1896," said Herbert H. Harwood, a B&O historian who has written several books about this line.

The tunnel was part of the B&O's grand scheme to get its trains through Baltimore to the north from the Camden Station area.

McDonald's construction crews worked a little less than five years on the project, formally called the Baltimore Belt Line, the terminology used for the railroad track girdling Baltimore. The first regular passenger service to Philadelphia and points north began May 1, 1895.

The B&O's attempt to go after the northeast passenger business was not a roaring success.

The Pennsylvania Railroad, its principal competitor in the Washington-New York route (the B&O went only as far as Jersey City), won out.

The Howard Street Tunnel, though an amazing piece of engineering, went down as an all-too-costly exercise in business rivalry.

A 20th-century plan to locate a subterranean platform below Lombard Street didn't pan out either. The rough brick walls and unadorned arches of a stop that never saw passengers remains as an eerie reminder of an aborted corporate decision.

But with major changes in East Coast railroading in the past 25 years, the Howard Street Tunnel has come back strong.

"Now they [CSX] are handling virtually all the freight on the Northeast corridor. It's a much more vital artery than anyone ever anticipated," Harwood said.

Tunnel facts:
LENGTH .. .. .. ..1.7 miles
GRADE.. .. .. .. .. ..1.35 dTC
SPEED LIMIT.. .. .. ..25mph
TIME TO BUILD .. .56 months
OPENED .. .. . May 1, 1895

Until 1884, the Baltimore and Ohio railroad leased a railroad track through Baltimore to connect its eastern and western routes. In 1884, a competitor purchased the track, leaving the B&O with no way to get its trains through Baltimore. The hills were too steep to build a track around the western edge of the city, so the B&O opted to build a tunnel under Howard Street.


9 The Great Pyramid of Giza

Where: Egypt
How Long: 20 Years

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex. The building was the dedication to the fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu. If you wonder how could such large structure take just 20 years to complete, here is why. It took thousands of slaves along with many talented architects to build this construction. According to the estimations, those 20 years would involve installing approximately 800 tonnes of stone every day.

More than that, the whole pyramid consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocks. To complete those in 20 years, that would involve moving an average of more than 12 blocks into place each hour, day and night. Inside, there are various chambers for the king and the queen along with grand gallery and many more. No matter how they did it, it was totally out of this world.


Remarks Grade II listed. Anecdotal evidence only of use as lock-up before its 1771 conversion to a water conduit. Later use as a war memorial.

Descriptions

'Water Conduit Head, redundant and in use as War Memorial. C18, or possibly earlier. Square stone rubble building ribbon pointed, with projecting plinth and pyramidical stone roof, the latter surmounted by a stone finial (perhaps a later addition) inscribed 1771. On east side a small rectangular aperture with C19 plank door having strap-hinges. At foot of west side a projection now cemented over probably the original trough. Above this, memorial tablets to the dead of 1914-18 and 1939-49 wars. Situated at cross roads in centre of village.'

Historic England, National Heritage List for England, 'Water Conduit Head 29 Metres West of Church Tower', LEN1249652

'Denbury Cistern is a cuboid about 2½m with a four sided pyramidal roof.' 'A single door in the East face is based half way up the wall'. 'On the north face, alterations indicated that this side was changed to accommodate the outlet to a public water supply.' 'David Viner who has been studying lock-ups. [is of the] opinion that the evidence for a lock up is not conclusive.' 'Heather Curtis and David Newby. believe that the cistern has been used as a lock-up and that the building is 500-700 years old. The Denbury cistern is typical in size of all such lock-ups, and may be a replacement for a previous building.'

Denbury.net, Lesley Groves, ‘Denbury Cistern’

Featured Images

  • Photo © Paul Hutchinson (cc-by-sa/2.0)

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Inscribed Water Conduit from Beyazit - History

Isaiah 36:2 - And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto king Hezekiah with a great army. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field.

List of Assyrian Kings from 883 BC to 610 BC
King of Assyria Period of Reign (Approx)
Ashurnasirpal II 883-859 BC
Shalmaneser III 858-824 BC
Shamshiadad V 823-811 BC
Adadnirari III 810-783 BC
Shalmaneser IV 782-773 BC
Ashurdan III 772-755 BC
Ashurnirari V 754-745 BC
Tiglath-pileser III 744-727 BC
Shalmaneser V 727-722 BC
Sargon II 722-705 BC
Sennacherib 705-681 BC
Esarhaddon 681-669 BC
Ashurbanipal 669-627 BC
Ashuretililani 627-620 BC
Sinshariskun 620-612 BC
Ashur-uballit 612-610 BC

This chart reveals the Kings of the Assyrian Empire. The Assyrian Empire began to arise around 1270 BC, in the area far north on the Tigris River after the fall of Chaldea. The first capital of Assyria was Assur, and after that Nimrod became the capital of ancient Assyria. By the 9th century BC the kings of Assyria began to lead military campaigns in the west, Shalmaneser III went further westward than the kings before him. He led campaigns across to Syria and even into Israel. The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser reveals King Jehu of Israel paying tribute to him. Later in 702 BC Nineveh became capital of Assyria, and this was during the reign of king Sennacherib. Nineveh soon became one of the largest cities of the ancient Near East. At the height the Assyrian Empire the kingdom embraced the lands of the northern Tigris, Armenia, Media, Babylonia, Elam, Mesopotamia, Syria, Israel, Judah, and the northern portion of Egypt. The greatest Assyrian Kings were Shalmaneser, Sargon, Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon. The city of Nineveh was finally destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians who came against them at once, and the Kingdom of Assyria was defeated and came to an end in 625 BC.

Isaiah 36:13 - Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language, and said, Hear ye the words of the great king, the king of Assyria.


Map of the Assyrian Empire During the Time of its Greatest Monarchs

Scriptures related to Assyria

Jeremiah 2:18 - And now what hast thou to do in the way of Egypt, to drink the waters of Sihor? or what hast thou to do in the way of Assyria , to drink the waters of the river?

2 Kings 16:10 - And king Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tiglathpileser king of Assyria , and saw an altar that [was] at Damascus: and king Ahaz sent to Urijah the priest the fashion of the altar, and the pattern of it, according to all the workmanship thereof.

2 Kings 19:4 - It may be the LORD thy God will hear all the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God and will reprove the words which the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift up [thy] prayer for the remnant that are left.

Isaiah 37:4 - It may be the LORD thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God, and will reprove the words which the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift up [thy] prayer for the remnant that is left.

Jeremiah 2:36 - Why gaddest thou about so much to change thy way? thou also shalt be ashamed of Egypt, as thou wast ashamed of Assyria .

2 Chronicles 32:9 - After this did Sennacherib king of Assyria send his servants to Jerusalem, (but he [himself laid siege] against Lachish, and all his power with him,) unto Hezekiah king of Judah, and unto all Judah that [were] at Jerusalem, saying,

2 Chronicles 30:6 - So the posts went with the letters from the king and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah, and according to the commandment of the king, saying, Ye children of Israel, turn again unto the LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and he will return to the remnant of you, that are escaped out of the hand of the kings of Assyria .

2 Kings 16:7 - So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglathpileser king of Assyria , saying, I [am] thy servant and thy son: come up, and save me out of the hand of the king of Syria, and out of the hand of the king of Israel, which rise up against me.

2 Kings 18:9 - And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Hezekiah, which [was] the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, [that] Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it.

2 Kings 18:17 - And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. And when they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which [is] in the highway of the fuller's field.

2 Kings 17:26 - Wherefore they spake to the king of Assyria , saying, The nations which thou hast removed, and placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the God of the land: therefore he hath sent lions among them, and, behold, they slay them, because they know not the manner of the God of the land.

2 Kings 17:24 - And the king of Assyria brought [men] from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed [them] in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof.

2 Kings 20:6 - And I will add unto thy days fifteen years and I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria and I will defend this city for mine own sake, and for my servant David's sake.

2 Chronicles 28:21 - For Ahaz took away a portion [out] of the house of the LORD, and [out] of the house of the king, and of the princes, and gave [it] unto the king of Assyria : but he helped him not.

Zechariah 10:10 - I will bring them again also out of the land of Egypt, and gather them out of Assyria and I will bring them into the land of Gilead and Lebanon and [place] shall not be found for them.

Jeremiah 50:17 - Israel [is] a scattered sheep the lions have driven [him] away: first the king of Assyria hath devoured him and last this Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath broken his bones.

2 Kings 18:16 - At that time did Hezekiah cut off [the gold from] the doors of the temple of the LORD, and [from] the pillars which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid, and gave it to the king of Assyria .

Isaiah 36:8 - Now therefore give pledges, I pray thee, to my master the king of Assyria , and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them.

Nehemiah 9:32 - Now therefore, our God, the great, the mighty, and the terrible God, who keepest covenant and mercy, let not all the trouble seem little before thee, that hath come upon us, on our kings, on our princes, and on our priests, and on our prophets, and on our fathers, and on all thy people, since the time of the kings of Assyria unto this day.

Micah 5:6 - And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof: thus shall he deliver [us] from the Assyria n, when he cometh into our land, and when he treadeth within our borders.

2 Kings 23:29 - In his days Pharaohnechoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates: and king Josiah went against him and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him.

Isaiah 27:13 - And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready to perish in the land of Assyria , and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall worship the LORD in the holy mount at Jerusalem.

Isaiah 36:2 - And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto king Hezekiah with a great army. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field.

2 Kings 18:23 - Now therefore, I pray thee, give pledges to my lord the king of Assyria , and I will deliver thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them.

2 Kings 18:28 - Then Rabshakeh stood and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language, and spake, saying, Hear the word of the great king, the king of Assyria :

2 Kings 19:10 - Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria .

Isaiah 36:13 - Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jews' language, and said, Hear ye the words of the great king, the king of Assyria .

2 Kings 15:19 - [And] Pul the king of Assyria came against the land: and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, that his hand might be with him to confirm the kingdom in his hand.

2 Kings 16:8 - And Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found in the house of the LORD, and in the treasures of the king's house, and sent [it for] a present to the king of Assyria .

2 Kings 18:30 - Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the LORD, saying, The LORD will surely deliver us, and this city shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria .


Jerusalem Archaeological Sites: The City of David

The City of David - another term for the Jerusalem of ancient times - was located on a narrow ridge south of the present-day Old City. It borders the deep Kidron Valley to the East, where the Gihon Spring, the city’s main water source, is located.

The archeological exploration of the City of David began in the middle of the 19th century and continues to this day. It has fired the imagination of many scholars from different nations and backgrounds who came to excavate in Jerusalem. The latest excavations were carried out between 1978 and 1985 and there is an ongoing process of updating and revising previous interpretations.

Early Settlement

The earliest permanent settlement uncovered is represented by several rectangular buildings with benches along their interior walls. These buildings, dated to the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BCE) are typical of Canaanite urban settlements at that time.

During the Middle Bronze Age, as early as the 18th century BCE, a massive wall was built around the city, of which a 30 m. long section has been exposed above the Kidron Valley. Within this wall buildings were excavated, indicative of city life during that period.

Finds of the Late Bronze Age (1600 - 1200 BCE) are few and disappointing. This is in marked contrast to the common view of Jerusalem as an important Canaanite urban center, based on mention of the king of the city of Jerusalem in the 14th century BCE archive found at Tel el-Amarna in Egypt. In Joshua 10, the defeat of Adonitzedek, king of Jerusalem, who led a coalition of five Amorite kings, is described. Defeat but not conquest: Jerusalem is later mentioned as a Jebusite city (the Amorite and Jebusite peoples were part of the collectively known “Canaanites”) in Judges 19:10-12.

During the 13th-12th centuries BCE structural operations changed the topography of the upper part of the city: interlocking and intersecting stone walls created terraces which provided an artificial surface, apparently the podium of the citadel of the Canaanite-Jebusite city of Jerusalem.

During the excavations, Warren’s Shaft (named for Ch. Warren, an English archeologist who pioneered systematic excavations in Jerusalem between 1864-67), the earliest water system of the City of David was cleared. This underground system, constructed at the end of the second millennium BCE, enabled the citizens of Jerusalem to draw water from the Gihon spring without leaving the fortified walls of their city. A recent geological survey has shown that Warren’s Shaft incorporates a number of geological features which give credibility to the assumption that it was functioning even before David's conquest of Jerusalem and may be the tzinnor (Hebrew for pipe or conduit) mentioned in 2 Samuel 5:8.

The Monarchic Period

A 10th century BCE massive retaining structure for a monumental building (capping earlier Jebusite terraces), is assumed to be part of the fortress of Zion, residence of King David. (2 Samuel 5:7-9)

In the 8th century BCE Jerusalem expanded during the reign of King Hezekiah the hill to the west of the city of David was encompassed within its walls. The course of the strengthened eastern wall of the city was traced for approximately 120 m., virtually along the course of its Bronze Age predecessor and in places incorporating remnants of it. Within the walls, buildings were separated by alleyways and drainage channels emptying into the Kidron Valley via a small opening in the wall. Remains of several structures dating to this time were also revealed outside the city walls, evidence that the city was densely populated. It would appear that these quarters were abandoned during the Assyrian siege of 701 BCE described in the biblical narrative. (2 Kings 18-19)

During the 8th and 7th centuries BCE Jerusalem enjoyed a period of prosperity. Parts of prominent structures have been uncovered, attesting to this as well as to the intensity of the Babylonian destruction in 587-6 BCE.

The Ashlar House, a large structure on the southeastern slope of the city, was built of huge dressed stones and is assumed to have been a public building. Another house, containing the “burnt room,” named after the thick layer of charred debris covering its floor, is also from this period.

The House of Ahi’el, on the northeastern slope, is a typical four-roomed Israelite dwelling of this time. The name derives from the Hebrew inscription on a pottery fragment found in the house, which includes this personal name. The house had an external stone staircase leading to a second story. In a small storage room over fifty restorable jars were found and in another small room a limestone toilet seat was embedded in the plaster floor, with a cesspit beneath it.

The Bullae House, east of the House of Ahi’el, is so named for a collection of almost 50 clay sealings (bullae) with Hebrew lettering found there. The floor of this house, only partly excavated, was covered by a thick charred destruction layer containing the bullae as well as pottery vessels, arrowheads and limestone cult stands, all of which attest to the character of the house as a public building. The finds are typical of the final stage of the Iron Age and the bullae found in this context clearly date to the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in 587-6 BCE. The bullae, made of fingernail-sized lumps of soft clay shaped as flat disks, were affixed to a string binding a papyrus document and then stamped with a seal. To open and read the document, the bulla sealing had to be broken in order to separate it from the string. The conflagration that destroyed the house and burnt the documents stored in it also fired the clay of the bullae, thus preserving them in very good condition - fully legible. They bear dozens of Hebrew personal names, two of them belonging to personages known from the Bible. One is Gemaryahu son of Shafan, a high official at the court of King Jehoiakim of Judah who reigned on the eve of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians:

Then Baruch read from the book the words of Jeremiah in the house of the Lord, in the chamber of Gemaryahu the son of Shafan the scribe, in the upper court at the entrance of the new Gate of the Lord's House in the hearing of all the people. (Jeremiah 36:10 see also 11-12, 25)

The second biblical personage is Azaryahu son of Hilkiyahu, a member of the family of high priests who officiated at the end of the First Temple period. (1 Chronicles 9:10)

The bullae from the City of David, uncovered in controlled excavation in clear stratigraphic context and supported by historical evidence, are one of the most important discoveries ever made in Jerusalem.

The massive destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians is apparent both in the layers of charred remains and in the thick layer of rubble from collapsed buildings found on the eastern slope of the City of David. This vivid archeological evidence sheds light on the biblical description of the destruction of Jerusalem in 587-6 BCE. (2 Kings 25:8-10 Jeremiah 39:8 2 Chronicles 36:18-19)

The City of David was resettled by the Jews exiled to Babylon who returned during the Persian period (6th century BCE). The new wall built by Nehemiah did not follow the line of the old wall, but for the first time was built atop the northeastern slope of the City of David.

During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, the city’s center shifted to the western hill. By medieval times, the southern wall of Jerusalem was built along the line of the present Old City wall. As a result, the City of David, the site of biblical Jerusalem, remained uninhabited outside the present Old City walls.

New Discoveries

In December 2007, the Israeli Antiquities Authority uncovered an edifice in the City of David thought to be from the Second Temple period and belonging to the family of Queen Helena of Adiabene. The edifice is part of a huge series of excavations being conducted in the City of David that includes massive foundations walls, some of which are preserved to a height in excess of five meters and built of stones that weigh hundreds of kilograms halls rising to a height of two stories or more a basement level covered with vaults remains of polychrome frescoes water systems and ritual baths (mikva'ot).

According to the writings of ancient historian Josephus Flavius, the edifice that was uncovered was probably erected by the Hadyab family, which includes Queen Helena of Adiabene, who converted to Judaism, made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and was subsequently buried there. Among the finds recovered are pottery and stone vessels and coins that date to the end of the Second Temple period. The latest coin dates to the end of the Great Revolt against the Romans in 69-70 CE. The demolishing of the building during the Roman conquest is evident in the remains strewn across the destruction layer in the basement, as well as the narrow openings from which the residents attempted to flee.

Unique Biblical Discovery at City of David Excavation Site

A 2,600 year old clay seal impression, or bulla, bearing the name Gedaliah ben Pashur was uncovered in August 2008 completely intact during archeological excavations in Jerusalem’s ancient City of David, located just below the walls of the Old City near the Dung Gate. The name appears in the Book of Jeremiah (38:1) together with that of Yehuchal ben Shelemayahu, whose name was found on an identical clay bulla in the same area in 2005. The two men were ministers in the court of King Zedekiah, the last king to rule in Jerusalem before the destruction of the First Temple.

According to Dr. Eilat Mazar of the Hebrew University who is leading the dig, this is the first time in the annals of Israeli archeology that two clay bullae with two Biblical names that appear in the same verse in the Bible have been unearthed in the same location.

“It is not very often that such a discovery happens in which real figures of the past shake off the dust of history and so vividly revive the stories of the Bible,” Mazar noted.

The first bulla was uncovered inside an impressive stone structure, which Mazar believes to be the Palace of David, while the second bulla was found at the foot of the external wall of the same structure, under a tower that was built in the days of Nehemiah.

Both bullae, clearly preserved, measuring 1 cm. in diameter each and lettered in ancient Hebrew, were found among the debris of the destruction of the First Temple period (8th to 6th centuries BCE).

Dr. Eilat Mazar recently completed the third phase of her excavation of what she believes to be King David&rsquos palace at the City of David site. More finds are expected as archeologists continue to sift through the rubble from the dig, which was sponsored by the Ir David (City of David) Foundation together with the Israel Antiquities Authority, the Hebrew University, and the Shalem Center.

The City of David is the original hilltop upon which King David dedicated ancient Jerusalem as his capital 3,000 years ago. Deep underground, the City of David is revealing some of the most exciting archeological finds of the ancient world, while above ground, the site is a vibrant center of activity and popular tourist attraction for families, complete with visitor’s center, 3D exhibition and guided tours through the excavations that include Warren’s Shaft, ancient water systems such as Hezekiah’s Tunnel and the Second Temple Shiloah pool. During the busy summer and festival periods, the site offers added family-friendly attractions, festivals, concerts, guided tours etc.

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THE BOROUGH OF SCARBOROUGH

Scardeburc, Escardeburc (xii-xiii cent.) Scartheburch, Scardeburg, Chardeboht (xiii cent.) Scardeburgh (xiii-xvi cent.).

In 1831 (fn. 1) the parish contained the townships of Scarborough and Falsgrave, united in 1890. Falsgrave was formed into an ecclesiastical parish in 1873, (fn. 2) and other ecclesiastical parishes have been formed in Scarborough—namely, those of St. Thomas, 1844, St. Martin-on-the-Hill, 1863, Holy Trinity, 1882, (fn. 3) St. James, 1893, (fn. 4) and St. Saviour, 1904. (fn. 5)

Harbour and Castle, Scarborough

The area is 2,902 a. 1 r. 13 p., including 189 acres of foreshore (fn. 6) the subsoil is Inferior Oolite and Oxford Clay, the soil limestone, sandstone and clay. The hard stone, in easily separated strata at White Nabb, was used for the early piers. (fn. 7) Lime was once burnt at the Castle Holmes, (fn. 8) and Lime Kiln Hill stands close to Castle Road. In 1601 the corporation leased the saltpans, and in 1616 granted a charter to a company for making salt, with a monopoly for twenty years and the privilege of erecting saltpans on the beach. (fn. 9) There are 244 acres of arable land, 712 of permanent grass, and 50 of woodland. (fn. 10) Falsgrave Common or Moor was inclosed in 1774, Weaponess or Mount Oliver (Wapenesse, xiii cent.) in 1797. (fn. 11)

At the present day Scarborough occupies the neck of a lofty promontory which runs out to sea in a north-easterly direction, the extremity forming the castle rock. The portion of the town along the northern shore is of 19th-century growth, the old town occupying the southern slope. The harbour has always been of importance as the chief shelter between the Humber and Tees. (fn. 12) Remains of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages have been found here. (fn. 13) A 13thcentury manuscript relates how in the 10th century a company of marauding Danes under Knut and Harold, sons of Gorm, defeated Adalbricht son of Adalmund at 'Skardaborg' and marched thence to York. (fn. 14) In 1066 Harold Hardraada in alliance with Earl Tosti, lord of Falsgrave, (fn. 15) seized and burnt the castle, 'took to burn then one house after another, and then all the town gave itself up.' (fn. 16) Scarborough was not mentioned in the Survey of 1086. The earliest settlement, or 'aldborough,' lay beneath the castle near the harbour it was walled by the time of King John. (fn. 17) The wall ran from a moat on the north, by Auborough and Cross Street, to the sea (fn. 18) from this point the southern wall went east, along Merchants' Row, now Eastborough, to the castle dykes. The castle and its 'scaur' 300 ft. high protected the town on the east. The moat was still traceable on the north in 1798, when the foundations of the walls were still to be seen. (fn. 19) The town had spread westward by the time of Henry III, and this extension, the new borough, was protected by a ditch, (fn. 20) which started from the coast at Huntriss Row, (fn. 21) went north by St. Thomas's Hospital, north-east to Auborough Gate, and east to the foot of the castle hill. (fn. 22) In 1225 the men of Scarborough obtained a grant of forty oaks from the king's wood (fn. 23) and the right to levy tolls on ships for three years towards the defences of the town. (fn. 24) The Dominicans, who were building just outside Auborough wall on the north-west, wanting stone for their church and running water for their workshops, sought leave in 1283–4 to pull down the wall as cumbersome and useless. The burgesses opposed this, as earlier in the century the wall, though old and partly destroyed, had checked the advance against the castle of the enemies of King John and Henry III, who were further thwarted by the Newborough ditch. (fn. 25) The burgesses urged the building of a wall behind the ditch, (fn. 26) and it was probably for this wall that murage for seven years was obtained in 1308 (fn. 27) and throughout the 14th century. (fn. 28) According to tradition the northern part was walled by Richard III (fn. 29) and the whole was in good preservation in the 16th century. (fn. 30) There were gates at Newborough, the entrance from York, a gate 'meatley good,' according to Leland, and at Auborough, 'very base,' (fn. 31) where the remains of a small keep were found in 1806. (fn. 32) Both gates were renewed in 1642. (fn. 33) The Auborough gate disappeared early, (fn. 34) the Newborough gates were in 1843 replaced by a pseudo-Gothic bar, itself removed in 1890.

The old town contains only one main street, called for different lengths along its course, Eastborough, Westborough and Newborough, and from it a series of roads branch off to the north and south. The market hall is modern and of no architectural distinction, but the old market cross, removed from Cross Street, is still of considerable interest. It now stands at the corner of Low Conduit Street and St. Mary's Street. The head has gone, but the shaft is still entire, square below and circular above. The base is ornamented with 14th-century shallow traceried panelling with four ranges of crockets carried up the shaft from the angles. Many ancient houses of various dates remain in the old town, particularly at Sandside. The finest example is perhaps a timberframed structure of the 15th century at the back of the Newcastle Packet Inn. It is now divided into two houses (of which the eastern is No. 2 East Sandgate) and is three stories high. The southwestern angle-post is carved with grotesque figures and a half-obliterated scroll inscription. The other angle-post rests on a carved grotesque, and the framing above is concealed under lath and plaster. In Quay Street are several old houses, of which the Three Mariners Inn has a picturesque brick front of the 17th century with a brick cornice and a series of pediments of the same material over the ground floor windows, each pediment having a rose in the tympanum. (fn. 35) Not far off is an early 16th-century timber-framed house, recently restored. It has a good moulded fascia at the first-floor level, but the herring-bone brick filling is modern. At the corner of Parkins Lane is another example with overhanging stories, and a third at the west end of Quay Street, at its junction with Whitehead Hill, probably dates from late in the 15th century. This is a threestoried gabled building with an 18th-century shopfront to the ground floor and the timbers of the second floor brought out to support the gable. The windows are all later, and the half-timbering is concealed with lath and plaster. On Sandside fronting the harbour is a tall gabled building of 16th or early 17th-century date, built of stone, with modern windows to the front, but in the return wall is a three-light transomed window of Elizabethan character. According to tradition King Richard III stayed here in 1484. On the west side of Dumple Street is a late 16th-century red brick house now divided into tenements numbered 33, 34 and 36. It is two stories high, with stone dripstones or labels over the windows. Of later domestic buildings, the post office on Sandside is an 18th-century gabled building with flush window frames and rusticated stone quoins. Other examples of this date remain in the same street, but the finest will be found at No. 14 St. Nicholas Street. This was formerly a mansion of the Bell family and was built about the middle of the 18th century. It is three stories high and the street front is flanked by two fluted Ionic pilasters rising the full height of the building and supporting a stone entablature with an attic story above. The old town hall (now St. Nicholas Hall) is in the same street and has a modern stone front. A previous town hall lay east of East Sandgate, in Quay Street it was afterwards used by seamen as a Bethel chapel and in 1874 was purchased by the Wesleyans. (fn. 36) The new town hall stands on the summit of St. Nicholas Cliff. It is built of red brick and stone in the Jacobean style, with Dutch gables. The museum at the foot of St. Nicholas Cliff was founded in 1828 when Hinderwell's collection was presented by his nephew to the Scarborough Philosophical and Archaeological Society. The numerous almshouses of Scarborough have been almost all rebuilt, the only exception being the Merchant Seamen's Hospital, founded in 1752. The buildings are situated in Castle Road, on the north of the old town, and form a quadrangle, open on the south side. They are of red brick and two stories high in the centre of the north block is a small Doric facade with an entablature and attic, and on the roof behind it is a picturesque wooden cupola. The Trinity House, a stone-fronted building on the south side of St. Sepulchre Street, was founded in 1602, but rebuilt in 1832. In Cross Street is a hospital founded by Thomas Sedman in 1700, but enlarged and rebuilt by Elizabeth Clark in 1811.

Practically nothing is left of the old religious houses of the town, but some idea of their appearance is given in a late mediaeval view in the Scarborough Museum. Of the three friars' houses the Greyfriars' was evidently the largest, the church being represented with a lofty steeple and spire, both apparently octagonal and of the typical form.

The 'Friarage,' in St. Sepulchre Street, marks the site (fn. 37) of the Friars Minor, who held land here in 1245. (fn. 38) The garden on the site of the late Franciscan Priory and other lands of the friars were granted to George Salter and others in 1610–11. (fn. 39) Grey Friars Street is mentioned in the 16th century. (fn. 40) On the map the churches of the White and Black Friars are also shown with smaller steeples. The Carmelite Convent (fn. 41) lay behind the present Queen Street Chapel, on a site given by Edward II in 1319. (fn. 42)

Friars Entry marks the site of the Dominican house founded in 1252. (fn. 43) In 1298 the order received permission to make a street towards their church within the town wall. (fn. 44) This seems to have been Cross Street. Black Friar Gate, now Queen Street, is mentioned in 1611. (fn. 45)

The hospitals of St. Nicholas and St. Thomas the Martyr, both in the new borough, were founded by the burgesses. (fn. 46) In 1298 they held some of their lands, viz., Halgarth in Burtondale, St. Thomas's Meadow opposite the Hall, a grange and garden, and another holding near the new ditch belonging to St. Thomas's, from the commonalty. (fn. 47) There are no remains of St. Nicholas's, which was on St. Nicholas's Cliff, but bones have been found on the site, (fn. 48) and a small brass plate inscribed 'Fr. Wills de Thornton' with part of an inscription on the reverse is now in the local museum. There is also preserved a freestone recumbent effigy of circa 1290 or 1300, found near the West Quay. The figure is armed and has a curious round cap on the head, which rests on a cushion, the hair and moustache being carved flowing. Above it is a cusped and crocketed canopy, and the feet rest on a lion. The shield bears a lion rampant within a bordure, possibly for Brus. The figure is above life size.

Leland mentions St. Thomas's Church as a great chapel beside Newborough Gate. (fn. 49) It was demolished in the siege of 1644. (fn. 50) St. Thomas's Gate changed its name to Tanner Street, but is now again St. Thomas's Street.

There is a park on each side of the Ramsdale Valley, which is crossed by the Cliff Bridge, built in 1827, and the Ramsdale Valley Bridge, opened in 1865. Near the Cliff Bridge is the People's Palace and Aquarium, built in 1877. St. Nicholas Gardens, on St. Nicholas's Cliff, were opened in 1902. The marine drive round the castle was opened in 1908, and the South and North Marine Drives extend for nearly 3 miles north from the Spa. On the north side a promenade pier was built in 1869 and the Clarence Gardens and Royal Albert Drive were opened in 1896.

It is to its attractions as a watering-place that Scarborough owes its modern development. (fn. 51) Its early popularity was as a spa and followed the discovery in 1620 of mineral springs a quarter of a mile south of the town. The first cistern was built in 1698, (fn. 52) a Governor of the Spa being appointed by the corporation. (fn. 53) In 1660–1 'people of good fashion' frequented the Spa. (fn. 54) Defoe in 1727 found 'a great deal of good Company here.' (fn. 55) The Long Room, (fn. 56) 'a noble spacious building with a view for leagues over the sea,' was in 1734 (fn. 57) kept by Vipont, Master of the Long Room at Hampstead. Here were balls every evening, 'when the Room is illuminated like a Court Assembly (and indeed, for the great number of Noble personages present, may very justly be called so.)' Chairs from London plied in the principal streets, and the 'New Inn,' 'New Globe,' 'Blacksmiths' Arms,' 'Crown and Sceptre,' and 'Old Globe' fed 'the Spaws,' as visitors were called. (fn. 58) This Long Room is now the Royal Hotel. (fn. 59) The Spa wells were lost by a serious landslip in 1737, but the waters were speedily recovered. (fn. 60) The Spa was frequently destroyed by the sea before 1839, when the sea wall was built. The large hall then designed by Sir Joseph Paxton was burned down in 1876, but in 1877–8 new buildings were erected. Edward VII as Prince of Wales visited the town in 1869 and again in 1870 and 1871 accompanied by the Princess. The King of the Belgians stayed here in 1873. (fn. 61)

The Jesuit William Lacey (1584–1673) was son of a Scarborough tanner. (fn. 62) Admiral Sir John Lawson, (fn. 63) of whose modesty and wisdom Clarendon wrote, was born of lowly parentage in Scarborough. He lived at the lower end of Merchants' Row. (fn. 64) The Quaker Joseph Oxley was apprenticed to a clock-maker here, and Joseph Rowntree was born here in 1801 Julius Caesar Ibbetson, the painter, was born here in 1759, John Thurston, the draughtsman, in 1774, William Crawford Williamson, the naturalist, in 1816, John Postgate, the food reformer, in 1820, Thomas Joseph Potter, author, in 1828, and Frederick Lord Leighton, whose father was a Scarborough man, in 1830. Other Scarborough notabilities are Sir John Cross (1766–1842), judge in bankruptcy, John Cole (1792–1848), the antiquary, publisher of over 100 rare books, William Bernard Ullathorne (1806–89), Roman Catholic Bishop of Birmingham, Lieut.-Gen. Edward Seager (1812–83), (fn. 65) and Thomas Hinderwell (1744–1825), (fn. 66) town clerk and author of the earliest History of Scarborough. Anne Bronte died at Scarborough, 28 May 1849, (fn. 67) and lies buried in St. Mary's churchyard.

Baker (fn. 68) gives an interesting account of the establishment of Dissent at Scarborough, where Fox was imprisoned and John Wesley frequently preached. The Quakers were numerous here in the reign of William and Mary, and then, as in 1734, their meeting-house was a fashionable place of worship. (fn. 69) The Roman Catholics heard mass in a private house in Westgate until 1809, when a chapel was opened in Auborough. In 1858 Cardinal Wiseman opened the church of St. Peter in Castle Road, which is built in the 14th-century style and has an apsidal chancel. A second church on the South Cliff, Falsgrave, dedicated in honour of St. Edward the Confessor, was opened in 1913. The Congregational chapel in Eastborough was built in 1703 and enlarged in 1774 and 1801 (fn. 70) other chapels of this denomination are at the Bar, opened in 1851, South Cliff (1868), and Manor Road (1898). The Ebenezer Baptist chapel was founded in 1771 and rebuilt in 1827, the Albemarle Baptist chapel dates from 1865 there are Primitive Methodist chapels in St. Sepulchre Street (opened in 1821, enlarged in 1839, and rebuilt in 1856), Aberdeen Walk (1861), St. John's Road (1879), Gladstone Road (1881), Seamer Road (1904), and Claremont United Methodist chapel (1860). The Wesleyans have had meetings here since 1757 their chapels are in Queen Street (1840), Westborough (1886), South Cliff (1886) and Falsgrave (1879). There are also a Unitarian chapel (1877), meetinghouses of the Quakers and Plymouth Brethren, and Salvation Army barracks. The Scarborough Municipal School, erected in 1900, is now a secondary school under the Board of Education.

The first printing-office in Scarborough was established on 'Bland's cliff' in 1734 by Thomas Gent. (fn. 71)

Castle

William de Newburgh, writing at the end of the 12th century, ascribes the building of Scarborough Castle to William third Earl of Albemarle, called 'le Gros' (1127–79), (fn. 72) and it is possible that it may have been begun during the 'anarchy' of Stephen's reign (1135–54). Henry II seized it, and, probably recognizing the importance of its position, completed the work. (fn. 73) Little is known of the history of the castle till the next century. King John, who stayed here on 3 February 1200–1 and 12–13 February 1215–16, (fn. 74) ordered war stores for the castle in 1213 (fn. 75) and in 1216 assigned 100 marks to the keeper, Geoffrey de Nevill, who held it against the barons. (fn. 76) It was one of the five castles committed to Prince Edward in 1265 (fn. 77) the king and his council were here in 1275 (fn. 78) and Edward was again at Scarborough on 27 September 1280. (fn. 79) Welsh hostages were imprisoned here in 1295 (fn. 80) and in 1311 Scottish prisoners who had been captured at Stirling. (fn. 81) Henry Lord Percy, his wife and household had permission in March 1307–8 to live here provided the castle was safely guarded. (fn. 82)

In January 1311–12 Edward II granted the custody to William le Latimer, (fn. 83) but Henry Lord Percy refused to surrender it. (fn. 84) In April the king gave the custody to Piers Gaveston, enjoining him to deliver it to none but the king, nor to him if brought there a prisoner if the king died he was to retain the castle in fee. (fn. 85) Edward, menaced by Thomas Earl of Lancaster, Henry Lord Percy and Robert Lord Clifford, in May lodged Gaveston at Scarborough, he himself going to York. In spite of orders from Edward (fn. 86) Gaveston was then besieged by Henry Lord Percy and the Earls of Pembroke and Warenne. Gaveston, however, being very short of provisions, surrendered on 19 May, receiving a bond of protection until the ensuing Parliament and a promise that if no agreement could be made he should be replaced in Scarborough Castle. Gaveston was seized by the Earl of Warwick, under Lancaster's orders, and beheaded. (fn. 87) On 31 July Henry Lord Percy's arrest was ordered for his part in this affair. (fn. 88) The king gave an order for the provisioning of the castle in October 1317. (fn. 89) In May 1318 Scarborough, like Northallerton, was sacked and burnt by Robert de Brus and Sir James Douglas. (fn. 90) The loyal burgesses were in 1321 keeping watch and ward in the castle, the king promising that their services should not be made a precedent. (fn. 91) Some of Lancaster's adherents were imprisoned in the castle after Edward's victory at Boroughbridge in 1322. (fn. 92) In 1325 Edward II gave the custody to Eleanor widow of Henry Lord Percy. (fn. 93) Her son Henry, second Lord Percy of Alnwick, (fn. 94) was made keeper in 1328. (fn. 95) The town suffered greatly during the foreign wars of the 14th century, its mariners being slain or imprisoned in foreign parts and its merchandise seized by the pirates of Scotland, Flanders, Zealand and Normandy that infested the coast. (fn. 96) John Mercer, a Scot, had been imprisoned in Scarborough Castle, and his son, with Spanish and French help, in 1378 captured the English ships in the harbour. He meditated greater mischief, but John Philipot, a citizen of London, equipped a fleet, recovered the ships and booty, and took fifteen Spanish ships besides. (fn. 97) According to a petition in Parliament presented in 1379 for vessels of war to be assigned for the protection of the town, French ships were constantly hovering about Scarborough. The townsmen had lost £1,000 in the past two years through captures and ransoms, and many languished in foreign prisons. Consultation with merchants from these parts and London (fn. 98) resulted in the appointment of Thomas Percy and others to guard this coast and in the levying of a subsidy for the purpose. (fn. 99) The Archbishop of York received permission to stay in the castle in 1381. (fn. 100) In 1382 Robert de Rillington of Scarborough was pardoned for treason, including that of leading the enemy by night to inspect the town and castle. (fn. 101) In February 1382–3 inquiry was ordered as to the defensive state of the castle. (fn. 102) In this year 'the poor burgesses and people of the town of Scarborough' represented that, being frequently assailed and injured by the ships of Scotland, France, Flanders and other enemies, the burgesses had bought a barge and ballinger for defence, but could not afford to man them they desired a commission for the Earl of Northumberland to press men for their service and licence to levy dues for defence on all herrings and merchandise coming in to any place on the coast between Hartlepool and the Humber. They were licensed to take what remedy they thought fit. (fn. 103) A commission of array was issued to the keeper of the castle in 1386 for defence against a threatened French invasion, (fn. 104) and the town was contributing to the defence in February 1388–9. (fn. 105) An inquisition was taken in 1393 as to repairs needed, (fn. 106) and workmen were busy in 1396 and 1400. (fn. 107) All the ships of Scarborough were ordered to be manned in 1398 and to attack the pirates who lay in wait for the merchantmen. (fn. 108) Edward IV granted the castle to Richard Duke of Gloucester, but on the accession of the duke it again reverted to the Crown. With the exception of attacks from pirates Scarborough remained at peace from this time until the later years of the reign of Henry VIII. Richard III dated a precept from the castle on 5 July 1484. (fn. 109) The capture of Scarborough Castle was one of the objects of Hallam's rising in 1536 at the close of the Pilgrimage of Grace it was, however, surrendered to the keeper, Sir Ralph Eure, without a struggle. (fn. 110) In April 1537 repairs were ordered. Eure told Cromwell in 1538 that part of the wall and its ground in the outer ward, between the gate-house and the castle, had been shot down lately. It was stated that he had made part of the lead of the towers into a brewing vessel. (fn. 111) French war vessels threatened Hull and Scarborough in 1542, (fn. 112) and during the next few years the coast suffered from the French and Scots. (fn. 113) In October 1544 three Scottish ships crossed Scarborough wyke within gunshot, and anchored near so that no one sailing along the coast could escape them. (fn. 114) The town was unable to protect its commerce, as it had only four crayers, under 50 tons, unarmed and not suitable for war. (fn. 115)

In April 1557 Scarborough Castle was the centre of the rising of Thomas Stafford, whose followers held it for six days and then surrendered. (fn. 116) The Earls of Shrewsbury and Westmorland in May 1557 advised preparation against a Scottish attack on Scarborough or elsewhere on the coast. (fn. 117) Hull and Scarborough, the two chief strongholds on the coast, were garrisoned during the Northern Rebellion of 1569, but there was no movement here. (fn. 118) Scarborough added considerably to its revenues by piracy during the reign of Elizabeth. (fn. 119)

Sir Henry Gate the constable wrote to the council about 1587 asking that the ordnance of the castle should be remounted and arms provided, as the place was 'very likely to be aimed at by the enemy,' and the 'affections of divers of the inhabitants' were unsettled. (fn. 120)

In 1619 James I granted the castle to John Earl of Holderness, (fn. 121) younger brother of Sir George Ramsay of Dalhousie. He died childless in 1626, and Sir George Ramsay and others conveyed it in 1630 to Francis Thompson of Humbleton. (fn. 122)

During the reign of Charles I Scarborough suffered greatly from the men-of-war of Dunkirk, (fn. 123) and a Dutch captain defeated a Dunkirk man-of-war in the harbour in 1635. (fn. 124) The Council of the North informed the Privy Council that this harbour was of great importance and that the ordnance in the castle was old, dismounted and useless. (fn. 125) About a fortnight later two Dutch and Spanish vessels entered the harbour to fight, despite the protests of the bailiffs. (fn. 126) Men-of-war were at once sent to Scarborough to apprehend, fire and sink all ships of Holland north of Harwich. (fn. 127)

Charles I, after his retreat from Hull to York in April 1642, (fn. 128) obtained from Scarborough arms for 12,000 foot and 2,000 horse, landed from Holland. (fn. 129) Towards the end of August Sir Hugh Cholmley of Whitby (q.v.), after some hesitation, agreed to garrison Scarborough for the Parliament. Cholmley had represented Scarborough in the Short Parliament, and in November 1641 had refused to pay ship-money, but, though one of the commissioners appointed to treat with the king at York, he thought the Parliament's propositions 'most unjust and unreasonable.' (fn. 130) On 20 March 1643, however, he left the castle, ostensibly to meet the Governor of Hull, but actually rode to York, where he took the queen's commission to hold Scarborough Castle for the king. On 25 March Sir Hugh announced his change of sides to his officers, letting the Parliamentarians depart. He himself left for York, entrusting the castle to his kinsman James Cholmley. Two officers, Captain Bushell and his brother, persuaded the soldiers to seize the castle for the Parliament, 'which, tho' able to hold out against an army of 10,000 men, was thus twice taken in one week, without shedding one drop of blood.' (fn. 131) Sir Hugh Cholmley was impeached, and the Governor of Hull sent £20 for drinks for the garrison. (fn. 132) Captain Bushell shortly afterwards restored the castle to the Royalists. (fn. 133) Sir Hugh Cholmley returned as governor and commissioner for maritime affairs from the Tees to Bridlington. (fn. 134) He and his wife lived here 'in a very handsome port and fashion,' without 'the worth of a chicken out of the country,' or any fee. (fn. 135) After the battle of Marston Moor in July 1644 York surrendered to the Parliamentary forces, and the Earl of Newcastle, the king's general in the north, fled to Scarborough. Cholmley furnished him with a ship, but refused to leave unless compelled by force or royal command. Most of the gentry and many foot soldiers deserted, leaving Cholmley 'in a very sad condition, for the town by situation was not tenable, the castle ruinous, without habitation or provisions, or ammunition considerable,' and Fairfax with a large army was near. He accordingly opened negotiations for surrender, and thus gained time to put the castle in a state of defence which enabled him to hold out for twelve months. (fn. 136) On 18 February 1644–5 Sir John Meldrum took the town with the loss of eleven men, capturing eighty soldiers and the governor of Helmsley Castle, who held the church. Cholmley retreated to the castle, but Meldrum seized 120 ships in the haven and cut off Cholmley's retreat by sea. (fn. 137) The only Royalist port on the east coast thus came into the hands of the Parliament, (fn. 138) but by May Cholmley had recovered its control. (fn. 139) On 25 July 1645 the castle surrendered on favourable terms to Sir Matthew Boynton, the garrison being worn out and the whole north in possession of the Scots and Parliament. (fn. 140) Sir Hugh Cholmley distributed nearly all his money among the garrison and took ship for Holland. (fn. 141)

In June 1646 the Committee of Both Kingdoms ordered fresh ammunition to be sent to Scarborough, where Newcastle had designed to land and raise Yorkshire. (fn. 142) In July 1648 the governor, Colonel Boynton, declared for the king. (fn. 143) After a vain attempt to come to terms, (fn. 144) Colonel Bethell besieged and took the castle, which was well stored with provisions and ammunition. (fn. 145) £5,000 was voted for repair of the works, (fn. 146) and in July 1649 the Council of State ordered the castle to be demolished and works built on the platform for the security of the harbour. (fn. 147) In January and February 1650–1 various disaffected persons were removed from the town and the advisability of changing the garrison was considered. (fn. 148) In June, however, all orders concerning the castle were suspended, (fn. 149) and the appearance of the Dutch in the harbour necessitated an increase of the garrison. (fn. 150) On 7 April 1653 (fn. 151) De Witt with eighteen sail and two hoys sailed into Scarborough bay. The coastwise colliers had taken refuge here and crowded as near the shore as possible, protected by nine men-of-war, guns on the pier-head and six guns elsewhere. The enemy sailed in, fired twenty guns and then stood off the collier fleet proceeded under convoy. (fn. 152) On 18 April the collier fleet again put in, the convoy being too weak to engage a fleet of Flemings. (fn. 153) Peace was concluded with the United Provinces in 1654 in July 1655 the garrison was ordered to be entirely reduced, (fn. 154) but was shortly afterwards restored. Until the end of the Protectorate North Sea fishers and colliers frequently took refuge here, prizes were chased into the harbour, and Dunkirk prisoners lodged in the fortress. (fn. 155) The castle was repaired and furnished with military stores, and the garrison was increased in 1658. (fn. 156)

At the Restoration the town was described as populous, factious and needing a garrison. The castle, which it was suggested should be made the magazine for the North Riding and Durham, (fn. 157) was in 1662 sold by William Thompson to the Crown, (fn. 158) which in the same year granted the site to William Whitmore and Edmund Sawyer. (fn. 159) William Saxby was concerned with it in 1695, but from 1670 or earlier it was in the hands of the Crown. (fn. 160)

Various political prisoners were kept here during the next few years, (fn. 161) including James Berry, one of Cromwell's favourite generals (fn. 162) John Joplin, gaoler of Durham during the Commonwealth, 'a furious Fifth Monarchy fanatic' (fn. 163) and George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, who was removed here from Lancaster in April 1665. (fn. 164) He was put into a room where the chimney smoked and into which the rain came, and after he had spent 50s. on repairing it they moved him into a worse room, without a fireplace. He was badly treated in other respects, but was discharged on 1 September 1666. (fn. 165)

The town continued to be of military importance, and was kept in a state of defence until the treaty of Nimeguen in 1678. (fn. 166) James II did not garrison it in 1688, and it was represented that a good officer and two companies of militia would be sufficient to hold it if the Dutch descended on the Yorkshire coast. (fn. 167) On 1 December the Earl of Danby wrote to the Prince of Orange that he had seized the castle, which contained a very good magazine, and put in a garrison. (fn. 168) The persistent Jacobites in Scarborough were, with some exceptions, pardoned in 1690. (fn. 169) Arthur Viscount Irwin was appointed governor in 1694. (fn. 170) It was some eighty years before Scarborough again heard the rumour of war. On 23 September 1779 Paul Jones entered the bay, and beneath the walls of Scarborough Castle attacked and defeated two men-of-war which were acting as a convoy to a fleet of merchant vessels. (fn. 171) During the American war Scarborough had occasionally 400 foot soldiers, besides a Volunteer corps raised in the town. In 1794 five companies of Volunteers were raised for its defence. (fn. 172) The barracks are now used as a dépôt.

Scarborough Castle stands between the north and south bays on a rocky promontory, crowned by a triangular plateau about 19 acres in extent, and having its longest side towards the east, where the hill falls precipitously to the sea. On the south-west, towards the harbour and town of Scarborough, the sides of the hill are less steep and are skirted at their base by a wide ditch the north-west side, which has no ditch, resembles the east side in character, but is lower, and the sea does not reach to its base, as was the case on the east side before the formation of the present Marine Drive. The plateau was inclosed by a curtain wall, with towers and turrets placed at intervals, extending the whole length of the southwest side, and about half the length of the northwest side the remainder of this and the whole of the eastern side are rendered sufficiently impregnable by the sea and the precipitous nature of the hill. The keep stands within its bailey at the western or landward angle of the plateau, which is also its lowest and weakest point, and overlooks the narrow ridge which forms the only approach to the hill. Upon an outlying spur of this ridge is placed the barbican, which itself forms the first ward, and is connected by the bridge with a second ward without the curtain wall, adjoining the bailey on the west. Within the enceinte to the north of the bailey, and entered from the north-east angle of the second ward, there appears to have been a third ward, which has completely disappeared, from the south side of which the bailey must have been entered.

The outer ward occupies the whole of the remaining area of the plateau, and is divided from the bailey by a wall and ditch. Of the lord's hall and other buildings which stood within the bailey nothing now remains, the only surviving traces of the domestic portions of the castle being the foundations of a hall with a great chamber and offices at the southwest of the outer ward, excavated in 1888, and the barracks built against the south-west wall near the middle of its length, which occupy the site, and probably incorporate parts of the structure of Mosdale Hall, or the King's Hall. St. Mary's chapel, which also stood in the outer ward, has completely disappeared, but the site of the graveyard, as also of our Lady's well, which was situated close by, can be located. Much light is thrown on the original arrangements of the castle by a survey made in 1538 by Sir Marmaduke Constable and Sir Ralph Ellerker, (fn. 173) and some information as to the dates of the various parts may be gleaned from the extant Exchequer accounts dealing with expenses of works at the castle. The materials of the whole of the works are limestone rubble, quarried from the castle rock, for the core of the walls, with sandstone for the facing and wrought work. The latter stone was quarried both from the castle rock and from 'Whallesgrave' (Falsgrave) and Hayburn.

The date of the keep is fixed by a series of payments entered on the Pipe Rolls from 1158 to 1164. (fn. 174) Three of these entries refer specifically to the 'turris' or keep, while the other payments are described generally as 'in operatione de Scardeburc,' or 'in operatione castelli de Scardeburc.' The total sum accounted for amounts to £593 15s. 8d., and of this sum £131 3s. 8d. was spent on the 'turris.' The remainder, it may be supposed, was expended on the construction of the still existing walls inclosing the site. The walls, however, do not appear to have been anything like completed till the early 13th century, as in 1212 and 1213 sums amounting to £1,322 12s. 8d. were expended. (fn. 175) An inquisition on the state of Scarborough Castle made in 1260 is valuable for the list of the various buildings which it contains. Among other parts of the castle, mention is made of 'the hall within the inclosure of the tower,' which is described as being wholly uncovered and in a ruinous condition. The battlements and alure of the castle wall towards the town needed great repair, and the flooring of three turrets in the enceinte of the castle walls was uncovered in several places, while the battlements and alure of the outer barbican were in great part thrown down and injured. (fn. 176) The greater part of the original curtain wall inclosing the site remains, though patched, repaired, and refaced in many places. The barbican in its present state probably dates in the main from the latter years of the 13th century.

The great bridge is known to have been rebuilt in 1337–8, (fn. 177) and the present structure agrees with this date. The north-west wall of the ward between the bridge and the bailey must be almost entirely modern, as in the survey of 1538, above referred to, this portion is said to have been 'in decay and fallen down,' and it is further stated that 'by estimacion of masons no wall can be sett agayne but if it be upon an arche or archis of stone'—an expedient found necessary in its modern rebuilding. The southern wall of this ward, which leaves the bridge at an angle and joins without bond a turret of the curtain wall, may be that referred to in the following entry in an account of 1428: 'in the wages of ij masouns Wirking . . . upon the makyng of a newe walle fro the Watchehous to the brigge of the said Castell.' (fn. 178) It is possible that before this time a narrow causeway leading to the gate of the bailey crossed the site of this ward, the existence of which may go no further back than the date of the building of the south wall. The tower upon which the wall abuts commands a wide view to the north, west, and south, and is excellently adapted for the purposes of a watchtower.

The few moulded details brought to light when the foundations of the hall at the south-west of the outer ward were excavated show it to have been of the latter part of the 12th century. No mention is made of it in the survey of 1538, but at what time it was pulled down is uncertain. An account roll for 1319– 20 (fn. 179) refers to repairs to a 'vetus aula,' a 'media aula,' and an 'aula in curia.' By the first term is possibly meant the hall in the bailey which has now disappeared, while 'media aula' may refer to the foundations above mentioned, 'aula in curia' being perhaps used to distinguish a hall which stood a little distance to the south-east, on the site of Mosdale Hall, or King's Hall, against the south-west wall of the outer ward. This last hall was rebuilt by John Mosdale, the governor of the castle, at the end of the 14th century, and was converted into barracks in 1745. It is probable that the original external walls were made use of, though now refaced everywhere with brick, as the lower courses of the original masonry, both of the main structure and of the tower at the north-west, are visible on the outer side, and the core of the walls appears to be of stone wherever the internal plastering is removed. The survey of 1538 gives the following description: 'The sayd Mosdale hall (fn. 180) is of two stories heght—in lenght xx yardys and di– in brede viij yardys . . . and in the south ende of the sayd hall is a lodgynge joyned to it of thre stories heght in lenght ix yardys and di. of lyke brede as the sayd hall.' The barracks as they exist at the present day, though outwardly uniform in elevation, consist of two distinct portions, without internal communication. The northern portion measures internally about 62 ft. in length and 28 ft. in width, the length of the curtain wall included within it being 8 ft. 4 in. thick, while the wall towards the outer ward is 5 ft. thick. The ground stage of the tower at the north-west contains a small chamber, which, unlike the rest of the building, seems to have been left more or less in its original condition, save for the insertion of a sash-framed window. The southern portion, the walls of which are thinner, the outer wall being 6 ft. 6 in. thick, the normal width of the curtain wall elsewhere, and the wall on the side towards the ward 3 ft. 8 in. thick, measures 30 ft. 8 in. in length and 30 ft. 2 in. in width. It will be seen that with the exception of the breadth these measurements do not differ much from those of the survey, while the division into two parts is still distinct. The semicircular tower to the northward of Mosdale Hall was known as the 'Queen's Tower,' and adjoining it on the inside must have been the 'camera regine' to which important repairs amounting almost to a rebuilding were made in 1320, (fn. 181) while at the same time a porch with a stone foundation was added to it. There are frequent references in subsequent account rolls to repairs of various descriptions to both the Queen's tower and the Queen's chamber, and the tower is described in 1538 as having been at that time four stories in height, 6 yards in length, 5 yards in breadth and 12 yards in height.

The curtain wall on either side of the second of the two large mural towers to the south of Mosdale Hall appears to have been set back with the tower itself and the adjoining solid turret, as there is a marked inward bend to the south of the latter. Possibly an explanation is to be found in an account roll for 1425–9, (fn. 182) which records that the 'Constable's Tower whilk was in poynt to fall' was taken down, and that payment was made to 'Thomas Hyndley, (fn. 183) meistre mason, for ryding fro Duresme to Scardeburgh for to devyse and ordeine the moste siker grounde of the Constable toure before saide.' Mention is also made of the 'rydding and takyng of a newe grounde of a walle beside the Constable toure.' The tower is described in the survey of 1538 as 'of ij stories heght rounde—vj yardys wyde.' To the south of this point is about 100 ft. of thinner walling, probably a late rebuilding, as in 1538 a third tower is described as existing 30 yards to the south of the solid turret, and the wall between is said to have been of the same thickness as the other portions of the curtain wall. The southernmost tower of this wall, which stood upon the edge of the cliff, and was known variously as Cockefelde, Cockhyll, and later as Charles's tower, has also disappeared. Below the site of the latter is the South Steel battery, which was made in 1643. It is approached by a doorway in the curtain wall, opening on to a stepped path leading down the steep slope of the hill, and protected by a wall on the west side.

The barbican stands on a small hillock overlooking the steep approach from the town. The inclosure, the shape of which is governed by the nature of the ground, is roughly triangular, with the base towards the south, and measures about 130 ft. from east to west and 50 ft. from north to south. The gateway, flanked by large semicircular turrets, is placed at the east end of the south side, the lower level of the ground here allowing of a sufficient height to the wall and turrets without the necessity of carrying them above the general level of the top of the curtain wall, to the west, where the ground within the inclosure rises in places nearly to the level of the alure or rampart. The north and east walls are mere parapets, the former being placed on the edge of a sharp descent. The walling generally, as elsewhere, is of limestone rubble for the core and a yellowish sandstone for the facing, much of which has been renewed. The gateway has an outer segmental arch of two chamfered orders carrying a thin wall, the space between this and the inner arch, which is of the same form, doubtless serving as a meurtrière or opening by which the gate could be defended from above. The jambs of the entrance have been repaired in such a manner that no trace is left of the grooves in which the portcullis must have worked. In the turret to the west of the gateway was in 1538 the porter's lodge, of 'oon story heght covered wythe leade,' but this, like the other turret, is now only a shell. In the wall over the outer arch is a square niche, and set in the south-east face of the wall of the western turret is a fine 15th-century shield of France and England, much decayed. There is a crowning string-course and plain parapet, probably of late date. The curtain wall to the west has two smaller semicircular turrets, one being placed at the south-west angle of the barbican, and the other midway between it and the gateway. Internally the alure, with steps leading to it behind the middle turret, can be distinctly traced. The east wall is crowned by modern battlements. A doorway at the west end of the barbican, now blocked, was made in the 17th century to communicate with a battery which was formed at that period to the west of the barbican.

Scarborough Castle: The Gateway

The bridge joins the barbican at its north-eastern angle, and is approached from the gateway by a sloping roadway sunk a few feet below the level of the surrounding ground. In its original state the bridge, which runs in a north-easterly direction, consisted of a massive central pier, crowned by a gate-house flanked by large semicircular turrets, with drawbridges on either side working between stone spandrel walls carried by segmental arches of two chamfered orders. It was further protected by smaller turrets flanking the abutments towards the barbican and towards the second ward. The pier and abutments have deep chamfered plinths of three offsets, and the former has triangular starling-like terminations changing to a semi-octagonal form a little below the spring of the arches of the spandrel walls, above which originally rose the semicircular turrets of the gate-house, but only that on the south now remains. The two turrets of the abutment on the outer or barbican side are carried in a similar manner the abutment on the side towards the second ward has now only one turret remaining on the southern side, which is carried by a pointed arch thrown between the heads of a pair of buttresses of two offsets set at right angles to each other. Both pits have been vaulted over between the spandrel walls to carry the present roadway, the arches on the barbican side having been wholly renewed, but the northern spandrel wall and arch of the pit on the side towards the second ward is still in its original condition, though a storehouse has been formed beneath, the wall of which now entirely conceals the southern arch. The surviving turret of the gateway is filled with masonry, but part of a vice which must have led to an embattled walk over the gate still remains the corbels which supported the projecting embattled parapet of the turret itself are also in position. The gateway is described in the survey of 1538 in the following terms: 'wythyn ye same (the bridge) a turrit in lenght ix yardys and di., in heght xiij yardys, in brede v yardys,' and mention is made of a portcullis, the arrangements for which have completely disappeared. The whole work is faced with sandstone, and beneath the central pier on the north side is a mass of limestone rubble upon which it partly rests, probably a fragment of the bridge which it replaced.

The second ward originally included a triangular area measuring about 150 ft. by 130 ft., its greatest length being from north to south. The east side was bounded by the western portion of the original curtain wall, but only the foundations of this remain, the second ward and the bailey being now thrown into one. The roadway leading through the ward from the bridge to the site of the gate of the third ward at the north-east ascends sharply along the northern and lowest side of the neck of land on which the ward is placed, the wall here, as mentioned above, being almost entirely modern. The south wall, which is carried along the edge of the higher side of the site, ascends steeply from the bridge to the curtain wall, where it abuts upon a solid turret (probably the 'watch house' of the account roll) which has lost its upper story. From this turret access was gained to the stepped alure of the wall, and so to the bridge and barbican, by a small doorway, the lower jamb stones of which can still be seen. In the eastern portion of the wall are five arrow slits, two of them perfect and splayed to allow of a downward aim. Near the junction of the wall with the bridge is a blocked pointed opening, probably a postern. The masonry is of limestone rubble, and there is no bond between the wall and the turret, which is faced with sandstone ashlar and has a deep stepped and chamfered plinth. The facing of the wall on the ward side seems to have fallen away in parts, and the western portion is supported by large modern buttresses. At the northeast angle of the ward was a gateway to the third ward, the walls of which have completely disappeared. This ward is described in the survey of 1538 in the following terms: 'Fyrst at th' entre of the thyrde warde is neyther tower ne house but a payre of evyll tymbre gatis of xiij fote heght and x fote brode, and a place for a port-cules . . . and the sayde warde is square like unto a courte, xxij yardes.' The chief function of this ward must have been to afford communication to the outer ward from the bridge and second ward, without the necessity of passing through the bailey. At the south-east appears to have been a gate to the outer ward, traces of the south jamb of which are still left. The line of the wall dividing the ward from the bailey can be traced for a few feet from this point, but nothing remains to show the position of the gate to the bailey, which was probably near the east end of this wall. Against the curtain wall, which forms the west side of the ward, are 18th-century buildings and offices, and at the north end, on the outer face, are some original buttresses.

The bailey is of irregular shape, and measures about 290 ft. from north to south and 160 ft. from east to west. The keep, which stands at the northwest, close upon the probable lines of the north and west walls, is a square building, each side measuring externally about 55 ft., and was three stories in height above the basement. The east wall, with the greater portion of the north and south walls, is still standing to a height of about 80 ft., but the west wall has all gone above the basement. The north, east, and south walls are respectively 10 ft., 10 ft. 6 in., and 11 ft. 6 in. thick, while the remaining portion of the west wall, which contained a newel stair 12 ft. in diameter, is 15 ft. thick. The walls have a core of rough limestone, quarried from the castle hill, and are faced with sandstone of the same character as used elsewhere for wrought work. The stones of the facing have joints of from 1 /8 in. to ½ in. in depth, and show, where original, 12th-century tooling. The elevations were of a regular and normal type with clasping buttresses on the north, shafted at the angles, and pilaster strips in the centre of the east, north, and west faces, all rising without base mould from a deep battering plinth about 6 ft. high, standing upon three chamfered offsets resting upon a vertical face. The south face has no pilaster strips, nor are the wide buttresses at the south end of the east and west walls returned as clasping buttresses, though the angles are shafted as on the north the plinth only exists for about 9 ft. at the west end, the remainder of this face having been covered by a forebuilding protecting the entrance. Each angle appears from the survey of 1538 to have been capped by a turret in the usual manner, the forebuilding, described as the fifth turret, being 'tabled wyth stone.' On the east face, which remains nearly perfect, the third floor is lighted by two pairs of round-headed windows, each of two square orders, and the second floor by two windows, each having a plain round-headed containing arch inclosing two lights with round roll-moulded heads which spring from central coupled shafts with scalloped capitals, and are received upon single jamb shafts of the same form. Similar windows appear to have lighted the first floor, but these are now blocked, and only the containing arch is visible. The windows in the north and south walls were of like character the basement is lighted only by two loops in the north wall.

The inner entrance is at the west end of the south side of the first floor, and consists of a vaulted passage through the thickness of the wall, 7 ft. 6 in. in width, having a semicircular arch on the internal face and a segmental arch on the external face, each of one plain order. About half the passage forms a short lobby on a level with the first floor, the remainder containing a short flight of steps leading up from the outer door. This entrance was covered by a forebuilding 27 ft. long and projecting 22 ft., of which nothing remains but the basement, which formed a prison pit with an attached garderobe below the main stairs. Some toothings projecting from the south face of the main building are sufficient to show that the height of its flat roof was 39 ft. above the plinth of the keep, and on a level with the second floor, from which access was gained from a mural recess in the south wall by a narrow round-headed opening. The outer door was 9 ft. broad, and its head sprang from a scalloped corbel 4 ft. broad upon the south wall of the keep behind this was a large V-shaped meurtrière. A flight of steps, 9 ft. broad, started from the south-east angle of the keep and led up at one stage through the forebuilding to the sill of the inner door. These steps have been altered and raised for a few feet outside the outer door. There are no traces of a portcullis in the forebuilding or in the keep, but the main entrance to the latter had a bar-hole on the west, now blocked. The upper floor of the forebuilding, which was reached by a narrow right-angled mural stair starting from the first floor of the keep, to the east of the main door, had a small round-headed locker in its north wall just above the meurtrière.

The basement of the keep was a plain chamber about 28 ft. 6 in. by 25 ft. 6 in. The two loops on the north side have stepped and splayed sills. In the west wall was a door 5 ft. wide, leading by a short lobby into the great staircase. There are no springers of any kind on the walls, and the floor of the story above, as of all the upper stories, must have been of timber. The first floor, which measured internally about 32 ft. by 28 ft., seems to have been divided into two bays by a great arch from north to south, 28 ft. in span and 4 ft. 6 in. in width, carrying a cross wall to the floor above. Only fragments of the springing stones and the plain pilasters, 2 ft. in depth, which formed its responds, remain. Between the two windows in the east wall, which are placed in straight-sided recesses, now walled up, and have semicircular rear arches, is a round-backed fireplace with a semicircular head and a flue carried up in the thickness of the wall. The eastern of the two north windows is blocked, like the windows in the east wall. At the south-east is a small doorway opening into a chamber in the thickness of the wall, lighted by a narrow loop on the east. The arrangement of the east wall at the second floor level is like that of the floor below the fireplace, however, has a segmental head with a semicircular relieving arch above. The windows are in their original condition, and the lights have internal shutter rebates with pointed heads. On the south wall the jamb of a doorway through the cross wall remains, and from further indications at this spot it would appear that the cross wall on this floor was lightened on each side by a series of arched recesses separated by a thin stone screen. At the north-east of the eastern of the two rooms into which this floor was divided is a doorway to a chamber in the thickness of the wall, lighted by a loop on the east to the west of this, close against the former northern end of the cross wall, is a doorway to a mural passage which probably led into the western chamber, and passed below the window lighting this chamber on the north, which has been lengthened and its recess opened down to the floor of the mural passage by removing the roof and south wall of the latter. At the south-east of the eastern chamber is a doorway opening into a mural chamber corresponding to that in the north-eastern angle, while immediately to the east of the cross wall is a round-headed recess containing two loops at different heights, of which the western and lower has served as a doorway to the roof of the forebuilding. The greater part of the south wall of the western chamber has gone, but the east jamb and part of the head of the window which lighted it from this side remain. The third and highest floor, which had no cross wall, had as stated above two pairs of coupled round-headed lights on the east and south respectively, each pair having a common recess and rear arch. In the north wall were also two recesses, the eastern containing a window of the same type, but that on the west must have been blind, or with but one light, on account of its unsymmetrical position with regard to the pilaster strip outside. No traces exist of the roof itself, but it must always have been flat, for there are no remains of gabled weather mouldings.

In the thickness of the west wall, at its south end and at about 3 ft. above the first floor level, are slight traces of a mural chamber with fragments of a hearth. This wall probably contained a number of apartments, and certainly among these were the garderobes, for the remains of four shoots are to be seen on the western battering plinth, arranged in pairs between the pilaster strips. There are no traces of a well anywhere within the keep or the forebuilding. The workmanship throughout, though plain, is of the highest quality and precision.

Scarborough Castle: Plan of the Keep

To the south of the keep, and parallel with it, are the foundations of a small outbuilding, which seems to have been originally joined to the forebuilding by a wall. At the south-west of the bailey is the recently reopened well, which is lined with masonry to a depth of about 68 ft., and below this level is driven down through the rock a further 109 ft. The curtain wall, which forms the south-west boundary of the bailey, runs nearly due south from the tower upon which the south wall of the second ward abuts to another solid semicircular turret which is now used as a beacon. The exterior face of this turret, with that of the greater part of the adjacent walling, has been refaced. From this point the wall takes a turn to the south-east and continues in this direction for the whole of its remaining length. To the south of the beacon turret is another solid turret of the same form, which retains part of its deep chamfered and stepped plinth, much weathered and decayed. The outer face of the wall between this and the next turret, an angular three-sided projection upon which the east wall of the bailey terminates, has three pilaster buttresses of original late 12th-century date, standing on a deep battering plinth of four chamfered courses. On the inner face of the wall, between the beacon turret and the next turret to the south, the position of the steps to the alure can be clearly traced. Both wall and towers are of limestone rubble partly faced with sandstone, and in the absence of wrought detail little more can be said than that the wall and three southern turrets belong probably to the works executed between 1154 and 1213. The northern turret, the 'watchhouse' of the accounts, looks like a 14th-century rebuilding, and part of the work to the south of it is refaced with the same stone. The east wall of the bailey, dividing it from the outer ward, is of limestone rubble, much patched and repaired, the southern portion being a late rebuilding above the foundations. At its northern end, on the bailey side, pockets to receive the ends of the rafters of pentice roofs remain.

The foundations excavated at the south-west of the outer ward in 1888 are those of a building measuring externally 100 ft. 9 in. by 54 ft. 6 in., and placed with its greatest length in a south-easterly direction. (fn. 184) This may be, as suggested above, the 'media aula' of the account rolls the jamb of an enriched doorway found on the site shows it to have been of the latter half of the 12th century. The principal apartment seems to have measured internally 51 ft. by 47 ft., and to have had a low stone seat on the west side, opposite which was an L-shaped platform of rough stone. At the north-east end of this room or hall were found the jambs of the doorway above referred to. At the south-east was a large room 21 ft. by 47 ft., while at the opposite end were two small chambers, each 18 ft. by 12 ft., and divided from each other by a passage which probably led from the hall to a kitchen on this side, parts of the foundations of which have been uncovered. The portion of the curtain wall which forms the south-west side of the outer ward has four large towers and two small solid turrets, all semicircular, with the exception of the octagonal tower attached to the north-western end of Mosdale Hall, which is now faced with brick. The northern tower, formerly known as the Queen's tower, has been much repaired externally, and like the other semicircular towers has been gutted internally and razed to the alure level. The wall between this and Mosdale Hall has on its outer face three buttresses, each of two offsets with deep chamfered plinths, which suggest a 14th-century rebuilding. Between Mosdale Hall and the northern of the two remaining towers, which may be of the 14th century, is a small solid turret the wall on either side of it has been largely refaced, and has buttresses of about 1 ft. 10 in. projection, with shallow offsets near the top, alternating with pilaster buttresses of about 8 in. projection, the latter probably of original 12th-century date. About midway between the two southern towers is a blocked opening in the wall, to the south of which there is a marked change in the masonry, and the direction of the wall bends slightly inward. The southernmost tower, perhaps, as suggested above, the Constable's tower of the account rolls, has been entirely refaced and the upper part rebuilt the wall from this point to the southernmost of the small turrets gradually sweeps outward again to the general line, but has been almost wholly rebuilt above the lower courses, so that there is little to judge by, besides the line of the foundations, in determining the date of the wall and tower. Beyond this point is the length of thin walling noticed above, and beyond this again a portion of original walling with buttresses of uncertain date, extending to the site of Cockbill or Charles's tower on the edge of the hill overlooking the sea, below which is the South Steel battery. On the side towards the ward the facing of the wall is nearly all gone. The Queen's tower and the tower to the south of Mosdale Hall retain the internal jambs of blocked loop recesses.

Borough

Henry II, before 1163, (fn. 185) granted to the burgesses of Scarborough all liberties enjoyed by the citizens of York, paying to the Crown as gabelage from each house 4d. or 6d. according as the gable or side faced the street. (fn. 186) The town paid as farm in 1163–4 (fn. 187) £20, afterwards increased to £30, and a further £4 was exacted in 1175–6 (fn. 188). It remained at this figure for some time, but in February 1200–1 the king granted the men of Scarborough the towns of Scarborough and Falsgrave, the mills and other appurtenances at 'the old farm,' viz., £33 from Scarborough and £10 from Falsgrave with its appurtenances, and £33 increment. (fn. 189) In 1202 the town paid £10 from Falsgrave, £33 as their ancient farm, £33 increment, and £20 fine for having their town. (fn. 190) In 1253 the fee farm was fixed as £66, payable by the burgesses' hands, (fn. 191) and three years later that of Falsgrave was fixed at £25. (fn. 192) In the early 14th century the farm was £91, and Edward II exacted a further £66 (fn. 193) allowance was finally made by Edward III for the amount paid in excess of the farm. (fn. 194) In 1391 the queen held the farm in dower, (fn. 195) and in 1450 Henry VI remitted nearly half the sum. (fn. 196) Henry III in 1253 twice confirmed the charter of Henry II and granted further liberties (fn. 197) two additional charters were obtained in 1256. (fn. 198)

13th-Century Seal of the Borough of Scarborough

In 1273 the burgesses assaulted the constable of the castle, and the town was taken into the king's hands, (fn. 199) but restored in 1276, the burgesses paying a fine of £40. (fn. 200) In March 1311–12 the charters were confirmed. (fn. 201) After the death of Gaveston the town was taken into the king's hands, the constables of the castle being its keepers. (fn. 202) Scarborough was particularly unruly during this period. In March 1313–14 inquiry was ordered into an assault on the king's servants and the seizure of timber provided for the repair of the houses in the castle. (fn. 203) Next year the men of the town complained that the keepers forcibly took their goods without payment they vainly begged to have their town at farm again. (fn. 204) Many of the burgesses broke out into open revolt in 1316. Twenty-three persons banded themselves together apparently to carry on a provisional government in spite of the Crown, whose ministers they refused to acknowledge. (fn. 205) They assaulted Robert Wawayn, the royal bailiff, and prevented his exercise of his office while they collected the dues. (fn. 206) He and the town clerk were besieged in 1319, (fn. 207) when Wawayn's temporary removal seems to have quieted the town. The burgesses again vainly petitioned in 1324 for the restoration of their town at farm, quayage, pavage and murage. (fn. 208) Special protection was granted in this year to the royal keepers and to William de Willerby while suing for the Crown against the men of Scarborough for 'trespasses and contempts' against the king and his ministers. (fn. 209) In February 1324–5 men of the town were charged with assessing tallages on their own authority and levying other sums and with fishing in the king's stews at Scarborough. (fn. 210) Immediately after the accession of Edward III Scarborough was restored to the burgesses. (fn. 211) In February 1348–9 the charters of the town were inspected and confirmed, (fn. 212) and in 1356 part of an ancient custumal was ratified. (fn. 213)

The charters were confirmed in 1377. (fn. 214) An inquiry was ordered in 1378 as to dissensions at Scarborough, and the Earl of Northumberland was ordered to put the town in a state of defence and to appease the strife, 'saving the liberty' of the town. (fn. 215) Northumberland and others were commissioned in 1381 and 1382 to suppress unlawful assemblies in and about Scarborough, where the rebels assumed a livery of white hoods with red tippets. (fn. 216) On the suppression of these revolts Scarborough was pardoned on payment of 400 marks (fn. 217) but in 1383 the Commons petitioned in Parliament on behalf of the burgesses and people of Scarborough, many of whose franchises had been taken away, rendering them incapable of supporting public charges the liberties were restored. (fn. 218) Robberies and the breaking of the king's prison were reported in 1384. (fn. 219) In 1391, at the supplication of the queen, the burgesses were pardoned all trespasses and conspiracies of which they had been indicted. (fn. 220) The charters of the town were confirmed in 1400, (fn. 221) 1414, (fn. 222) 1423, (fn. 223) 1492, 1510, 1547, 1554, 1560 and 1608. The constitution was altered in 1485 and in 1684, but the older system was restored in both cases after a few years. (fn. 224)

Edward IV in 1472 granted, in exchange, the castle and lordship of Scarborough, the fee farm of the town and borough with the port and haven and fee farm of Falsgrave to Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne his wife and her heirs (fn. 225) with Richard's accession Scarborough returned to the Crown.

The charter of 1253 confirmed to Scarborough its gild-merchant, but there is no evidence as to its connexion with the government of the town. The customs, confirmed by Letters Patent of 1356 and ascribed to the reign of Henry III, describe a constitution similar to that surviving in 1835 under the title of 'The Bailiffs and Burgesses of the Town of Scarborough.' (fn. 226) In 1356 all the commonalty of the town assembled on Michaelmas Day or St. Jerome's Day (30 September) at the common hall for the elections by the 19th century only the bailiffs and members of the common council attended on the latter date. From this assembly the majority elected two coroners they nominated four first electors, who co-opted eight of their fellows. These proceeded to elect from the council a senior and junior bailiff. The bailiffs acted as justices of the peace and as judges of the Court of Pleas and of Admiralty, &c., receiving as their dues the petty tolls. The chamberlains were chosen in the same way as were the bailiffs. The common council or 'House' was divided into three sets of twelve persons and was filled yearly. At a date fixed by the bailiffs all the council met each bailiff appointed six 'factores' from the chamberlains and second and third twelves. These 'factores' chose and arranged the first twelve for the year. The first twelve was then sworn, and elected the second and third twelves. The House made by-laws and managed the affairs of the corporation it was a highly select body, according to the report of 1835, 'only two instances having occurred of a new person being elected into the body whilst any of the old members were living.' (fn. 227)

Under the Municipal Corporations Reform Act of 1835 (fn. 228) the ancient constitution was replaced by a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen councillors the borough is divided into six wards. From the early 18th century until the passing of the Reform Bill there were bitter quarrels between the corporation and the general inhabitants of the town, and disputes in the common council sometimes led to the election of two sets of officials year by year. (fn. 229)

Richard III showed special favour to the town, granting it in 1485 a mayor, sheriff and twelve aldermen, and enacting that Scarborough and the manor of Falsgrave should be 'the county of the town of Scarborough,' distinct from the county of York. The mayor and burgesses were to elect from themselves twelve aldermen with the powers of the aldermen of London and to erect a sheriff. The sheriff, aldermen and burgesses were to elect the mayor, who was to be clerk of the market and escheator. The mayor and burgesses were to have cognizance of all pleas in the town and liberty and the mayor and aldermen were to be justices of the peace. The king granted to the corporation the town, suburbs, county, ports, quay, quayage, the manor of Falsgrave, markets, pleas, &c. released them from £10 yearly of the farm declared the town a seaport distinct from the port of Kingston-on-Hull and the mayor and his successors admirals between Scaryhale to the south and Northand to the north. (fn. 230) This constitution lasted for less than a year, being abolished on the accession of Henry VII. (fn. 231)

For a few years under the last Stuart Scarborough again enjoyed a mayoral constitution, Charles II in 1684 granting a charter under which a recorder, aldermen, town clerk, coroner and treasurer of the pier and thirty-one burgesses were to form a common council. The aldermen were yearly to elect two persons, of whom one was to be chosen mayor by the common council, gaps in the ranks of the aldermen being filled from the common council by the mayor and other aldermen. The mayor, aldermen and common council might choose the recorder, &c., as the bailiffs used to do. The mayor for a year after his retiring from office, the recorder and two senior aldermen living in the borough were to be justices the mayor and recorder were to have as ample jurisdiction as the bailiffs had had before. (fn. 232) William III issued a declaration restoring the charters abrogated by Charles II and James II, and in January 1688–9 bailiffs were elected in the old way. (fn. 233)

Scarborough returned representatives to the Parliament at Shrewsbury in 1282, and two members from 1295 until the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885, since which it has returned only one. (fn. 234) Before the passing of the Reform Act the franchise was vested in the common council the extra-parochial precinct of Scarborough Castle was added to the borough for Parliamentary purposes by the Boundary Act. (fn. 235)

In 1256 the burgesses obtained the return of writs and appointment of coroners. (fn. 236) Important liberties were obtained in January 1252–3. The justices in eyre were to hold a court of common pleas for the borough at Scarborough. (fn. 237) In January 1580–1 the trial for murder of a man of Scarborough was delayed from a doubt whether the bailiffs and borough might by their charters 'enquire' therein. (fn. 238) Then, as the murder had been committed on the sands, it was claimed to belong to the Admiralty jurisdiction. The sands, however, were proved to be within the precincts of the borough, and trial was ordered before the justices of assize at Scarborough. (fn. 239) The gallows stood outside Newborough Gate in a field called Gallows Close, and the author of the ballad on the capture of the castle in 1557 explained the expression 'Scarborough warning' by the summary nature of local justice. (fn. 240)

In 1835 the borough magistrate exercised criminal jurisdiction within the borough to the exclusion of the county magistrates, quarter sessions being held before the bailiffs with the town clerk as assessor. (fn. 241) The bailiffs also presided over the court of pleas for the trial of personal and mixed actions to any amount (fn. 242) this is now held by the recorder. In 1414 the bailiffs secured the commission of the peace with jurisdiction exclusive of the county justices. (fn. 243) Since 1835 the courts of petty session have been held by the mayor, ex-mayor and recorder, and are held thrice weekly at the court-house.

The Hall of Pleas is mentioned in 1298, (fn. 244) and in 1378 the court was held in a building near the sands west of East Sandgate. (fn. 245) By custom of the town, confirmed in 1356, a woman in the absence of her husband was to get justice in Stranderlagh. (fn. 246) A bequest was made in 1500 for building an 'honest chamber' in the common prison, (fn. 247) and in 1504–5 for building a new prison. (fn. 248) The old prison was over Newborough Gate. A new prison was built in 1865 in Cemetery Road. (fn. 249) The pillory is mentioned in 1405, (fn. 250) and the ducking stool is now in the Scarborough Museum.

The grant of January 1252–3 further gave the burgesses all waste within the borough belonging to their holdings to build on as seemed best for themselves and the borough. No property, moreover, was to be alienated to religious persons without the assent of the commonalty of the borough. No one was to prevent merchandise coming by sea or land merchants were to come, tarry, and depart freely. (fn. 251)

By charter of 1256 the burgesses and men of Falsgrave and their goods were to be free from arrest throughout the realm for any debt in which they were not sureties or principal debtors, unless the debtors were men of their commonalty who were able to pay the debt in whole or in part and the creditors could prove that the burgesses had failed in justice. (fn. 252) By the charters of 1256 the borough and manor were disafforested and made quit of all forest dues and cheminage in Pickering Forest. (fn. 253) The burgesses were licensed to inclose the manor and to have free warren in their demesne lands. (fn. 254)

According to an ancient record at Scarborough Henry II granted a market to the burgesses. (fn. 255) Henry III in 1256 gave them leave to plead in his court for the abolition of the markets of Brompton in Pickering Lythe, Filey and Sherburn. (fn. 256) In January 1252–3 the town received a grant of a yearly fair from the Assumption of Our Lady to Michaelmas. (fn. 257) In 1660–1 there were markets on Thursdays and Saturdays, and three yearly fairs—on Holy Thursday, St. Bartholomew's Day and Martinmas Day. (fn. 258) The market and fair were held on the sands in the 14th (fn. 259) as in the 16th century. (fn. 260) The part of Castle Road north of St. Mary's Church was called High Tollergate until the last century, and here was the earliest market-place. (fn. 261) Low Tollergate (now St. Mary's Walk) (fn. 262) was a continuation of Paradise. (fn. 263) Tollergate runs south from Castle Road to Long Westgate, and is continued in Dumple Street. The regular weekly and daily market is now held in the market hall, opened in 1853, (fn. 264) in St. Helen's Square, between Dumple Street and Cross Street. Cross Street was called Cargate until the erection in 1670 of a market cross (removed in 1802), in St. Helen's Square. (fn. 265) An apple market was held in King Street (fn. 266) until 1880 (fn. 267) a cattle market once held in Queen Street (fn. 268) is now held near Wrea Lane there was a meat market in St. Helen's Square and afterwards in the old shambles where the new ones stand. (fn. 269) There was a cloth market at the south end of Queen Street, blanket sales in Newborough Street, a pig market, now removed to the abattoirs, in St. Thomas Street an open corn market is still held. (fn. 270) The corn cross stood in 1631 at the junction of St. Thomas Street with Newborough. (fn. 271) Part of an old market cross called the Butter Cross is still to be seen between Cook's Row (fn. 272) and West Sandgate. The 'Rede Cross' faced it. (fn. 273)

The day on which the fair began was the latest date for the payment of gabelage, (fn. 274) and this must be the reason why it was called Jablers Day. The fair attracted foreign merchants, especially Flemings. Booths and tents were pitched in Merchants' Row, and the fair opened with a procession of the governing body. (fn. 275)

A grant of murage and pavage for seven years was made to the town in 1308 (fn. 276) pavage was granted regularly until 1458, murage until the close of the 14th century. (fn. 277) The burgesses complained in 1324 that, owing to their not having control of the pavage, all the ways leading down to the sea were impassable to horses or carts. (fn. 278) The murage in 1344 was to be specially employed in repairing Cartergate leading down to the sea. (fn. 279) The port belonged to the Crown, but in 1252 the burgesses were granted for five years dues from all vessels towards building a new port (fn. 280) this grant was extended for another five years in 1256, (fn. 281) and a similar grant made in 1280. (fn. 282) A cocket seal was ordered to be made for the port in 1320, and collectors of the customs on wool, hides and woolfells exported were to be appointed. (fn. 283) The town petitioned in 1324 for public weights, as the great sheep pasture of Blakey Moor was so far from Kingston-on-Hull, and it would be a great convenience to the country to send the wool straight from Scarborough to Flanders. (fn. 284) It was in possession of the right in 1398. (fn. 285) 'Keepers of the scrutiny of the money' were appointed in the port to see that sterlings and counterfeit coin were not sent out of the realm. (fn. 286) In 1680 the port was surveyed and stated to extend from the sea to the shore, going from the castle foot southward to Filey Brig, thence south over Filey Bay to Speeton Cliffs. The commissioners appointed a quay at Middle Sandgate and forbade any other receiving place in the port. (fn. 287) In 1546 an Act of Parliament imposed a duty for repairing the pier (fn. 288) but it was so ruinous in 1565–6 that the queen granted £500, 100 tons of timber and 6 tons of iron towards its repair. (fn. 289) In 1605 the corporation petitioned to be freed from the heavy tax of maintaining their piers, as owing to the decay of commerce and fishing 600 of the 800 tenements in the town were uninhabited. Burghley himself supported this petition, and in 1614 the town was granted a duty for maintenance of the piers. (fn. 290) A visitor in 1734 said that two stone piers (fn. 291) formed the harbour, 'which, tho' very capacious, and one of the most commodious of this kingdom, is yet scarce able to hold the ships belonging to the place, which are reckoned to be upwards of 300 sail, employ'd in different branches of trade. Those for fishing are a considerable number, the coast affording plenty of herring, turbut, ling, codfish, haddock, fluke, whiting, mackrel and lobsters of which they send great numbers to London every season.' (fn. 292) Situated 16½ leagues from the Dogger Bank, Scarborough is visited by shoals of fish, and the town sent stores to Edward I when he was at Berwick-onTweed. (fn. 293) Camden reproached the inhabitants with abandoning these riches to foreigners, the Dutch amassing incredible sums from the fishery. (fn. 294) Hinderwell said the fishery produced about £5,250 per annum, 'a trifle to what it would produce were there a canal thence to Leeds and Manchester.' (fn. 295) In the 17th century the town took part in the Greenland whale fishery and manufactured oil. (fn. 296)

Baxtergate is mentioned in 1246, (fn. 297) and the names of many craftsmen—e.g., salter, goldsmith, cutler, hairmaker, girdler, tailor, mercer, 'scirmissour,' carter, shoemaker and 'linbuner' occur in 1298. (fn. 298) The weavers were granted their gild, customs and liberties by a charter of Henry II confirmed in 1346. (fn. 299) In 1468 there were no less than eighteen chartered companies: merchants, joiners, smiths, blacksmiths and wiremakers, ropers, masons, slaters, bakers, butchers, tailors, shoemakers, tanners, barbers, chandlers, weavers, glovers, fullers and porters. (fn. 300) Of these the smiths, shoemakers and weavers alone were still incorporated in 1798, when there was a fourth new company of joiners and coopers. (fn. 301) The Rope-walk, now St. Mary's Terrace, (fn. 302) Tanner Street (now St. Thomas Street) and Smith Hill (fn. 303) commemorate old trades. Scarborough once petitioned the Crown to make it the seat of the cutlery trade by constraining apprentices intending to use the trade to settle there. (fn. 304) Falsgrave used to manufacture iron and pottery of a poor quality. (fn. 305) Falsgrave had a mill in February 1200–1. (fn. 306) When Scarborough was in the king's hands in 1314–15 the burgesses begged for an inquiry as to which of the mills lately built by them at their own expense in the town belonged to themselves, which to the king. (fn. 307) There were four water-mills and a windmill belonging to the Crown in 1320 (fn. 308) but in 1660–1 the inhabitants knew only of one windmill pulled down in the Civil War, and three ancient water corn-mills at which before the war all the inhabitants were in theory obliged to grind their corn. (fn. 309) These last mills, however, situated a quarter of a mile from Scarborough and Falsgrave respectively, on the same stream, often stood idle in the summer when the beck dried corn was, therefore, taken to Scalby and Cayton Cliff mills, and, although disturbed by the bailiffs, various people in Scarborough erected horse and hand-mills. (fn. 310)

Manors

Possibly the RECTORY MANOR arose out of the grant in 1250 by the king to the Abbot of Cîteaux, patron of the church, of the pleas of his men dwelling in lands of the fee of the church, and out of the chief mansion and inclosure made by the monks in Scarborough. (fn. 311) Bridlington Priory, successor of the Cistercians, had a manor here at the Dissolution. (fn. 312)

An estate called a 'manor' of Scarborough was the subject of conveyances from 1553 to 1695. (fn. 313)

In 1086 FALSGRAVE (Walesgrif, xi cent. Walsgrave, xii–xvi cent. Waldegrave, xiv cent. Walsgrave alias Falsgrave, xvii cent.) was land of the king, and with its berewick 'Nordfeld' was assessed at 15 carucates. Tosti held a manor here before the Conquest the value was then £56, and in 1086 30s. To the manor belonged the soke of Osgodby, Lebberston, Gristhorpe, 'Scagetorp,' 'Eterstorp,' 'Rodebestorp,' Filey, Burton, Depedale, West Ayton, Newton, Preston, Hutton, Marton, Wykeham, Ruston, 'Tornelai,' Stainton, Burniston, Scalby and Cloughton, in all 84 carucates of land, 1½ carucates in Stemanesbi (Newby), and 2 carucates in Hackness, Suffield and Everley. (fn. 314) The soke of Falsgrave was still mentioned in 1190. (fn. 315) The manor was granted to the burgesses of Scarborough (q.v.) in fee farm in 1256 and still belongs to them. In 1351 Edward III granted the warden and scholars of King's Hall, Cambridge, in fee £22 11s. of the farm. (fn. 316) The £42 11s. afterwards paid by Scarborough to Trinity College, Cambridge, was confirmed to that foundation by Henry VIII. (fn. 317)

Churches

The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN stands almost on the summit of the ridge between the north and south bays and a short distance to the west of the castle barbican. The building now consists of the nave with two aisles on the north and an aisle and four chapels on the south, two western towers, a south transept and a central tower. The quire with its aisles is represented only by the ruined east end, and the north arm of the transept has disappeared.

The quire (90 ft. by 29 ft. 3 in., or with the aisles 57 ft. 3 in.) was reconstructed about the middle of the 15th century, but was seriously damaged later during the siege of the castle in 1644, and further ruined by the fall of the central tower in 1659. The jambs of the great east window with those of the south aisle window adjoining are yet standing to some height. The eastern responds of the two arcades are of typical 15th-century section, but much weathered by exposure. The south wall of the quire was still standing in 1736, and is shown on a MS. plan in the British Museum. (fn. 318) It was five bays long, the buttresses being chamfered off at the angles. A small doorway is shown in the third bay from the east, and the internal projections seem to imply an arch across the aisle opposite each pier. The present tower, built in 1669, occupies the site of the original central tower. It is a plain building three stages high with a modern five-light window inserted in the east wall. The belfry stage has three windows to the north and south, and one only to the east and west. The tower is finished with an embattled parapet and was formerly crowned by a wooden cupola of good design, but this feature has been removed within recent years.

The nave (total internal length with the tower 123 ft. 2 in., total width with the three aisles 74 ft.) is a particularly interesting example of late 12th and early 13th-century work. There is little doubt that the original Romanesque church possessed an aisleless nave, but of this there are no apparent traces now remaining. The reconstruction of this part of the church was begun about 1180, when the existing west front was built outside the limits of the earlier nave. The aisle walls were built at the same time, all this work being carried out without interference with the pre-existing building. The west front was flanked by two towers having flat clasping buttresses at the angles and narrow lancet window openings. At present only the first stage of each remains standing, but originally they were carried up and finished with spires, probably of timber. The arches opening to the nave and aisles are pointed and spring from responds and piers of clustered shafts, each finished with a bell capital and, where original, a square abacus. All the work at the west end has suffered from restoration (especially the south-west tower), and the main gable between the towers, with its three lancets and wheel window above, is entirely modern. It was probably originally the intention to connect the two towers by a lofty arch towards the east, and for this purpose the inner shafts of the tower piers are carried right up the walls, finishing at the roof plate. The west door, much restored, has a gabled pediment above and is a 14th-century insertion. Little else remains of the 12th-century work but a portion of the south aisle wall with its chamfered string-course immediately to the east of the south door and the north respond of the arch between the south aisle and the transept.

Plan of Scarborough Church

The construction of the nave arcades appears to have begun about 1200. It is probable that the existing nave walls were retained and the piers and arches constructed piecemeal beneath them. This would largely explain the fact that the piers of the north arcade are not placed centrally beneath the wall they carry, the 13th-century masons having taken no account of the serious inclination inwards of the old wall. The five piers on the north side and the two eastern piers on the south are all of the same type—cylindrical, with moulded capitals and bases —and the arches above are formed of three recessed and chamfered orders. The joining up of the north arcade and the rebuilt west front is very clumsy, owing to an error in setting out, and the western bay on this side is considerably narrower than its fellows. The building of the south arcade started at the east end, the process employed on the north side being repeated here as far as two and a half bays from the east and finishing at the crown of the arch. The work was then taken up by a man of a newer school, who with little or no interval of time began at the west end and built the three and a half bays adjoining the south-west tower. The wall here is considerably thinner than that of the eastern half, and the meeting of the two thicknesses at the point of the arch is very noticeable. The three piers in the later western portion are each of different type, the western having three attached shafts keeled on the outer edges, with an octagonal moulded capital. The second pier is a plain octagon, and the third has a central pier with six detached shafts disposed round it, banded half-way up and finished with small bell capitals beneath a large circular capital to the whole pier. The varying dates of this rebuilding are probably responsible for the unusual crookedness of the line of the arcade.

The walls above the nave arcades may in part be the original 12th-century work, but the clearstory has been entirely remodelled early in the 13th century. The windows are plain lancets with small side shafts and hood mouldings carried along the wall as a string-course. The bays are divided by stone shafts supporting the roof principals and springing from moulded corbels at the intersections of the nave arches. The fact that the columns of the two arcades are not opposite one another has interfered with this arrangement at the west end, and here the two western shafts on the south side are stopped at the sills of the clearstory windows. Externally the nave clearstory is divided by flat pilaster buttresses, possibly of 12th-century date.

The next alteration to the church in point of date was the erection of the transept, which took place about 1350. Only the southern arm is now standing. It is used as a vestry and projects 34 ft. 9 in. from the face of the tower. The diagonal buttresses are carried up and finished with gabled and crocketed pinnacles. The five-light south window is original and has flowing tracery of the honeycomb type. A smaller four-light window on the east is a 15thcentury insertion with modern tracery. In the south wall of this transept are two tomb recesses under deeply moulded arches, the western containing a stone coffin. Further east is a piscina with a shelf above. The north transept was of similar size and character, and its western wall with the angle buttress remained until the reconstruction of the outer nave aisle (1848–50). The arch opening from this transept to the inner nave aisle still remains, fitted with a modern window and entirely concealed by the organ. At the same date as the building of the transept the western arch of the crossing was reconstructed.

Towards the close of the 14th century the south aisle wall of the nave was taken down and a series of four chapels and a porch constructed outside it. The three eastern chapels correspond in width to the nave bays and are divided from one another by massive walls opposite the nave piers, with which they are connected by stone arches sprung transversely across the aisle and clumsily fitted on to the capitals. The three chapels are each lighted by a threelight window with modern tracery of good 14thcentury type, and each contains an arched tomb recess and a piscina in the south wall. The piscina in the eastern chapel has the remains of a richly carved canopy, those in the other two chapels having plain trefoiled heads. The fourth or western chapel (commonly called St. Mary's) has more than double the projection of the other three and is also considerably wider. It is otherwise similar in character and has a modern four-light window. All four chapels are roofed with pointed barrel vaults of stone resting on massive parallel chamfered ribs spaced about a foot apart. Immediately on this vault rests the roof of heavy stone slabs fitted together after the fashion common in Scotland in the 15th century. Immediately to the west of the last of these chapels stands the south porch, a building of about the same date and two stories high. The porch itself has a plain barrel vault, and the room over, approached by a modern stair, has an opening into the south nave aisle. During the latter part of the same century (the 14th) the north aisle wall was also removed and a broad outer aisle erected conterminous with the old nave. It is separated from the inner aisle by an arcade of four bays resting on octagonal piers with moulded capitals with deep hollows enriched with a series of grotesque figure carvings. The western respond bears three shields charged respectively with a fesse between three bears (?), a plain cross, a merchant's mark. The aisle itself (known as St. Nicholas aisle) was rebuilt in 1848–50 and presents no features of interest. The roof of the inner north aisle was necessarily raised on the erection of the outer arcade and now covers the clearstory windows, but the original weathering remains against the western tower.

The church is poor in monuments. There are, however, the matrices of two brasses in the outer north aisle and a small brass inscription under the north-west tower to Daniel Foord, 1682. On the nave walls are about 200 small brass plates (mainly of the 18th century) removed from tombs in the churchyard. In a detached portion of the churchyard lying to the east are the grave and headstone of Anne Brontë, the authoress, who died in 1849.

The bells, eight in number, are all modern (1852).

The plate consists of a cup, 1638 (York), inscribed, 'The gift of Mr. Willm Thompson to St. Maries Church in Scar, who died Decembr ye first 1637' the cover appears to bear the York mark for 1672 a cup, 1672 (York) two flagons, 1720 (London), the gift of John Hungerford, 1720 a paten, 1718 (London), bought 1720 a paten, 1722 (London), the gift of Timothy Fysh, 1722 two cups and two patens, 1883.

The registers previous to 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms 1672 to 1781 (ii) marriages 1689 to 1754 (iii) burials 1689 to 1796 (iv) marriages 1754 to 1766 (v) burials 1779 to 1796 (this is apparently the original of the later entries in vol. iii) (vi) marriages 1779 to 1812 (vii) burials 1797 to 1812.

CHRIST CHURCH, Vernon Place, is a chapel of ease to the parish church and was built in or about 1826–8, (fn. 319) the chancel being added in 1873. It consists of a nave with aisles of six bays and north, south and west galleries, an apsidal chancel and a western tower. The style employed is Gothic of the early 13th century. In the tower is a bell of 1674, brought from St. Mary.

The mission chapel of ST. PAUL, in Regent Street, is a small building erected in 1879. It contains a good Jacobean communion table brought from St. Mary.

The mission chapel of ST. JOHN, in St. Sepulchre Street, built in 1884, is an aisled building of red brick and stone, with an unfinished tower.

The church of ST. THOMAS, in East Sandgate, was built in 1840, and is a rectangular building of red brick and stone in the style of 15th-century Gothic. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the vicar of Scarborough.

The church of ST. MARTIN ON THE HILL, designed by G. F. Bodley, R.A., in 1863, is a large stone church consisting of a nave with aisles, chancel with north and south chapels, a tower on the north side of the nave and a western narthex. The style employed is 13th-century Gothic. It contains a triptych reredos of oak, with carved centrepiece and painted wings. Between the chancel and the nave is a handsome oak rood screen and loft with figures of the Virgin and St. John. The north chapel is also richly decorated with a wrought-iron screen, carved oak reredos and a painted and gilt roof. The square dark marble font is in the style of the 12th century. The living is a vicarage in the gift of trustees.

The mission chapel of ST. MICHAEL WHEATCROFT is a small red brick and stone building erected in 1879, with a bellcote containing one bell at the west end.

The church of ALL SAINTS, Falsgrave, was built in 1868 from the designs of G. F. Bodley, R.A. It is a building of red brick and stone in the 14th-century Gothic style, consisting of a chancel with south organ chamber and nave with south aisle of five bays. The oak rood screen has eleven bays with traceried heads and a loft. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the Archbishop of York and others.

The church of THE HOLY TRINITY, Westbourne Grove, was built in 1879 from the designs of Ewan Christian. It is a large building in the style of the early 13th century and consists of a nave of four bays with cylindrical columns and side aisles, a quire of one bay with a semicircular apse lighted by seven lancet windows and a tower at the west end of the north aisle. The living is a vicarage in the gift of trustees.

The church of ST. JAMES, Seamer Road, was built in 1885 and enlarged and consecrated in 1894. It is a small building of red brick and stone, consisting of chancel, nave with aisles and western narthex, and a brick bellcote surmounted by a wooden spirelet on the south side of the quire. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the archbishop.

The church of ST. SAVIOUR, Gladstone Road, was begun in 1902, and is built of red brick and stone. It consists of a chancel and nave with south aisle and chapel, with stone piers and arches. The style is 14th-century Gothic. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the archbishop.

Advowson

The church of St. Mary was of royal patronage (fn. 320) until Richard I before 1189 granted it to the Abbot and convent of Cîteaux with all its chapels and appurtenances, including the chapel in the castle, and tithes of fish, especially of the fishery called 'Doguedraue'—i.e., the Dogger Bank. No one else was to set up a chapel or altar in the parish. (fn. 321) The Prior of Bridlington unsuccessfully claimed the advowson in 1279. (fn. 322) In 1407 Henry IV granted the Cistercians leave to convey the advowson of the church and chapels and the rectory to the Prior and convent of Bridlington. (fn. 323) When, however, Henry seized all alien priories he resumed possession of this church and granted it to Bridlington Priory in February 1413–14 for as long as it should be in his hands. (fn. 324) Henry V in 1421 confirmed the same in perpetual alms on condition that the canons accounted for profit above 100s., and Henry VI in February 1441–2 released all profits. (fn. 325) The priory held the church until its dissolution. (fn. 326) In March 1538–9 the advowson was granted in tail to Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, (fn. 327) whose last surviving son died unmarried in 1551. (fn. 328) In 1558 it was granted to the Archbishop of York and his successors, (fn. 329) but must have been surrendered. After other leases (fn. 330) it was granted in 1592 to John Awdley and others for three lives. (fn. 331) William Lord Monteagle, Grey Lord Chandos and Anne his wife and Sir John Egerton and Frances his wife conveyed it to the king in 1608, (fn. 332) and Henry Earl of Huntingdon and Elizabeth his wife made a similar conveyance. (fn. 333) The rectory and church were granted in 1613 to the 'fishing grantees' Francis Morrice and Francis Phillipps in fee (fn. 334) by them it was probably conveyed to the Egertons, afterwards Earls of Bridgewater, to whom it soon came. The earls presented in 1630 and 1690. (fn. 335) The advowson then passed to the Thompsons of Humbleton and afterwards to the Lords Hotham, who presented (fn. 336) from 1708 to 1880, when the advowson was transferred to the Archbishops of York. (fn. 337)

In 1380 Robert Galoun had leave to endow a chantry of St. James in the parish church for his good estate and the souls of himself and others, to sing mass at the altar of St. James, to help with service and to keep an obit once a year. (fn. 338) Some of its possessions were granted to Francis Morrice and others in 1613–14. (fn. 339)

The chantry of our Lady was founded in 1390 and 1396–7 by the bailiffs and commonalty at the altar of St. Mary, to pray for their souls, help in the service, make an obit for Henry Rudston, and repair a bede-house there at his charge. (fn. 340)

In 1380 Robert de Rillington had licence to found the chantry of St. Stephen in the parish church, to pray for the souls of persons named and to help with services. (fn. 341)

In 1390 Agnes Burn had leave to grant tenements to a chaplain to celebrate service at the altar of St. Nicholas in the parish church for her good estate and the souls of certain folk. (fn. 342) The aisle of St. Nicholas is mentioned in 1503, (fn. 343) that of Corpus Christi in 1500. (fn. 344) Peter Shilbottle in 1504–5 left 20s. for gilding the image of St. Peter in the parish church. (fn. 345) Chapels of St. Clement, Corpus Christi, St. Cross, St. Nicholas and St. Christopher in the parish church are referred to in Torre's MSS. (fn. 346)

Edward I inquired into the right of the Abbot of Cîteaux to present to the chapel of St. Mary in the castle, (fn. 347) and Edward II took it into his hands when he had the town. (fn. 348) Leland mentions it. (fn. 349)

Sir Robert Percehay, kt. (of Ryton), had licence to found the chantry of St. Mary Magdalene in the Charnel in 1394. (fn. 350) In 1396 John Duke of Lancaster granted to the chapel of the Charnel 6 marks yearly, (fn. 351) which, when his son Henry became king, was taken from the farm of the town. (fn. 352) Henry IV presented in 1401, (fn. 353) and in 1463 it was called the king's chantry, and said to have been founded by Richard II. (fn. 354) In 1535, however, the advowson of the 'Perceys chaunterie' was settled with the Percehays' manor of Ryton, (fn. 355) and at about this time its goods were taken away by William Percehay. (fn. 356) In Charnell Garth, a field outside Scarborough, many coffins and human remains have been found. (fn. 357)

The chapel of St. Sepulchre, consecrated in 1306, (fn. 358) was appurtenant to St. Mary's in 1428. (fn. 359) It was demolished in 1564. (fn. 360) On the east side of the upper end of St. Sepulchre Street Gothic arches are to be seen walled up in the dwellings. (fn. 361) St. Clement's Chapel, Falsgrave, (fn. 362) was appurtenant to St. Mary's in 1428, (fn. 363) and a bequest was made to the fabric in 1496–7. (fn. 364) It was granted by Elizabeth in 1566 as 'our little chapel' to Thomas Blackway and Francis Barker in fee, (fn. 365) and is no more heard of.

In 1864 skeletons were found in St. Helen's Square, and a field called St. Helen's Close, behind Westfield Terrace, (fn. 366) belonged to the Dean and Chapter of York. If there was ever a chapel of St. Helen it had disappeared by 1428, (fn. 367) and the same is the case with the supposititious chapel of St. John. (fn. 368)

In 1426 mention is made of the gilds of St. Clement, the Holy Trinity, St. Scytha, St. James, St. George, St. Nicholas, Corpus Christi, the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and All Saints. The gild of St. John the Baptist was in existence in the previous year. (fn. 369)

Charities

The municipal charities, whereof trustees were appointed, and a scheme established for their administration by an order of the Charity Commissioners dated 2 August 1904, comprise the following charities, viz.: Burgh's Hospital and Farrer's Hospital, the sites of which were sold and the proceeds invested in £50 19s. 2d. consols, and £78 13s. consols respectively North's Hospital, being four almshouses at Tollergate Robinson's Hospital, four almshouses in Long Westgate St. Thomas's Hospital, twelve almshouses in Hoxton Road, supposed to have been founded by Hugh de Bulmer, (fn. 370) temp. Henry III a hospital founded by the will of Thomas Sedman, 1714, consisting of fifteen almshouses in Cross Street, endowed with £400 Scarborough Corporation 3 per cent. stock, and an annuity of £1 paid out of the May Day charity mentioned below and finally, the Spinsters' Hospital, founded by Mrs. E. Clark by deed 1841, being seven almshouses, formerly in St. Thomas Street, but in 1911 rebuilt in St. Thomas Walk and endowed with £400 like Corporation stock, and £72 14s. 5d. India 3 per cent. stock. The several securities are held by the official trustees, who also hold a further sum of £100 Corporation stock, arising from the unexpended salary of the mayor, in trust for the various hospitals. In March 1907 there was a balance in hand of £126 15s. Kendall's Hospital consists of eight almshouses in St. Mary's Street, conveyed by Colonel John Kendall by deed of 1 February 1896 and endowed with £2,074 South Eastern Railway 4 per cent. preference stock with the official trustees. These almshouses are under a scheme of 1896 kept in repair by the income of the above-mentioned sums of consols belonging to Burgh and Farrer Hospitals.

The municipal charities' trustees also administer the charities of Sir John Lawson, 1665, Mrs. Conyers, and Alice Chambers, endowed with £160 Corporation stock, and the charity of William Benjamin Fowler, founded by will, proved at York 12 August 1872, for the benefit of poor women in the parish of Scarborough. The trust fund consists of £3,587 8s. 10d. consols with the official trustees, producing a yearly income of £89 13s. 8d., which in 1906 was distributed monthly in alms to widows and spinsters in sums of 3s. to each recipient and about £30 in coal is annually distributed to the deserving poor.

Thomas Sedman above mentioned also devised a piece of land, known as the Burr Causeway Close, adjoining the hospital founded by him, the rents thereof, subject to the payment of 20s. a year for repairs, to be distributed on 1 May at the door of St. Mary's Church among the poor frequenting the same. William Magginson in 1697 also devised a close adjoining the above, the rents thereof to be distributed among the poor annually on May Day. The lands, containing together 4 a. 2 r. 32 p., were in 1896 sold, and the proceeds invested in £925 18s. 6d. consols with the official trustees. The annual dividends, amounting to £23 2s. 8d., are distributed under the title of the May Day Charity by the churchwardens to the sick and poor of St. Mary's and St. Thomas's parishes, after deduction of 20s. for repairs of Sedman's Hospital above mentioned.

Endowments for Merchant Seamen.—The Merchant Seamen's Hospital, situated in Castle Road, and the Trinity House in St. Sepulchre Street, consist of thirty-six and thirty-one dwellings respectively for married and disabled seamen or their widows. In 1906 the trust funds consisted of £837 consols and £500 Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway stock, representing the legacies of William Solit, 1812,—Williamson, 1820, and the gift of Rachel R. Cross, 1887 also £375 consols, arising apparently from investment of surplus income. In addition to the dividends thereon, £76 2s. 6d. was then received in respect of rents, &c. The inmates of the Merchant Seamen's Hospital received 13s. each and of the Trinity Hospital 7s. 6d. each, £51 9s. 4d. was paid for repairs, salaries and sundries, and £250 consols was purchased out of surplus income, leaving a balance in the hands of the trustees of £166 17s. 2d. (fn. 371)

Wilson's Mariners' Asylum in Castle Road, founded by deeds of 1837 and 1852, consists of fourteen almshouses and gardens, and is endowed with £7,575 0s. 5d. consols arising under the founder's will, proved at York 18 November 1837. The official trustees hold the stock, as well as a sum of £248 10s. 3d. consols as a repair fund, producing together £195 11s. 6d. a year. In 1906 £153 was paid to the inmates.

Other charitable institutions.—Trott's Hospital: In 1697 Elisha Trott by will devised two tenements in Tanner Street for the use of two poor widows and 1 acre lying in Burton Dale for their maintenance. The land has been sold. The official trustees hold £589 9s. 5d. consols in trust for this charity, producing £14 14s. 6d. a year. An almshouse situated in Quay Street was founded by Cornelius Stubbs, who devised the same to the vicar and churchwardens.

Taylor's Free Dwellings erected in 1817 on land in Cook's Row, purchased with a legacy bequeathed by will of Joseph Taylor, dated 4 May 1810, were endowed with £800, which included a gift in 1839 by — Mennell. The trust funds are secured upon mortgage.

The Wheelhouse Free Almshouses in Dean Road consist of forty dwellings for the poor of Scarborough they were founded by George Wheelhouse by deed dated 6 January 1865 and by Mrs. Elizabeth Buckle. New trustees were appointed by order of the Charity Commissioners 12 February 1907.

The Royal Northern Sea Bathing Infirmary in Foreshore Road, for affording means for poor persons to reside at the seaside and have sea-bathing, was endowed by the will of Richard Welch Hollon, proved 1890, with £514 2s. 9d. consols with the official trustees. A Working Men's Temperance Hall was founded by deed 1867.

The Yorkshire Convalescent Home for ladies of limited income, founded by deed of 1875, was originally carried on at No. 20 Albion Road. These premises were sold in 1882, and premises known as St. Martin's Lodge were acquired for the purposes of the institution.

The Home for Orphan and Friendless Little Girls, situated in Park Street, Falsgrave, founded in 1882, was endowed by will of Miss Dorothy Mary Chambers, proved 20 September 1897, whereby the testator bequeathed her residuary estate upon trust to be invested and the income applied towards the general purposes of the institution. The trust fund consists of £969 North Eastern Railway stock. The girls are trained chiefly for domestic service.

Distributive charities.—In 1717 Richard Allatson gave to the poor 4 oxgangs of land at Weaverthorpeon-the-Wolds in the East Riding, in lieu of which on the inclosure in that parish 38 a. 0 r. 10 p. were allotted. The land is let at £40 a year, the net income being distributed amongst the poor by tickets of 1s. each for coals or provisions.

In 1810 Joseph Taylor by will, dated 4 May of that year, devised lands for providing the poor with coals. The land was sold in 1868 and 1870 and the proceeds invested in £1,655 6s. 4d. consols with the official trustees. The dividends, amounting to £41 7s. 8d., are duly distributed.

In 1825 Mrs. Eleanor Cockerill by her will, dated 16 August, bequeathed her residuary estate to trustees upon trust to invest the same and pay the income to the vicar and churchwardens for distribution every Christmas amongst poor widows, inhabitants of Scarborough. The amount of the residue was invested in £1,684 4s. 2d. Reduced Stock, now New Consols, producing £42 2s. a year, which in 1906 was distributed to 359 poor widows in sums varying from 1s. to 4s. 6d. according to age. The stock is standing in the bank books in the names of the persons appointed for the purpose by the Charity Commissioners in 1867.

In 1864 Mary Ann Fryer, by will dated 28 May, bequeathed £387 14s. consols (with the official trustees), the dividends, amounting to £9 13s. 8d., to be applied by the vicar and churchwardens of St. Mary's Church in the distribution of coals and blankets among deserving poor of Scarborough parish. The same donor also bequeathed £385 1s. 9d. consols (with the official trustees), the dividends, amounting to £9 12s. 4d., to be applied by the trustees in the distribution of coals and materials for clothing amongst necessitous widows and families of deceased fishermen at Scarborough.

Ecclesiastical charities.—St. Mary's Church lands, appropriated by the corporation for the repairs of the church, have from time to time been sold and the proceeds invested in Government stock. The official trustees in 1907 held £14,561 1s. 3d. India 3 per cent. stock, producing an annual income of £436 16s. 8d. In 1899 a sum of £900 was set aside with the official trustees to be accumulated at compound interest until a sum was produced to replace that of £647 7s. 8d. stock, which was sold out to defray the cost of the enlargement of the quire and providing new stalls. This fund amounted in January 1908 to £1,151 7s. 8d. consols. A sum of £2 10s. a year is also received by the trustees as an easement. By an order of the Charity Commissioners, dated 20 February 1872, the vicar and churchwardens jointly with others were appointed trustees and a scheme established for the administration of the trust.

Nonconformist charities. — The Congregational church, formerly the Old Meeting House, is endowed with a sum of £1,190, on mortgage at 4 per cent. this sum represents gifts by — Collier, — Burns, and — Kirk, and includes £100 left by Georgiana May Kidd by will proved 1890. The income is applied towards the maintenance of the officiating minister and for church purposes.

In 1873 Mrs. Ann Morley, by will proved 25 February 1873, left £152 17s. 9d. consols (held by the official trustees), one moiety of the interest to be given to the sick and indigent poor of the Jubilee Chapel in connexion with the Primitive Methodists and the other moiety for the Sunday school of the same chapel and Band of Hope.

Wesleyan educational charity.—See below.

Educational charities.—For the church or grammar school see article on schools. (fn. 372) The official trustees hold under the title of the United Scholarships Foundation the sums of £484 9s. 2d. consols and £4,609 9s. 3d. local loans 3 per cent. stock, which were determined by an order, dated 6 November 1903, made under the Board of Education Act, 1899, to be applicable for educational purposes. The dividends, amounting to £150 7s. 8d. a year, are applied subject to the provisions of the scheme under the Endowed Schools Act, 17 May 1888.

The Amicable Society Schools, founded 1798, were endowed with a close known as Cockhill Close, and a small close adjoining, containing together 7 acres or thereabouts. The land was sold in 1877, and the proceeds invested in consols, which in 1888 were sold out and reinvested in £1,816 7s. 1d. Bank stock, augmented in 1895 by a sum of £405 6s. 3d. Bank stock, purchased with £1,350 belonging to the trust. The Bank stock, amounting to £2,221 13s. 4d., is held by the official trustees, and produces an income of £210 5s. 6d. a year, which with two rent-charges of 10s. each charged on two houses in St. Nicholas Cliff is applied in educating and clothing the scholars.

The Wesleyan educational charity consists of £647 10s. 4d. consols, with the official trustees, arising from the sale of the trust property of the Wesleyan school, founded by deed 1856. The annual income of £16 3s. 8d. is applied in pursuance of a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 9 October 1891.

The Taylor educational foundation, arising under the will of Joseph Taylor, 1810, was under an order, dated 29 November 1904, made under the Board of Education Act, 1899, determined to consist of £100 5 per cent. preference stock of the Scarborough Gas Company and a sum of £35 14s. 10d. cash.

The Scarborough National schools were erected in 1837, and were endowed in that year by the Rt. Hon. Charles Duncombe, Lord Feversham, with £300, now represented by £325 13s. consols held by the official trustees upon the trust of a deed poll dated 2 February 1857.

In 1893 George Peckitt Dale by will bequeathed a legacy represented by £267 17s. 2d. consols, with the official trustees, the income to be applied in prizes for essays by school children in connexion with the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.


Where Have All The Mallas Gone?: The Descendants of the Mallas

It is the third day after Dashain and a gathering of Malla family members waits inside the Taleju Bhawani temple of Bhaktapur. This Goddess has been the patron deity of the ruling families since the time of the Malla kings. The Mallas gathered today are direct descendants of the Malla rulers and have come to receive &lsquotika&rsquo from the Royal priest. They come here during all the major festivals and rights of passage ceremonies. It was here within the walls of the Royal Palace that the three Malla kings of the valley made their last stand against the invading Gorkhali army. The bullet holes on the statues of Saraswati and Laxmi that flank the temple&rsquos doorway are a reminder of the last battle that brought an end to the long reign of the benevolent Mallas. It was 1768.

/> />Today, we are proud of our architectural heritage and are delighted to show visitors the grandeur of the three Durbar Squares, which are World Heritage Sites. They were all built during the Malla period. Besides these, there are many fabulous temples that owe their existence to the creative zeal of the Mallas. It was the Mallas who transformed a tiny village into a well organized and planned city which later became known as Bhaktapur. Art, music, drama and poetry flourished under their patronage and some kings are even known for their hand in literary works besides a bit of carpentry. The conduits that these kings constructed in the cities of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur still supply many of the citizens with a constant supply of drinking water. The water spouts that we come across everywhere we go, stand testimony to the organized society that the Mallas had built in the valley. You may stumble upon a water spout that has run dry it is only because modern building practices have destroyed the underground conduits and cut off the supply of fresh water. The Raj Kulo (Royal or main Conduit) that supplies Patan&rsquos stone water spouts with water, is presently being renovated.

The caste system was introduced, whereby people of each caste had a duty to perform in society. 238 years since the fall of the Mallas, the Newar society still retains the system. There are the priestly classes, the butchers, sweepers, etc. In Bhaktapur, many citizens still live in their consigned areas with the lower castes living in the outskirts and the upper classes in the central area. Festivals accompanied by drama, was an integral part of the peoples&rsquo lives. The performances took place on the dabalis (brick platforms) that can be seen around the three cities of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur. Art and entertainment was a way of life during the Malla period. Music and dance groups were supported by royal decree and were given land as a means of fund raising. Many festivals such as the Gai Jatra (Cow Festival) and the cult of the Kumari were the creations of Malla kings. The Living Goddess Kumari is still a powerful figure in Nepali society.

&ldquoAfter the defeat of the Malla Kings, their descendents left the valley and settled in different districts of Nepal. As an endeavor to develop a mutual relationship between the Malla descendents and to keep alive the rich traditions of our forefathers, we formed the foundation and have been regularly organizing various kinds of activities.&rdquo remarks Devendra Kumar Malla, Vice President of the Malla (Pradhananga) Foundation and the writer of the book, &lsquoBhaktapur&rsquos King Bhuwan Malla&rsquos descendents.&rsquo

History

The literal meaning of &ldquoMalla&rdquo in Sanskrit is &ldquowrestler&rdquo. &ldquoThe Mallas as a class of people find a place in several ancient treatises with identical heroic tradition.&rdquo states D.R.Regmi in his book, &lsquoMedieval Nepal&rsquo. It is believed that Arideva&rsquos father was so impressed by his ability as a wrestler that he conferred on him the title of &lsquoMalla&rsquo and with his reign in the Nepal valley during the twelfth century began a new dynasty.

Malla Kings of Importance
Jayasthithi Malla (1379-1424)
It is said that after Jayasthithi Malla&rsquos rise to power as the husband of Rajalladevi (the daughter of the prevailing ruler), Nepal valley experienced a sustained effort in reorganizing the shattered and chaotic kingdom. He is remembered for the social organization he set up by dividing the people into various caste groups according to their professions. &ldquoJayasthithi Malla no doubt occupies a high place in history as the founder of the dynasty, which ruled Nepal for nearly four hundred years. He emerged out of obscurity to occupy the throne of the kingdom of Nepal this was no mean achievement and speaks of high qualities of head and heart,&rdquo states Regmi in &lsquoMedieval Nepal&rsquo. A lover of poetry and drama, he always encouraged learned men. Many important Sanskrit mythical books were translated into Newari and the feeling of &lsquoreligious unity&rsquo flourished during his rule.

Yakshya Malla (1438-1491)

The entire Kathmandu valley was once a single kingdom ruled by Yakshya Malla, a powerful warrior king responsible for immensely expanding the Malla kingdom. He built the Dattatreya and Pashupati temples of Bhaktapur. Ruling from this city, he was known to visit Pashupatinath in Kathmandu every day. It is said that one day, when floods prevented him from crossing the Bagmati river, he could not reach Kathmandu. As he could not pay homage to Pashupati on this day, he spent a sleepless night. Lord Shiva appeared to him in his dream and told him to build another Pashupati temple in Bhaktapur. He built one within the Durbar Square. It was renovated some years ago. Yakshya also invited four South Indian Bhatta Brahmins to take charge of the pujas within the Pashupati temple of Kathmandu. Their descendants are still the official priests in the Hindu kingdom&rsquos holiest shrine.

Bhupatindra Malla (1696-1722)

When strolling through the squares of Bhaktapur, one name that keeps cropping up is that of Bhupatindra Malla. This multitalented ruler of Bhaktapur is responsible for some of the most fascinating architecural heritages of the city. He is also fondly remembered for his vast contribution in the field of art and literature. The most well known and prominent structures in the city are his creations such as the five-storied pagoda, Nyatopola Temple, Pachpanna Jhyal Durbar (55 windowed palace) and his own statue (in front of the Golden gate).The frescoes and the intricate woodcarvings of the Pachhpanna Jyale Durbar are a source of marvel and they are now being renovated. Also a dramatist, he has written more than half a dozen literary works, which includes Maithili literature. It is believed that his special inclination towards performing arts affected the construction of his palaces. He built dabalis (a platform where dramas, dances etc. were performed) in the squares so that he could enjoy the wonderful performances from his palace window. According to scholar, Perci Brown, &ldquoBhupatindra Malla&rsquos works are a fine example of the interblend of knowledge, intellect and religion.&rdquo It is also believed that the rivalry among the three kings of the valley led to a proliferation of architectural works. All three Durbar Squares have statues of kings on a giant stone pillar.

The Fall of the Mallas
Before his death, Yakshya Malla divided his territory among his sons into three kingdoms-Kantipur(Kathmandu), Patan and Bhaktapur. Thus began the rivalry and bitter fueds which were sometimes settled with outside help. The age old wisdom, &ldquoUnited we stand, devided we fall&rdquo was ignored. King Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of Gorkha, a kingdom to the north of Kathmandu, stood upon the Chandragiri hills overlooking the valley, and declared he would become the ruler of all the valley. It was many years before he attacked the valley. It is said he arrived at the gates of Kantipur when the citizens were lost in the revelry of the Indra Jatra Festival. His army met no resistance and the city became his when the Living Goddess Kumari, who is taken out on a chariot procession during this festival, blessed him with a tika. In the next few years, Lalitpur (Patan)and eventually Bhaktapur fell into his hands and the four hundred year reign of the Mallas was over.

Descendents of the Mallas
Legend has it that when Ranajit Malla, the last Malla ruler of Bhaktapur accepted defeat against the Shah rulers, he silently took off his crown and with eyes full of tears dropped the crown from a window of his palace. Then, reciting a sorrowful hymn, he bade goodbye to his kingdom and walked towards Kashi (Varanasi in India). He then spent the rest of his life in prayer and devotion to Lord Shiva.

The most significant history books of the world show that the tales of the defeated are left unwritten, while those of the victorious are glorified. History is full of heroic tales of conquests. Someone&rsquos defeat is another man&rsquos victory. The tales of the conquering heroes are inscribed and acclaimed in the history pages, and the painful tales of the losers are only told through folk music and dances. Kathmandu valley until today has a few folk singers whose songs relate the history of the Malla rulers.

After the defeat, the descendents of the Malla rulers found themselve in chaos as rampant bloodbaths followed. It is believed that most of the descendents of the rulers of Kathmandu and Patan were killed. Perhaps it is for this reason that until today, many Mallas have disassociated themselves from their lineage. Many Mallas changed their family name to avoid persecution. But, since Ranajit Malla was an intimate friend of Prithvi Narayan Shah, it is said that he was lenient towards Bhaktapur.

The Malla descendents have been using surnames like Pradhananga and Rajalwat. It is known that Pradhananga was a respected title given by the Malla rulers as recognition of their high post in the durbar. According to Luciano Petech, Medieval History of Nepal, &ldquoThe rulers forbade the use of the title &lsquoMalla&rsquo substituting &lsquoRajalwat&rsquo for it.&rdquo Regardless of this stipulation, the descendents along with the other Newar communities preserved the traditions, culture and skills of the Malla period wherever they went.

Taleju Bhawani,
the Patron deity of the Mallas

Taleju Bhawani, the patron deity of the royal families of Nepal is found in all three palaces built during the Malla period in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Patan. The Malla descendents till date continue to go to the Taleju temple of Bhaktapur on different occasions to conduct various rituals but this practice is not prevalent in the Taleju temples of Katmandu and Patan. Taleju Bhawani is still their family deity.

The main Taleju temple of Bhaktapur is out of bounds for common people. Only male descendents of Mallas are allowed in the inner sanctum, which is well hidden in the upper floor of the two storied temple. Here the three main priests, Rajopadhaya, Joshi and Karmacharya officiate. The Mallas have to prove their lineage from the Malla rulers to these priests. Before entering, the men are required to take a religious oath that anything seen inside the temple will remain strictly secret. The Taleju temples are known for tantric practices.

Another interesting ritual that takes place in the temple is the rice feeding ceremony of a Malla son. Here again, the father of the newly born son needs to prove his family association. The child dressed in special attire is carried to the temple premises by his maternal uncle, followed by a procession consisting of the family members. Then, one of the priests takes the child towards the main temple. Signifying the birth of the royal prince, various rituals are performed inside the main temple. Lastly the child&rsquos name is recorded in the books containing the names of other Malla descendents. Likewise, during the Dashain festival, all Malla families gather in the temple to receive &lsquotika&rsquo from the high priest. In different festivals like Indrajatra and Nawami (the ninth day of Dashain) rituals are regularly performed by members of the Malla families. The Malla rulers were followers of tantrism and therefore the rituals are secret as well as complex. Some involve immense physical strain, which is one of the reasons why many Malla descendents have left the tradition. &ldquoThe Taleju Bhawani is our religious and cultural pillar. It is our privileged opportunity to serve and worship our family deity,&rdquo says a Malla descendent, who has been religiously observing every family ritual.


Contents

The water is sourced from rainfall on the nearby Mendip Hills, which then percolates down through limestone aquifers to a depth of between 2,700 and 4,300 metres (8,900 and 14,100 ft). Geothermal energy raises the water temperature here to between 69 and 96 °C (156.2 and 204.8 °F). Under pressure, the heated water rises along fissures and faults in the limestone, until it bubbles up from the ground into the baths. This process is similar to an enhanced geothermal system, which also makes use of the high pressures and temperatures below the earth's crust. Hot water at a temperature of 46 °C (114.8 °F) rises here at the rate of 1,170,000 litres (257,364 imp gal) every day, [3] from a geological fault (the Pennyquick fault). In 1982 a new spa water bore-hole was sunk, providing a clean and safe supply of spa water for drinking in the Pump Room. [4]

Water quality Edit

Bath was charged with responsibility for the hot springs in a Royal Charter of 1591 granted by Elizabeth I. This duty has now passed to Bath and North East Somerset Council, who monitor pressure, temperature and flow rates. The thermal waters contain sodium, calcium, chloride and sulphate ions in high concentrations. [5]

The Roman Baths are no longer used for bathing. In October 1978, a young girl swimming in the restored Roman Bath with the Bath Dolphins, a local swimming club, contracted meningitis and died, [6] leading to the closure of the bath for several years. [7] Tests showed Naegleria fowleri, a deadly pathogen, in the water. [8] The newly constructed Thermae Bath Spa nearby, and the refurbished Cross Bath, allow modern-day bathers to experience the waters via a series of more recently drilled boreholes.

Archaeological evidence indicates that the site of the baths may have been a centre of worship used by Celts [10] the springs were dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his largely fictional Historia Regum Britanniae describes how the spring was discovered by the pre-Roman British king Bladud who built the baths there. [11] Early in the 18th century Geoffrey's obscure legend was given great prominence as a royal endorsement of the waters' qualities, with the embellishment that the spring had cured Bladud and his herd of pigs of leprosy through wallowing in the warm mud. [12]

Roman Britain Edit

The name Suliis continued to be used after the Roman invasion, leading to the town's Roman name of Aquae Sulis ("the waters of Sulis"). The temple was constructed in 60–70 AD and the bathing complex was gradually built up over the next 300 years. [13] During the Roman occupation of Britain, and possibly on the instructions of Emperor Claudius, [14] engineers drove oak piles to provide a stable foundation into the mud and surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead. In the 2nd century it was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted building, [10] and included the caldarium (hot bath), tepidarium (lukewarm bath), and frigidarium (cold bath). [15] After the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the first decade of the 5th century, these fell into disrepair and were eventually lost due to silting up, [16] and flooding. [17] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle suggests the original Roman baths were destroyed in the 6th century. [18]

About 130 curse tablets have been found. Many of the curses are related to thefts of clothes whilst the victim was bathing. [19]

Post-Roman use Edit

The baths have been modified on several occasions, including the 12th century, when John of Tours built a curative bath over the King's Spring reservoir, and the 16th century, when the city corporation built a new bath (Queen's Bath) to the south of the spring. [20] The court physician Théodore de Mayerne bathed Anne of Denmark in the King's Bath on 19 May 1613. [21] She returned in August 1615. [22] Anne of Denmark was surprised by a flame caused by natural gas in King's Bath, and thereafter used the New Bath or Queen's Bath where a column with a crown and the inscription "Anna Regnum Sacrum" was added in her honour. [23]

The spring is now housed in 18th-century buildings, designed by architects John Wood, the Elder and John Wood, the Younger, father and son. Visitors drank the waters in the Grand Pump Room, a neo-classical salon which remains in use, both for taking the waters and for social functions. Victorian expansion of the baths complex followed the neo-classical tradition established by the Woods. In 1810 the hot springs failed and William Smith opened up the Hot Bath Spring to the bottom, where he found that the spring had not failed but had flowed into a new channel. Smith restored the water to its original course. [24]

The visitor entrance is via an 1897 concert hall by J. M. Brydon. It is an eastward continuation of the Grand Pump Room, with a glass-domed centre and single-storey radiused corner. [25] The Grand Pump Room was begun in 1789 by Thomas Baldwin. He resigned in 1791 and John Palmer continued the scheme through to completion in 1799. [20] The elevation on to Abbey Church Yard has a centre piece of four engaged Corinthian columns with entablatures and pediment. It has been designated by Historic England as a grade I listed building. [26] The north colonnade was also designed by Thomas Baldwin. [27] The south colonnade is similar but had an upper floor added in the late 19th century. [28] The museum and Queen's Bath including the "Bridge" spanning York Street to the City Laundry were by Charles Edward Davis in 1889. It comprises a southward extension to the Grand Pump Room, within which some parts of the 17th-century Queen's Bath remain. [29]

The museum houses artefacts from the Roman period including objects that were thrown into the Sacred Spring, presumably as offerings to the goddess. These include more than 12,000 Denari coins, which is the largest collective votive deposit known from Britain. [30] A gilt bronze head of the goddess Sulis Minerva, which was discovered nearby in 1727, is displayed. [31] An audio guide is available in 12 languages.

The Bath Roman Temple stood on a podium more than two metres above the surrounding courtyard, approached by a flight of steps. On the approach there were four large, fluted Corinthian columns supporting a frieze and decorated pediment above. The pediment, parts of which are displayed in the museum, is the triangular ornamental section, 26 feet (7.9 m) wide and 8 feet (2.4 m) from the apex to the bottom, [32] above the pillars on the front of the building. It featured the powerful central image of a possible "Gorgon" head glowering down from a height of 15 metres (49 ft) on all who approached the temple. The great head itself has snakes entwined within its beard, wings above its ears, beetling brows and a heavy moustache [33] although there is some controversy about what this really represents, as Gorgons are usually female. [34] An alternative interpretation sees the central head as the image of a water god such as Oceanus, [35] and yet another as a Celtic sun god. [15] In early 2010 various stones on the pediment were conserved and rearranged. [36]

Also on display are the remains of the elaborate hypocaust heating system, which served the sweat rooms.

In 2016 planning permission was received for a new learning centre aimed at schoolchildren and linked to the baths by a tunnel. Funding is being sought from the Heritage Lottery Fund and, if successful, it is hoped the centre will open in 2019. [37] [38]

The late 19th century carvings of Roman Emperors and Governors of Roman Britain on the terrace overlooking the Great Bath are particularly susceptible to the effect of acid rain and are protected with a wash of a sacrificial shelter coat every few years. [39] Exhibits within the temple precincts are susceptible to warm air which had the effect of drawing corrosive salts out of the Roman stonework. To help reduce this, a new ventilation system was installed in 2006. [40]

In 2009 a grant of £90,000 was made to Bath and North East Somerset Council to contribute towards the cost of re-developing displays and improving access to the Roman Baths, [41] by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport/Wolfson Fund, which was established to promote improvements in Museums and Galleries in England. [42] Subsequent grants have funded further work on the exhibition design and layout by London-based specialist firm, Event Communications. [43] [44]


Watch the video: Διαρροή νερού σε κεντρικό αγωγό της ΔΕΥΑΕ στην Πτολεμαΐδα στην οδό Αλέξη Μινωτή (May 2022).