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USS Patterson (DD-36) fitting out, 1911

USS Patterson (DD-36) fitting out, 1911


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U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.


Library Articles of Interest

On Wednesday morning, September 9, 1942, the Imperial Japanese Navy submarine I-25 surfaced west of Cape Blanco and launched a small seaplane piloted by Chief Flying Officer Nobuo Fujita. Fujita flew southeast over the Oregon coast, dropping two incendiary bombs near Mount Emily, 10 miles northeast of Brookings.

After Fujita's bombing run on Mount Emily, the I-25 came under attack by U.S. Army Air Corps aircraft, forcing the submarine to seek refuge on the ocean floor off Port Orford. The American attacks were unsuccessful, and Fujita was able to launch an additional bombing sortie three weeks later, this time just north of Port Orford. Shortly after this sortie, the submarine sank the SS Camden, the SS Larry Doheny, and the Soviet (Russian) submarine L-16.

The Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine I-25

The I-25 was one of eleven Japanese submarines configured to carry a seaplane. The aircraft provided a unique reconnaissance capability, but could also carry two bombs. Although the plane-equipped submarines were primarily intended for reconnaissance and scouting missions, they were heavily armed and capable of surface and submerged attack.

The I-25 was the sixth boat of the B-1 type, I-15 class, built by Mitsubishi in Kobe, Japan, and completed in October 1941. The submarine was positioned off Pearl Harbor during the attack on December 7, but damage to the aircraft precluded it from conducting scouting missions for the attack.

The submarine displaced 2,584 tons submerged, with a length of 356 feet. Its twin diesel engines and two propeller shafts were capable of providing a cruising range of over 14,000 miles. The submarine carried a crew of 97 men, including a pilot and crewman for the seaplane.

Armament included 17 torpedoes and a 5.5 inch deck gun, as well as two 25mm antiaircraft guns. The seaplane was housed in a watertight hangar forward of the conning tower. The wings and floats were removed and the horizontal stabilizer folded up to fit in the hangar. Two launch rails extended from the hangar to the bow. A compressed-air catapult launched the reassembled plane. For recovery, the pilot landed on the surface, taxied to the submarine and was hoisted aboard.

The Yokosuka E14Y1, nicknamed "Glen," was powered by a 9-cylinder, 340-hp Hitachi Tempu 12-cylinder radial engine, capable of providing a maximum speed of about 150 mph, although speeds of 85 mph were more common. It could remain aloft for five hours with an operating radius of about 200 miles. The frame was constructed of metal and wood, with fabric-covered wing and tail surfaces. It weighed 3,500 pounds, had a wingspan of 36 feet, and carried a pilot and crewman.


The Glen could carry a bomb payload of 340 pounds, and was outfitted with a rear-facing 7.7mm machine gun for self defense. The aircfraft was disassmbled and stored in a small hangar. When needed, it was assembled and launched from rails with compressed air.

The pilot – Nobuo Fujita


Chief Flying Officer Nobuo Fujita was born in 1911 and was drafted into the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1932, becoming a pilot in 1933. Although he was on the I-25 during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, non-battle damage to the aircraft prevented him from participating in the operation.

Fujita came up with the idea of using a submarine-based seaplane to launch attacks on the U.S. mainland, as well the strategic Panama Canal. His idea was approved and the mission given to the I-25. His two attacks on Oregon in September 1942 constituted the first attacks on the continental United States since the British invasion in 1814 during the War of 1812. He remains the only enemy pilot to have ever dropped bombs on the continental United States.

Fujita continued reconnaissance flying until 1944, when he returned to Japan to train kamikaze pilots. After the war ended, Fujita opened a metal sales business in Japan. Twenty years after the attack, Fujita was invited to several towns on the southern Oregon Coast near the area of his air attacks.


The pilot presented the city of Brookings with a 350-year old samurai sword as a gesture of friendship. Fujita was also made an honorary citizen of Gold Beach. He died in 1997 some of his ashes were scattered on Mount Emily.

The I-25 missions to the U.S. west coast

According to records of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the U.S. Navy, the I-25 conducted three missions to the American west coast. These missions came after an extensive reconnaissance patrol during February and March 1942 in the south Pacific. The reconnaissance targets included Sydney, Melbourne, Hobart, Wellington, Auckland, and Fiji.

The I-25 was positioned off the coast of Hawaii during the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. After the attack, the submarine conducted a patrol of the U.S. west coast from San Francisco to the Columbia River. No other information is available on this mission.

The first operation on this mission to the west coast was a reconnaissance flight over Kodiak, Alaska on May 27. The intelligence derived from this flight was to support planning for a diversionary attack on Dutch Harbor. The attack was to divert American attention from the upcoming carrier attack against American positions on Midway island. So important was the expected information from the reconnaissance flights that a second I-15 class submarine -- the I-26, sailing with its hangar empty -- was positioned in the area to recover the aircraft should something happen to the I-25.

While moving south toward Washington, the submarine attacked the freighter SS Fort Camosun on June 20 with her deck guns the freighter survived.


Heading further south, on the night of June 21, the submarine fired 17 rounds from its deck gun at Fort Stevens - a coastal defense installation on the north coast of Oregon. The only reported damage was to the baseball backstop. However, the real impact was the alarm to the American public when it was reported that the Japanese Navy had attacked the American mainland.

On July 30, on its return to Japan from this mission, the I-25 is believed to have sunk the U.S. Navy submarine USS Grunion (SS-216) near Kiska in the Aleutian Islands. However, Japanese navy records indicate that the I-25 had returned to Yokosuka by July 27.

In the summer of 1942, the Japanese high command developed a plan to attack the dense forest in the Pacific Northwest. The Japanese hoped that a large forest fire would draw American attention to defense of the west coast and cause the U.S. Navy to reposition its Pacific fleet closer to the mainland. The I-25 was ordered to undertake this operation, and was provided with six incendiary bombs for the mission. So began a very successful patrol for the I-25. The submarine departed Yokosuka on August 15, 1942, and arrived off the Port Orford Heads on the Oregon coast by early September in bad weather.

By September 9, weather conditions had improved. The I-25 surfaced just before dawn and the Glen seaplane was assembled and readied for the attack. Fujita took off at sunrise and flew northeast toward the easily visible Cape Blanco lighthouse. After flying southeast for about 50 miles, Fujita dropped one of his two incendiary bombs on Mount Emily, releasing the second a few minutes later a several miles east of the first. The bad weather that had delayed his mission a few days earlier had saturated the woods, and rendered the bombs ineffective. Otherwise, the bombs could have started large forest fires.

After releasing the bombs, Fujita descended to low level and returned to the waiting submarine. A U.S. Army A-29 bomber aircraft on patrol from McChord Field in Tacoma spotted the submarine, now on the surface to recover Fujita’s aircraft. The A-29 attacked the submarine with several bombs, but only inflicted minor damage as the submarine dove to the relative safety of the ocean floor just west of Port Orford.

The captain of the I-25 mounted a second attempt to ignite a large fire in the Oregon forests. The submarine surfaced just after midnight on Tuesday, September 29, about 50 miles west of Cape Blanco. Although the entire west coast of Oregon was blacked out, the Cape Blanco lighthouse was still in operation. Using the light as a navigation beacon, Fujita flew east over the coast for about 90 minutes and dropped his bombs. Although Japanese Navy records indicate that Fujita observed flames on the ground after this attack, no traces of the attacks have ever been located. The only U.S. records of this attack were of an unidentified aircraft flying east of Port Orford.


The I-25 did not use its last two incendiary bombs, and reverted to torpedo attacks on American shipping. On Sunday, October 4, the submarine sank the freighter SS Camden off Coos Bay on the south Oregon coast one crewman was killed. The following Tuesday, the I-25 was successful again, this time sinking the tanker SS Larry Doheny off Cape Sebastian. Two crewmen and four U.S. Navy Armed Guards manning guns on the Doheny were killed in the attack.

The I-25 departed the Oregon coast a few days later. On October 11 while en route to its homeport of Yokosuka, the Japanese submarine attacked and sank the Soviet submarine L-16 while the Russians were in transit from Dutch Harbor, Alaska, to San Francisco. The captain of the I-25 believed he was attacking an American ship Japan and the Soviet Union were not at war at this time.

Later operations of the I-25

On May 18, 1943, the I-25 torpedoed and shelled the American tanker H.M. Storey in the south Pacific. The I-25 was again noted conducting aerial reconnaissance of Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides island chain.

The I-25’s luck had run out. On September 3, 1943, U.S. Navy warships sank the I-25 approximately 150 miles northeast of Espiritu Santo. Which American ship sank the I-25 remains unknown. Three destroyers - USS Ellet (DD-398), USS Patterson (DD-392) and USS Taylor (DD-468) were involved in the naval engagement that day.

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“Lords” of the Ring – Pre-Pearl Harbor

In my original post on this topic “Lords” of the Ring, I outlined my search for the answer to a question regarding a napkin ring that my Father-in-Law used. The ring was inscribed with his WWII ship commissioning date, its hull number and the position, “First Lieutenant.” Beneath the engraving, there are 8 names. The names fit very nicely with the order in which the officers either arrived on the Patterson and/or when they assumed the position of “First Lieutenant.” At the urging of a ship museum curator, I decided to do some research on these 8 men. As I mentioned in my previous post, many of these individuals had stellar Navy careers and other interesting life experiences. Here is a little bit about each one of those people who served pre-Pearl Harbor on the USS Patterson. (Updated this post on 5/24/2019 with link to picture of Patterson damage described below).

Halford A. Knoertzer

“Hal” Knoertzer was born in 1911 and graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1932. Before serving on the Patterson, he served on USS Colorado (BB-45), the USS Oglala (CM-4), and USS Saratoga (CV-3). In January of 1937, as a Lt(jg)., he transferred to the Patterson for fitting out and commissioning (September 22, 1937). He left the Patterson on June 23, 1938 for the Naval Academy after a promotion to Lt. In June of 1940, he transferred to the USS Upshur (DD-144), then in April of 1943 he assumed command of the USS McCalla (DD-488).

This set up an unlikely encounter with his old ship, the Patterson. On September 29, 1943 just before midnight, the McCalla, was engaged with Japanese barges north of Kolombangara Island (Solomon Islands). After several engagements with the barges, McCalla dodged a number of projectiles that landed close to the ship. Due to the engagements, McCalla was some distance from the main task group and was ordered to join up with the rest of the ships. At some point on her return to the task group, she experienced a steering casualty and when some of the smoke of the battle cleared it was evident that she was on a collision course with Knoertzer’s old ship, the Patterson. The Patterson attempted to avoid the collision but was struck by McCalla‘s bow just forward of the #1 gun turret. The bows of both ships were sheared off. The Patterson suffered 3 men killed and more than a dozen wounded in the collision (see photo of Patterson damage). The McCalla fared much better with only one injury. Clearly, this was not the way that Knoertzer wanted to have a reunion with his old ship. Both ships were outfitted with temporary bows and headed to dry dock for more intensive repair.

Knoertzer went on to command the USS Hunt (DD-674), the USS Henderson (DD-785) during WWII, and the USS Montague (AKA-98) during the Korean War.

His already distinguished career was further enhanced by the fact that he won two Silver Star Medals. Here is the citation for the first one:

Awarded for actions during the World War II

The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Silver Star to Commander Halford A. Knoertzer (NSN: 0-71356), United States Navy, for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action while in Command of a United States Destroyer, participating in the capture and occupation of Saipan, the First Battle of the Philippine Sea, 19 – 20 June 1944 the capture and occupation of Guam, the following raids: Palau-Yap-Ulithi 25 – 27 July 1944, Mindanao and Visayas 9 – 14 September 1944, Luzon 21 – 23 September 1944, Nansei Shoto and Formosa 6 – 14 October 1944, support raids against enemy installations in the Philippines 20 October to 27 November 1944, and the Second Battle of the Philippine Sea 24 – 25 October 1944. His ship maintained an outstanding record for providing gunfire protection for our heavy units against enemy air attacks particularly on 12, 13, and 14 October 1944, and for the rescue of twenty-two downed air crews. His courage and intrepidity in action was an inspiration to his men and were at all times in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

General Orders: Commander 2d Carrier Task Force Pacific: Serial 0995 (January 17, 1945)

Action Date: June 19 – 20, July 25 – 27, & September 1944

I have been unable to find the specific citation for the second Silver Star Award.

Knoertzer retired from the Navy in 1960 with 28 years service at the rank of Captain. He passed away in 1986.

William K. Ratliff

William entered the service in 1934 and graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1938. In his early years he served aboard the USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) before reporting for duty on the Patterson. He was on the Patterson during the Pearl Harbor attack the only one of the first 4 men on the napkin ring who came on board before Pearl Harbor and was still on board in December 1941.

Ratliff left the Patterson on February 5, 1942, for service on the USS Laffey (DD-459). During the Battle of Guadalcanal, November 13, 1942, the Laffey got into a firefight at point-blank range with several Japanese vessels including the battleship Hiei. The Laffey was hit by a 14in shell and a torpedo in the fantail. She exploded and sank quickly. Lt. Ratliff was wounded and evacuated for treatment. After recovery, Ratliff, now a Lt.Cdr, commanded the USS Swanson (DD-443) and then the USS Bache (DD-470). During the Korean War, Ratliff commanded the USS John W. Thomason (DD-760). After that, he held various command positions and retired at the rank of Captain.

Ratliff was cited numerous times for his valor and service. He earned 4 Bronze Star medals, three of which had the “V” device attached. He died in 2004 at the age of 88.

Jack H. Brandt (AKA John Henry Brandt)

Jack Brandt, whose actual name was John Henry Brandt was born in Washington state. Brandt was a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy in the class on 1935. According to the Annapolis yearbook “Lucky Bag”, he was sometimes called “Bugs” and had won a gold medal for prowess with small weapons. He was a Plankholder at the rank of Ensign on the USS Patterson when commissioned in 1937. I have been unable to pinpoint the exact time of his departure from the Patterson, but by early 1943 he was on the USS Chicago (CA-29) at the rank of Lt. On January 30, 1943, the Chicago came under heavy aircraft attack with torpedoes. Two hits damaged her severely and she was put in tow by the USS Louisville (CL/CA- 28) and then the USS Navajo (AT-64). The next afternoon, she sustained 4 more torpedo hits that sank her. As a result of his actions during the sinking of the Chicago, Brandt was awarded the Silver Star for valor. Here is the citation:

The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Silver Star to Lieutenant John Henry Brandt (NSN: 0-74826), United States Navy, for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action during an engagement with Japanese aircraft off Rennell Islands while serving on board the U.S.S. CHICAGO (CA-29) on 30 January 1943. Despite personal injuries to his side and back, including three broken ribs, received in an engagement the previous evening, Lieutenant Brandt gave valuable assistance in supervising the launching of floater nets and life rafts and in directing personnel overboard when the ship was abandoned and removed his life jacket and gave it to an injured man who had none, thereby necessitating that he enter the water in an injured condition and without a life jacket. His actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
General Orders: Commander South Pacific: Serial 00431 (February 22, 1943)

Action Date: January 30, 1943

Brandt commanded the USS Floyd B. Parks (DD-884) from May 10, 1946 – Oct 3, 1947 and the USS Compass Island (E-AG-153) from December 1958 – October 1959.

John Henry Brandt eventually retired from the Navy at the rank of Captain. He died in 1975.

Greer Assheton Duncan, Jr.

Greer Duncan graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1937. His father was also a graduate of Annapolis. He came aboard the Patterson sometime in 1938 and was already off of the Patterson by July, 1939 when he joined the crew of the USS Marblehead (CL-12). In Late 1939, Duncan was ordered to submarine school in New London and in November of 1940 he was aboard the submarine USS Bonita (SS-165). In 1942, he became the XO of the Bonita and in October of 1942, he arrived for duty on the USS Sunfish (SS-281). From August of 1943 until October of 1943, Duncan served as Captain of the USS S-23 (SS-128) and then became the XO of the USS Tullibee (SS-284) in December of 1943. On her 4th war patrol, the Tullibee launched two torpedoes from her bow tubes at a ship in a convoy. About two minutes after launching the torpedoes, the Tullibee experienced a violent explosion and sunk. There was only one survivor. After the war, it was determined that the Tullibee had been struck by her own torpedo that had run a circular course. Lt.Cdr. Duncan was awarded the Purple Heart medal posthumously.

In my next post, I will highlight the other 4 officers listed on the ring. All but one of them came on board after Pearl Harbor.


DDG 111 - U SS Spruance


July 2016


July 2016


Singapore - July 2016


Singapore - July 2016


July 2016


July 2016


June 2016


June 2016


Guadalcanal - May 2016


Tonga - May 2016


Tonga - May 2016


Pearl Harbor, Hawaii - April 2016


April 2016


April 2016


April 2016


San Diego, California - April 2016


San Diego, California - April 2016


San Diego, California - April 2016


USS Spruance fires her Mk-45 Mod.4 5"/62 gun - November 2015


October 2015


July 2014


Pearl Harbor, Hawaii - July 2014


Pearl Harbor, Hawaii - July 2014


San Diego, California - April 2014


San Diego, California - April 2014


San Diego, California - April 2014


San Diego, California - April 2014


Yokosuka, Japan - December 2013


Yokosuka, Japan - November 2013


San Diego, California - October 2013


October 2013


San Diego, California - February 2012


San Diego, California - October 2011


preparations for the commissioning ceremony - Key West, Florida - September 23, 2011


Key West, Florida - September 23, 2011


Key West, Florida - September 23, 2011


September 2011


September 2011


Raymond Ames Spruance was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on 3 July 1886, son of Alexander P. and Annie Ames (Hiss) Spruance.

He attended high schools in East Orange, New Jersey, and Indianapolis, Indiana, and Stevens Preparatory School, Hoboken, New Jersey, before entering the US Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, on appointment from Indiana in 1903. Graduated on 12 September 1906, with the Class of 1907, he served the two years at sea, then required by law, and was commissioned Ensign on 13 September 1908. Advancing progressively in rank, he attained that of Admiral, to date from 4 February 1944. He was transferred to the Retired List of the US Navy in that rank on 1 July 1948.

After graduation from the Naval Academy in 1906, he served on USS Iowa until July 1907, then joined USS Minnesota, in which he made the World Cruise of the Fleet. In April 1909, he reported for instruction in electrical engineering at the General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York. Again ordered to sea, he served from May 1910 until October 1911 on USS Connecticut, after which he was Senior Engineer Officer of USS Cincinnati. In March 1913, he assumed command of USS Bainbridge. He returned to the United States in May 1914 and was assigned as Assistant to the Inspector of Machinery at the Newport News (Virginia) Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company.

During the period February to June 1916, he assisted in fitting out USS Pennsylvania and served on board that battleship from her commissioning, 12 June 1916 until November 1917. The last year of World War I, he was assigned as Assistant Engineer Officer of the Navy Yard, New York, New York, with additional temporary duty in London, England, and Edinburgh, Scotland, in connection with fire control.

In January 1919, he reported as Executive Officer of USS Agamemnon, employed in returning troops to the United States after the end of the war. Between April 1919 and June 1921, he successively fitted out and commanded USS Aaron Ward and USS Percival. He was assigned to the Bureau of Engineering, Navy Department, Washington, DC, to the Commander Naval Forces Europe. He then assumed command of USS Dale and later commanded USS Osborne.

He attended the Senior Course at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, during the period July 1926 to May 1927, after which he had a tour of duty in the Office of Naval Intelligence, Navy Department. In October 1929, he reported as Executive Officer of USS Mississippi and in June 1931 returned to the Naval War College for duty on the Staff. He was Chief of Staff and Aide to Commander Destroyers, Scouting Fleet from May 1933 until March 1935, then again served on the Staff of the Naval War College until April 1938, when he rejoined USS Mississippi this time to serve until January 1940 as Commanding Officer.

In February 1940 he became the Commandant of the Tenth Naval District with headquarters in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and in July 1941 was assigned additional duty as Commander Caribbean Sea Frontier. He assumed command on 17 September 1941, of Cruiser Division Five, and served as second in command during operations in the Marshall Islands and at Wake Island in February 1942 and in the same capacity during the Marcus Island operations the following months. He was Junior Task Force Commander during the Battle of Midway in June 1942, when his force assisted in inflicting on the Japanese Navy its first decisive defeat in three hundred and fifty years.

He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal and cited as follows: “For exceptionally meritorious service… as Task Force Commander, United States Pacific Fleet. During the Midway engagement which resulted in the defeat of and heavy losses to the enemy fleet, his seamanship, endurance, and tenacity in handling his task force were of the highest quality.”

He is also entitled to the Ribbon for and a facsimile of the Presidential Unit Citation awarded the USS Enterprise.

In June 1942 he reported as Chief of Staff and Aide to the Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet, and in September of that year was designated Deputy Commander in Chief. In August 1943, he became Commander Central Pacific Force, which on 29 April 1944 was redesignated Commander Fifth Fleet. During these Pacific assignments, he was in overall command of the occupation of the Gilbert Islands, November 1943 the invasion of the Marshalls, January 1944 operations for the capture of Saipan, Guam and Tinian in the Marianas, which included the Battle of the Philippine Sea, 19 – 20 June, 1944, and later for the capture of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

He was awarded Gold Stars in lieu of the Second and Third Distinguished Service Medals. The citations follow in part according to dates of action:

Gold Star in lieu of the Third Distinguished Service Medal: “For exceptionally meritorious service. as Chief of Staff and later as Deputy Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, while serving on the staff of Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas, from June 18, 1942 to August 5, 1943…(He) exercised sound judgment, keen foresight and expert administrative ability in carrying out his many and varied duties, and… contributed materially to increasing the tempo of the war against Japan…”

Gold Star in lieu of the Second Distinguished Service Medal: “…in a position of great responsibility as Commander Central Pacific Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, during the seizure and occupation of the Gilbert Islands in November 1943. In command of naval forces and certain Army amphibious and air forces during the assaults on Tarawa, Makin and Apamama, Vice Admiral Spruance conducted this action with daring strategy brilliant employment of the units of this command. The expeditious completion of this vital operation under his forceful leadership assured success in opening the Central Pacific Area to the United States Forces.”

He was also awarded the Navy Cross “for extraordinary heroism as Commander Fifth Fleet in action against enemy Japanese forces during the invasion and capture of Iwo Jim, Volcano Islands, and Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, from January to May 1945…” The citation further states in part:

“Responsible for the operation of a vast and complicated organization which included more than 500,000 men of the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, 318 combatant vessels and 1139 auxiliary vessels, (he) directed the forces under his command with daring, courage and aggressiveness. Carrier units of his force penetrated waters of the Japanese Homeland and Nansei Shoto and inflicted severe damage upon hostile aircraft, shore installations and shipping…”

Detached from command of the Fifth Fleet on 8 November 1945, following the capitulation of the Japanese in August of that year, he relieved Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, USN, as Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas. He was relieved of that command on 1 February 1946 and ordered to duty as President of the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island.

On 16 October 1946, the former Secretary of War, the Honorable Robert P. Patterson, presented the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Admiral Spruance, with citation as follows:

“Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, U.S. Navy, as Task Force Commander during the capture of the Marshall and Marianas Islands , rendered exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services from January to June 1944. During the joint operations leading to the assault and capture of the important enemy bases, complete integration of Army and Navy units was accomplished under his outstanding leadership, enabling all the forces to perform their closely co-ordinated missions with outstanding success.”

On 18 March 1948, Admiral Spruance was presented the Insignia and Chancery documents of the decoration of Grand Officer of the Order of Leopold with Palm and the Oorlogskruis (cross of war) with Palm, by the Belgian Ambassador for the Prince Regent of Belgium.

He continued duty as President of the Naval War College until relieved of active duty pending his retirement on 1 July 1948. Shortly before his retirement, he received the following Letter of Commendation from the Secretary of the Navy: "Your brilliant record of achievement in World War II played a decisive part in our victory in the Pacific. At the crucial Battle of Midway your daring and skilled leadership routed the enemy in the full tide of his advance and established the pattern of air-sea warfare which was to lead to his eventual capitulation. "

Admiral Spruance was appointed Ambassador to the Republic of the Philippines by President Harry S. Truman in January 1952 and his resignation was accepted by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on 31 March 1955.

In addition to the Navy Cross, the Distinguished Service Medal with two Gold Stars, the Army Distinguished Service Medal, the Commendation Ribbon and the Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon, Admiral Spruance had the Victory Medal, Overseas Clasp (World War I) American Defense Service Medal, Fleet Clasp Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal and the Navy Occupation Service Medal, Asia Clasp. Besides the Belgian decorations, he had the Gold Cross of the Chevalier of the Order of the Savior from the Government of Greece, and the Honorary Companion of the Order of the Bath from Great Britain.


Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher, Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz and Vice Admiral Willis A. Lee - 1945


Admirals Chester W. Nimitz, Ernest J. King and Raymond A. Spruance


Admirals Raymond A. Spruance, Ernest J. King and Chester W. Nimitz


Admirals Chester W. Nimitz and Raymond A. Spruance


Admirals Raymond A. Spruance and Chester W. Nimitz


USS Patterson (DD-36) fitting out, 1911 - History

Until July 1920, U.S. Navy Destroyers did not officially have "DD" series hull numbers. They were, however, referred to by "Destroyer Number", with that number corresponding to the "DD" number formally assigned in July 1920, or which would have been assigned if the ship had still been on the Navy list. For convenience, all of these ships are listed below under the appropriate numbers in the "DD" series.

Beginning in the later 1940s, destroyers converted for certain specialized functions were given modified designations, including DDE (anti-submarine destroyer, or escort destroyer), DDK (anti-submarine hunter-killer destroyer), DDR (radar picket destroyer) and AGDD (expermental destroyer). All of these expanded designations were numbered in the original DD series.

Before, during and after World War II, other ships were given designations that were based on specialized functions within the destroyer ("D-") type, but were numbered separately from the DD series and will be treated on other Online Library pages. These included DE (escort ship) DDG (guided missile destroyer) DL (frigate) DM (light minelayer) and DMS (high-speed minesweeper).

This page, and those linked from it, provide the hull numbers of all U.S. Navy destroyers numbered in the DD series, with links to those ships with photos available in the Online Library.

See the list below to locate photographs of individual destroyers.

If the destroyer you want does not have an active link on this page, contact the Photographic Section concerning other research options.


USS Patterson (DD-36) fitting out, 1911 - History

Seabury Cook was born on October 16th, 1895 in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the only son of Mining Engineer Robert Anderson Cook (1861–1919) and Margaret MacIntosh Seabury (1861–1936), which was how his interesting name was derived. Over the years I’ve learned that combining family names was quite a common practice, especially for two prominent families like theirs. Seabury was given no middle name.

Robert and Margaret had three other children, Mary Seabury Cook (1886-1890), who died in childhood possibly from an influenza outbreak at that time, Margaret Seabury Cook (1889-1976) and Sydney Seabury Cook (1901-1950). Note the rather large spread in ages between the four children, spanning fifteen years.

The family was obviously also quite intent on honoring the Seabury name, a tradition that appears to have continued through subsequent generations to the present. The Seabury name goes back many generations, and the family can trace its deep roots back to our colonial history and back even further to Anglo-Saxon England. Seabury Cook’s seven-times great grandfather John (1600-1649) came to the Massachusetts colony in 1639. His son, Samuel, a doctor, was the first Seabury born in the Americas, in Boston in 1640. Samuel’s son John married Elizabeth Alden, the granddaughter of John Alden and Priscila Mullins of the Mayflower fame. Seabury was a cousin of Samuel Seabury (1729-1796), the first Episcopal Bishop in America. His father, also Samuel, was the brother of Nathaniel Seabury (1720-1760), Seabury’s four-times great grandfather. Another cousin, George J. Seabury (1844-1909) was a co-founder of Seabury & Johnson (which later came to be known as Johnson & Johnson) and developed what we know today as the band-aid. See here for more information about the Seabury family origins and notable figures.

The Cook side of the family was slightly less famous, but no less impressive as far as I am concerned and so I’ll provide more details on his paternal lineage Seabury’s six-times great grandfather Ellis Cook (1617-1679) first came to the Americas in the late 1630’s as well, first to Lynn, Massachusetts. He originally hailed from Hertfordshire, England, just north of London and at least one tree on Ancestry.com goes back to the 13th century and suggests the family may have it roots back to the Norman Conquest to a Robert LeCoke.

Ellis was a carpenter by trade and an early settler (c1644) of Southampton, Long Island (which was founded in 1640 by a small group also from Lynn, MA). In Southampton he met and married Martha Cooper (1629-1690) in 1646, the daughter of prominent fellow settler John Cooper. They raised a family on their farm on the north side of Mecox Bay, an area known as Water Mill, including their youngest son, Abiel Cook (1663-1740), Seabury’s five-times great grandfather. Of course this area is now part of what we call ‘The Hamptons’, famous for its luxury seaside mansions and quaint villages.

Seabury’s four-times great grandfather was Abiel’s 6th child (of 11), Ellis Cook (1703-1756), and was the one that made the move from Long Island to New Jersey, Hanover to be specific, which was where the family was based for the next several generations. He reportedly sold the property at Water Mill in 1747 and a few months later bought a 110 acre farm in Hanover. Ellis appears to have made the move to be closer to his wife Mary Williams’ family. In 1751 she was given a nice home there built by her father John Williams along with 40 acres of land. Sadly Mary died a few short years later in 1754, her father died the following year, passing the land to her sons.

Ellis, in turn, died the following year during the French and Indian War on March 17th, 1756, supposedly while in route to re-enforce British forces at Fort Oswego at the southeast tip of Lake Ontario. This is more than 210 miles as the crow flies, but more likely more than double that as they would have traveled north up the Hudson River Valley to Albany first, then west up the Mohawk River Valley in what at the time would have been unpopulated wilderness, and during winter no less. This was more than a week before a joint French and Iroquois force of several hundred men started raiding and destroying various British forts and supply depots between Albany and Lake Ontario so it seems unlikely he died in battle. Those who had wintered at the British outposts suffered from scurvy and malnutrition. If he died in route, it may have been from pneumonia due to the difficult travel conditions during winter. He was fifty-three years old when he traveled there with his two eldest sons, Williams and Ellis.

Fort Oswego fell to the French five months later in August of 1756 after a brief siege, and if Williams and Ellis had continued there, they were fortunate to have survived. The British garrisons were weakened by disease and the French forces outnumbered them by about 3 to 1. The siege only lasted a few days. The fort was actually three forts and it was noted that the smallest and least complete, known as Fort Ontario, was manned only by about 150 militia from New Jersey. It took the brunt of the initial assault which started the evening of August 11th/12th. As the French siege trenches drew near, the militia was ordered to abandon the fort on the 13th. The French then used these positions to bombard the main Fort Oswego across the river, which had no defenses prepared against their sister fort, and quickly surrendered on the 14th. 80 to 150 British were killed and 1,700 prisoners (including non-combatants) were taken to Montreal.

The younger Ellis had started a family prior to this event and then there was a five year gap before he and his wife began having children again, which lends credence to the possibility that he and his brother Williams were prisoners of the French or the Indians for many years.

It was fortunate they survived for Seabury as well, as Ellis Cook (1732-1797), the youngest of those two sons, was Seabury’s three-times great grandfather and became a very notable figure in Morris County New Jersey during the Revolutionary War era. He ended up with his mother’s home in Hanover, and ran it as an inn and tavern from about 1772 to 1779. It was known as the ‘Halfway House’ as it was halfway between the Sussex County farming region and the Newark markets. He also maintained a bridge over the nearby Passaic River, and reportedly would waive the toll if the traveler spent a night at his inn. Amazingly, the building survives to this day and is on the National Register of Historic Places, although the porch was likely full length back in the day, and three of the dormers were added in 1925.


Contents

Vietnam war [ edit | edit source ]

       Lavender background and indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously

Image Name Rank Notes
Boesch, Rudy Rudy Boesch Master Chief Petty Officer Founding member of SEAL Team 2 in 1962 & Vietnam veteran. He was a competitor in the TV reality shows Survivor and Survivor: All-Stars, and host of the reality series Combat Missions. Former "Bullfrog" or longest-serving active-duty Navy SEAL member. Class 6 EC.
Humphries, Harry Harry Humphries Petty Officer First Class Silver Star recipient, Vietnam veteran, Hollywood actor and technical advisor for films. Class 29 EC.
Kerrey, J. Robert J. Robert Kerrey O-02 ! Lieutenant, Junior Grade Medal of Honor recipients and democratic U.S. Senator from Nebraska (1989–2001) and president of The New School since 2001. BUD/S Class 42.
75px Marcinko, Richard Richard Marcinko O-05 ! Commander Served two combat tours in Vietnam before serving as commanding officer of SEAL Team TWO (1974–1976). First commanding officer of SEAL Team SIX and Red Cell and co-author of New York Times bestseller Rogue Warrior. BUD/S Class 26.
Norris, Thomas R. Thomas R. Norris O-03 ! Lieutenant Medal of Honor recipients and retired agent. BUD/S Class 45.
Thornton, Michael E. Michael E. Thornton E-5 ! Engineman Second Class Medal of Honor recipients and founding member of SEAL Team Six.

Post Vietnam war [ edit | edit source ]

       Lavender background and indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously

Others [ edit | edit source ]

       Lavender background and indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously


World War II Database


ww2dbase The Mare Island Navy Yard opened in 1854 as the first United States Naval base on the Pacific coast. It remained in operation for 142 years until its closure in 1996. Mare Island is located in Vallejo, California at the extreme northern edge of the San Francisco Bay complex. Despite its name, Mare Island is considered a peninsula but its connection to the land is through a series of marshes and sloughs so it is effectively an island in terms of accessibility. Mare Island is separated from the City of Vallejo by the Napa River which offers the shipyard a naturally sheltered waterfront.

ww2dbase The Navy purchased the original 956 acres (3.9 km²) in 1853 and the base expanded to 5,200 acres (21 km²) by the time of its closing. Shipbuilding operations began on Sept 16 1854 under the command of then-Commander David Farragut. Mare Island served as a major Pacific Ocean repair station during the late 19th century, handling American as well as Japanese and Russian vessels. Ordnance manufacturing and storage were also two key functions at Mare Island for nearly all of its active service. In 1901, the Holland Torpedo Boat Company contracted with the iron works at Mare Island to build two Adder-class submarines, the USS Grampus (A-3) and USS Pike (A-5), which were the first United States Navy submarines built on the West Coast.

ww2dbase During the early 20th century, Mare Island Navy Yard dispatched warships to the Pacific Northwest, Central America, and the Panama Canal to protect US political and commercial interests. Some of the support, logistics, and munitions requirements for the Spanish-American War were filled by Mare Island. Mare Island also sent men, materiel, and ships to San Francisco to assist following the 1906 earthquake. By 1912, Mare Island was home to the West Coast's only Marine Corps recruit training depot, until it was relocated to San Diego in 1923.

ww2dbase In March 1917 Mare Island suffered a major explosion of munitions barges. The blast killed 6 people, wounded 31, and destroyed some port facilities. The blast was linked to the German saboteur Lothar Witzke, who was caught and imprisoned in 1918.

ww2dbase Mare Island saw major shipbuilding efforts during World War I. Mare Island holds a shipbuilding speed record for a destroyer that still stands, launching the USS Ward (DD-139) in just 17½ days in May-June 1918. The only US dreadnought battleship built on the West Coast, the USS California (BB-44), was launched at Mare Island in 1919. Noting the power of underwater warfare shown by German U-boats in WWI, the US Navy doubled their Pacific-based submarine construction program at Puget Sound Navy Yard by founding a submarine program at Mare Island in the early 1920s.

ww2dbase Just as World War I was ending, the Spanish influenza pandemic struck, the 20th century's worst public health disaster until the HIV-AIDS crisis. Unlike many other public health officials at the time, the medical staff at Mare Island Naval Hospital aggressively prepared for the flood of expected influenza cases before the onslaught hit. As a result, the epidemic was managed at the Navy Yard so much better than in the surrounding areas that the civilian community essentially drafted the Navy's medical staff to take over their public health programs over the objections of their own civilian leaders. Once involved, the Navy staff operated with great alacrity and success allowing the impact of the crisis in the surrounding areas to be dramatically reduced.

ww2dbase Leading up to and throughout World War II, the Mare Island Navy Yard specialized in submarines, and except for a few submarine tenders, no more surface ships were built there. During World War II, Mare Island base facilities included a hospital, ammunition depot, paint and rubber testing laboratories, and schools for firefighters, opticians, and anti-submarine attack. 17 submarines, 4 submarine tenders, 31 destroyer escorts, and 300 landing craft were built at Mare Island during the war and hundreds of vessels were serviced or overhauled at Mare Island. With up to 50,000 workers, the facility reached peak capacity for shipbuilding, repair, overhaul, and maintenance. Many different kinds of seagoing vessels, including both surface men-of-war and submarines and even Royal Navy cruisers and destroyers and Soviet Navy subs, were serviced or overhauled during the war.

ww2dbase Patriotism and esprit de corps among the workers ran very high. Mare Island's military and civilian workforce raised almost $76 million in war bonds enough to pay for every one of the submarines built at Mare Island during the war.

ww2dbase After World War II, many decommissioned naval ships and submarines were placed in a reserve fleet at Mare Island. Mare Island continued building non-nuclear subs through the Cold War. In 1955, the shipyard became one of the few to build and overhaul nuclear submarines, including several missile submarines. The last nuclear submarine built in California, the USS Drum, was launched in 1970. In 1972, the Navy stopped building new nuclear submarines at Mare Island, though overhaul of existing vessels continued. During the Vietnam War, the US Navy transferred their Brown Water Navy Riverine Training Operations from Coronado, California to Mare Island. Navy Swift Boats and River Patrol Boats trained in the sloughs of the Napa River delta adjacent to Mare Island.

ww2dbase During its 142 years of operation, Mare Island Navy Yard was responsible for the construction of over 500 naval vessels and overhauling thousands of other vessels. Mare Island was identified for closure in 1993 and the facility was decommissioned on April 1, 1996.

ww2dbase Since the closing, a wide range of private sector tenants have occupied some of the Mare Island spaces but the majority of the former facility is vacant and the long term future of the property remains uncertain.

ww2dbase Among the seagoing surface ships constructed at Mare Island Navy Yard were (partial list):
1858 USS Saginaw - sloop-of-war, wood
1872 USS Mohican - sloop-of-war, wood
1875 USS Monadnock - monitor, steel
1886 USRC Cosmos - Revenue Cutter, wood
1904 USS Intrepid - training ship, steel barque
1907 USS Prometheus - collier, steel
1911 USS Jupiter - collier, steel. Later converted to aircraft carrier USS Langley
1913 USS Kanawha - tanker, steel
1913 USRC Guard - Revenue Cutter Service harbor tug, wood
1913 USS Palos - gunboat, steel
1913 USS Monocacy - gunboat, steel
1914 USS Maumee - tanker, steel
1915 USS Cuyama - tanker, steel
1916 USS Shaw, destroyer - steel
1916 USS California - battleship, steel (32,500 ton)
1916 USS Caldwell - destroyer, steel
1917 Fifteen submarine chasers - wood
1917 Fairfax - destroyer (Destroyers for Bases Agreement)
1917 Taylor - destroyer
1918 Boggs - destroyer (World War II)
1918 Kilty - destroyer (Guadalcanal campaign - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa)
1919 Kennison - destroyer (World War II)
1918 Ward - destroyer (Attack on Pearl Harbor - Guadalcanal campaign - Philippines campaign (1944-45))
1918 Claxton - destroyer (Destroyers for Bases Agreement)
1919 Hamilton - destroyer (invasion of North Africa - Philippines campaign (1944-45))
1920 Montana - battleship (43,200-ton) (scrapped under terms of the Washington Naval Treaty)
1920 Litchfield - destroyer (World War II)
1920 Zane - destroyer (Attack on Pearl Harbor - Guadalcanal campaign)
1921 Wasmuth - destroyer (Attack on Pearl Harbor)
1922 Trever - destroyer (Attack on Pearl Harbor - Guadalcanal campaign)
1922 Perry - destroyer (Attack on Pearl Harbor - Battle of Peleliu)
1922 Decatur - destroyer (World War II)
1927 USS Nautilus - submarine (sank 6 ships in 14 World War II Pacific patrols)
1928 USS Chicago - cruiser (Battle of Savo Island - Battle of Rennell Island)
1931 USS San Francisco - cruiser (Attack on Pearl Harbor - Battle of Cape Esperance - Naval Battle of Guadalcanal - Battle of the Philippine Sea - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa)
1934 USS Smith - destroyer (Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands - Philippines campaign (1944-45))
1934 USS Preston - destroyer (Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands - Naval Battle of Guadalcanal)
1935 USS Henley - destroyer (Attack on Pearl Harbor - Guadalcanal campaign)

Submarines:
1936 USS Pompano - submarine (sank 6 ships in 7 World War II Pacific patrols)
1936 USS Sturgeon - submarine (sank 9 ships in 11 World War II Pacific patrols)
1937 USS Swordfish - submarine (sank 12 ships in 13 World War II Pacific patrols)
1939 USS Fulton - submarine tender (World War II)
1939 USS Tuna - submarine (sank 4 ships in 13 World War II Pacific patrols)
1939 USS Gudgeon - submarine (sank 11 ships in 12 World War II Pacific patrols)
1941 USS Sperry - submarine tender (World War II)
1941 USS Silversides - submarine (sank 23 ships in 14 World War II Pacific patrols (3rd highest number for a U.S. submarine))
1941 USS Trigger - submarine (sank 18 ships in 12 World War II Pacific patrols (11th highest number for a U.S. submarine))
1942 USS Bushnell - submarine tender (World War II)
1942 USS Wahoo - submarine (sank 20 ships in 7 World War II Pacific patrols (6th highest number for a U.S. submarine))
1942 USS Whale - submarine (sank 9 ships in 11 World War II Pacific patrols)
1942 USS Sunfish - submarine (sank 15 ships in 11 World War II Pacific patrols)
1942 USS Tunny - submarine (sank 7 ships in 9 World War II Pacific patrols Vietnam War)
1942 USS Tinosa - submarine (sank 16 ships in 11 World War II Pacific patrols)
1942 USS Tullibee - submarine (sank 3 ships 4 World War II Pacific patrols)
1943 USS Howard W. Gilmore - submarine tender (World War II)
1943 USS Seahorse - submarine (sank 20 ships in 8 World War II Pacific patrols (6th highest number for a U.S. submarine))
1943 USS Skate - submarine (sank 10 ships in 7 World War II Pacific patrols)
1943 USS Tang - submarine (sank 24 ships in 5 World War II Pacific patrols (2nd highest number for a U.S. submarine))
1943 USS Tilefish - submarine (sank 2 ships 6 World War II Pacific patrols)
1944 USS Spadefish - submarine (sank 21 ships in 5 World War II Pacific patrols (4th highest number for a U.S. submarine))
1944 USS Trepang - submarine (sank 11 ships in 5 World War II Pacific patrols)
1944 USS Spot - submarine (sank 1 ship in 3 World War II Pacific patrols)
1944 USS Springer - submarine (sank 4 ships in 3 World War II Pacific patrols)
1945 USS Nereus - submarine tender
1945 USS Stickleback - submarine (1 World War II Pacific patrol)
1947 USS Tiru - submarine
1951 USS Bass - submarine
1951 USS Bonita - submarine
1957 USS Grayback - submarine
1957 USS Sargo - submarine
1959 USS Halibut - submarine
1959 USS Theodore Roosevelt - submarine
1960 USS Scamp - submarine
1961 USS Permit - submarine
1961 USS Plunger - submarine
1962 USS Andrew Jackson - submarine
1963 USS Woodrow Wilson - submarine
1963 USS Daniel Boone - submarine
1963 USS Stonewall Jackson - submarine
1964 Bathyscaphe Trieste II - deep submergence bathyscaphe
1965 USS Kamehameha - submarine
1965 USS Mariano G. Vallejo - submarine
1967 USS Gurnard - submarine
1968 USS Guitarro - submarine
1969 USS Hawkbill - submarine
1969 USS Pintado - submarine
1970 USS Drum - submarine

ww2dbase Sources
Wikipedia
US Naval History and Heritage Command
US National Park Service
Historic Ships Memorial at Pacific Square

Last Major Update: Jan 2014

Ships Constructed at Mare Island Navy Yard

Ship NameYard NoSlip/Drydock NoOrderedLaid DownLaunchedCompleted
California 1 Aug 1921
Gudgeon
Langley (Langley-class)
San Francisco
Silversides
Skate
Spadefish
Stickleback
Sturgeon
Swordfish
Tilefish
Tinosa
Trigger
Tullibee
Tuna
Ward
Chicago 10 Apr 19309 Mar 1931
Hamilton 8 Jun 191815 Jan 191920 Jan 1930
Nautilus 10 May 192715 Mar 19301 Jul 1930
Preston (Mahan-class) 27 Oct 193422 Apr 193627 Oct 1936
Henley 28 Oct 193512 Jan 193714 Aug 1937
Wahoo 28 Jun 194114 Feb 194215 May 1942
Whale 28 Jun 194114 Mar 19421 Jun 1942
Sunfish (Gato-class) 25 Sep 19412 May 194215 Jul 1942
Tunny 10 Nov 194130 Jun 19421 Sep 1942
Doherty 28 Feb 194229 Aug 19426 Jan 1943
Austin 14 Mar 194225 Sep 1942
Gilmore 1 Apr 194222 Oct 194217 Apr 1943
Seahorse 1 Jul 19429 Jan 194331 Mar 1943
Tang 15 Jan 194317 Aug 194315 Oct 1943
Rall 24 May 194323 Sep 19438 Apr 1944
Trepang 25 Jun 194323 Mar 194422 May 1944
Spot 24 Aug 194319 May 19443 Aug 1944
Springer 30 Oct 19433 Aug 194418 Oct 1944

Mare Island Navy Yard Interactive Map

Mare Island Navy Yard Timeline

16 Sep 1854 Mare Island Navy Yard opened in California, United States.
18 Oct 1911 William Leahy served as naval aide to US President William Howard Taft at the keel laying ceremony of USS Jupiter, at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
16 May 1921 Joseph Rochefort took a test at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States for transferring to the regular navy.
13 Apr 1941 USS Astoria entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for a refit.
28 Jun 1941 The keel of submarine Whale was laid down at Mare Island Navy Yard in Vallejo, California, United States.
28 Jun 1941 The keel of submarine Wahoo was laid down at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
11 Jul 1941 USS Astoria completed her refit at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
16 Jul 1941 USS Astoria departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
25 Sep 1941 The keel of submarine Sunfish was laid down at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
10 Nov 1941 The keel of submarine Tunny was laid down at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
22 Jan 1942 The overhaul of USS S-28 at Mare Island Navy Yard was completed.
14 Feb 1942 Submarine Wahoo was launched at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States, sponsored by the wife of William C. Barker, Jr.
18 Feb 1942 Destroyer USS Shaw arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard for reapirs following the Pearl Harbor Attack.
26 Feb 1942 Destroyer USS Shaw entered Drydock No. 1 at Mare Island Naval Shipyard for repairs following the Pearl Harbor Attack.
14 Mar 1942 Submarine Whale was launched at Mare Island Navy Yard in Vallejo, California, United States, sponsored by the wife of Captain A. D. Denny, the commanding officer of the shipyard.
2 May 1942 Sunfish was launched at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States, sponsored by Mrs. J. W. Fowler.
11 Jun 1942 USS Skipjack arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California for a scheduled overhaul.
1 Jul 1942 The keel of submarine Seahorse was laid down at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
13 Jul 1942 Fitted with an entirely new bow section, destroyer USS Shaw departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard bound for San Diego, California.
15 Jul 1942 USS Sunfish was commissioned into service at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States with Commander R. W. Peterson in command.
12 Aug 1942 USS Wahoo departed Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
9 Sep 1942 USS Permit began a scheduled overhaul at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
9 Jan 1943 Submarine Seahorse was launched at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States, sponsored by the wife of Chester C. Smith.
20 Jan 1943 USS Brennan was commissioned into service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
3 Mar 1943 Portland arrived at the Mare Island Navy Yard in California, United States for repairs and an overhaul.
29 May 1943 USS Wahoo arrived at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States for a scheduled overhaul.
4 Jun 1943 USS Nashville arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard for repairs and overhaul.
25 Jun 1943 The keel for the future submarine Trepang was laid down at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard in California, United States.
20 Jul 1943 USS Wahoo completed a period of trials and training off California, United States. After returning to Mare Island Navy Yard in Vallejo, California, United States, squadron commander Captain John B. Griggs, Jr. came aboard to present awards.
21 Jul 1943 USS Wahoo departed Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
2 Aug 1943 USS Gunnel began a period of overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
17 Aug 1943 Submarine Tang was launched at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States she was sponsored by Mrs. Antonio S. Pitre.
24 Aug 1943 The keel of submarine Spot was laid down at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
23 Sep 1943 USS Gar entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for overhaul.
30 Oct 1943 The keel of submarine Springer was laid down at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
31 Oct 1943 USS Gunnel completed a period of overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
22 Nov 1943 USS Gar completed overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
29 Nov 1943 USS Mingo entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for overhaul.
12 Dec 1943 USS Harder arrived at Mare Island Navy Yard in Vallejo, California, United States for a scheduled overhaul.
3 Feb 1944 USS Mingo departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States after her overhaul.
19 Feb 1944 USS Harder completed its scheduled overhaul at Mare Island Navy Yard in Vallejo, California, United States.
2 Mar 1944 USS Proteus entered Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States for repairs.
19 Mar 1944 USS Proteus exited Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States and departed for Midway.
23 Mar 1944 Submarine Trepang was launched at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard in California, United States.
19 May 1944 Submarine Spot was launched at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States, sponsored by Mrs. A. A. Gieselmann.
25 May 1944 USS Portland arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard for repairs and an overhaul.
7 Jul 1944 USS Cummings arrived at San Francisco, California, United States after completing her loan to the Royal Navy in the Indian Ocean and enteredMare Island Naval Shipyard for maintenance.
3 Aug 1944 Submarine Springer was launched at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States, sponsored by the wife of M. S. Tisdale.
7 Aug 1944 USS Portland departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard after overhaul bound for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
6 Sep 1944 USS Puffer entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for a scheduled overhaul.
18 Sep 1944 USS Spot completed fitting out at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
7 Oct 1944 USS Astoria arrived at San Francisco, California, United States and entered the Mare Island Naval Shipyard to repair the damaged turbine.
21 Oct 1944 USS Astoria completed her repairs at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
21 Nov 1944 USS Puffer completed her scheduled overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
5 Dec 1944 USS Cero entered Mare Island Navy Shipyard in Vallejo, California, United States for a scheduled overhaul.
16 Dec 1944 USS Ray arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
4 Jan 1945 USS Dragonet arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States for repairs.
8 Jan 1945 USS Springer departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
26 Jan 1945 USS Whale arrived at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States for a scheduled overhaul.
26 Feb 1945 USS Cero completed her scheduled overhaul at Mare Island Navy Shipyard in Vallejo, California, United States.
26 Mar 1945 USS Dragonet departed Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
14 Apr 1945 USS Hoe entered Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States for overhaul.
25 Apr 1945 USS Kimberly arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
26 Apr 1945 USS Whale completed her repairs and overhaul at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
4 May 1945 USS Mingo entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for overhaul.
7 May 1945 USS Sunfish entered Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States for a scheduled overhaul.
19 May 1945 Destroyer USS Shaw arrived in San Francisco, California and entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard for repairs.
5 Jul 1945 USS Hoe completed her overhaul at Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States and departed for the western Pacific.
31 Jul 1945 USS Sunfish completed her scheduled overhaul at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
5 Aug 1945 Destroyer USS Shaw departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard bound for San Diego, California
7 Aug 1945 USS Parche entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States for an overhaul.
9 Aug 1945 USS Mingo completed her overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
5 Sep 1945 USS Springer arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
5 Sep 1945 USS Sunfish arrived at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
14 Sep 1945 USS San Diego arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States for a scheduled overhaul.
1 Nov 1945 USS San Diego entered drydock No. 2 at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
15 Nov 1945 USS San Diego exited drydock No. 2 at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
22 Nov 1945 USS San Diego completed her scheduled overhaul and departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
6 Dec 1945 USS Guitarro was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
12 Dec 1945 USS Macabi entered Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States for inactivation overhaul.
13 Dec 1945 USS Tunny was decommissioned from service and was placed in the Mare Island Group of the 19th Fleet in reserve.
26 Dec 1945 USS Sunfish was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
2 Jan 1946 After overhaul at Mare Island and training operations out of San Francisco Bay, USS Parche departed San Francisco, California United States for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
29 Jan 1946 USS Segundo entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for overhaul.
2 Mar 1946 USS Seahorse was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard at Vallejo, California, United States.
14 Mar 1946 USS Mero arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States and was assigned to the 19th Fleet.
15 Apr 1946 USS Sea Cat arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for overhaul.
16 Apr 1946 USS Dragonet was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
10 May 1946 USS Segundo completed her overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
14 May 1946 USS Baya was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
31 May 1946 USS Menhaden was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States. She was placed in the US Navy Pacific Reserve Fleet.
15 Jun 1946 USS Mero was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States and was assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleet.
19 Jun 1946 USS Spot was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
27 Jun 1946 USS Trepang was decommissioned from service and entered the reserves at the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, United States.
26 Jul 1946 USS Sea Cat completed her overhaul work at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
20 Sep 1946 USS Hawkbill was decommissioned from US service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
14 Oct 1946 USS Parche entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States for inactivation overhaul
11 Dec 1946 USS Parche was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard at Vallejo, California, United States.
1 Jan 1947 USS Mingo was decommissioned at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet.
6 May 1947 USS Becuna entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for a scheduled overhaul.
22 Sep 1947 USS Becuna completed her scheduled overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
15 Nov 1947 USS Boarfish arrived at Mare Island Navy Yard in Vallejo, California, United States for a scheduled overhaul.
21 Feb 1948 USS Boarfish departed Mare Island Navy Yard in Vallejo, California, United States.
18 Sep 1948 USS Sterlet was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
19 Nov 1948 USS Blackfin was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Navy Yard in California, United States.
16 May 1949 USS Segundo entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for overhaul.
24 Aug 1949 USS Segundo completed her overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
10 Feb 1950 USS Capitaine was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
30 Jun 1950 USS Barbero was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
26 Aug 1950 USS Sterlet was recommissioned into service at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States with Lieutenant Commander George W. Kittredge in command.
10 Jul 1951 USS Charr arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States to be converted to a Four Engine Fleet Type Snorkel Submarine.
19 Nov 1951 USS Charr completed her conversion at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
13 Aug 1952 USS Menhaden was decommissioned from service at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States for for Guppy IIA conversion.
30 Sep 1953 Lieutenant Commander J. O. House, Jr. relieved Commander W. P. Murphy at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States as the commanding officer of USS Carbonero.
1 Dec 1953 USS Sterlet received a new commanding officer at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
1 Feb 1955 USS Barbero entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard in Vallejo, California, United States for conversion to launch Regulus nuclear cruise missiles.
30 Jun 1955 USS Charr arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States. Lieutenant Commander R. A. Harris relieved Commander W. A. Whitman as the new commanding officer.
25 Oct 1955 USS Barbero completed her conversion into a guided missile submarine at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
29 Nov 1955 USS Charr departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
6 Jan 1956 USS Rock entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard in California, United States for overhaul.
23 May 1956 USS Rock completed her overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
23 Feb 1957 USS Capitaine was recommissioned into service at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, United States.
3 Jun 1958 USS Charr departed Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States for San Diego.
6 Nov 1962 While at Mare Island Naval Shipyard in Vallejo, California, United States, submarine Hackleback was reclassified an auxiliary research submarine and received the new designation AGSS-295.
30 Jun 1966 USS Charr arrived at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States for overhaul.
12 Dec 1966 USS Charr completed her overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, United States.
14 Dec 1966 USS Caiman entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States for overhaul.
20 Dec 1966 USS Caiman entered drydock at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
1 Mar 1967 While at Mare Island Naval Shipyard in Vallejo, California, United States, submarine Hackleback was struck from the US Naval Register.
21 Mar 1967 USS Caiman exited drydock at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
29 May 1967 USS Caiman completed overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, United States.
4 Dec 1968 Submarine Hackleback, physically at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard at Vallejo, California, United States, was sold to the Zidell Explorations of Portland, Oregon, United States for scrapping.
13 Sep 1969 USS Rock was decommissioned for the second and final time at Mare Island Naval Shipyard in California, United States, and was struck from the US Naval Register.
1 Apr 1996 The Mare Island Naval Shipyard at Vallejo, California, United States was decommissioned from service.

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USS Patterson (DD-36) fitting out, 1911 - History

Prior to 17 July 1920 US battleships were designated "Battleship X", abbreviated "B-X" in this list, i.e. Missouri was "Battleship 11" or "B-11". The two early second-class battleships were not numbered. On 17 July 1920 new designations were implemented the battleships were redesignated "BB-X", keeping their original numbers, i.e. Missouri became "BB 11". Ships which had been discarded prior to this date, and ships which were assigned auxiliary designations (IX-series) on this date, never officially had "BB-X" numbers assigned. However, the BB-series designations are almost always used to identify all of these ships.

At the start of the predreadnought era the US Navy was small, weak and generally obsolete by the end of the era it was one of the world's major naval forces. The design of US predreadnoughts paralleled this shift in role and position, going from small, weak and outdated ships to large, powerful and modern ships. However, US predreadnoughts were generally a bit behind foreign ships in adopting new advances. The last class of predreadnoughts was completed after HMS Dreadnought had entered service, rendering them instantly obsolete.

A few of the early predreadnought saw service during the Spanish-American War, and performed well during terribly one-sided battles. However, the engagements showed that much better fire control was needed, as hit percentages were pitifully low.

Aside from the Spanish-American War engagements, US predreadnoughts saw no combat. They spent much of their time in reserve or mobilization fleets, and as training ships. In 1907-1909 most of the predreadnoughts then in service, except the earliest (least-seaworthy) ships, participated in the round the world cruise of the Great White Fleet. Ships cruising with the Fleet were Kearsarge, Kentucky, Illinois, Alabama, Maine, Missouri, Ohio, Virginia, Georgia, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Louisiana, Vermont, Minnesota and Kansas . It had been intended that Nebraska , Wisconsin , Mississippi and Idaho would join the Fleet in 1908, giving a total force of 20 ships. However, the latter pair of ships was found to be deficient and thus did not cruise with the Fleet. Nebraska and Wisconsin did join the cruise, but Alabama and Maine had developed problems and were forced to drop out when the additional ships joined.

In 1909-1911 the entire predreadnought fleet was put through a modernization program, to make the already-obsolete ships as useful as possible. They received new cage masts in place of their military pole masts, superstructures were reduced to a bare minimum, conning towers were enlarged, new fire controls were fitted, the secondary batteries reduced, and safety improvements were made in the main turrets. In addition the fleet was repainted from white-and-buff to plain gray.

During WWI these ships served mainly as training ships, operating primarily in the Chesapeake Bay area. They also conducted a limited number of convoy escort missions. During the war their secondary batteries were greatly reduced or even removed entirely, both to improve seaworthiness by removing low-level casemates, and to provide guns for merchant ships. Postwar they were assigned to the Cruiser-Transport Force and outfitted as troop transports to bring troops home from Europe.

All predreadnoughts surviving into the 1920's were stricken and scrapped under the terms of the Washington Treaty.


Maine second class battleship
Displacement: 6,682 tons normal 7,180 tons full load
Dimensions: 319 x 57 x 21.5 feet/97.2 x 17.4 x 6.6 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 4 135 psi boilers, 1 shaft, 9,000 ihp, 17 knots
Crew: 374
Armor: Harvey & NS: 6-12 inch belt, 1-4 inch deck, 12 inch barbettes, 8 inch turrets, 10 inch CT
Armament: 2 dual 10"/30cal, 6 6"/40cal, 7 6-pound, 8 1-pound, 4 14" torpedo tubes (above water)

Concept/Program: One of two large warships authorized on 1886. Was originally classified as an armored cruiser (numbered ACR-1), but in 1894 was given the more appropriate classification of second class battleship. The ship had a protracted building period, and as a result was totally obsolete when finally completed. Her most significant contribution was providing the US Navy with experience in construction and operation of large capital ships. Her accidental sinking was a major cause of the Spanish-American War.

Design: The design is often considered to be based on the Brazilian Riachuelo , although the ships were quite different in details, and even in general arrangement. In general Maine was typical of mid-1880's designs. The main turrets were en echelon , rather than on the centerline the forward turret was to starboard, the aft turret to port both were projected beyond the hull by a considerable distance. This arrangement severely restricted her ability to fire on a broadside.

DANFS History

Built by New York Navy Yard Laid down 17 October 1888, launched 18 November 1889, commissioned 17 September 1895.

Operated in the Atlantic and along the east coast through 1897. Arrived at Havana, Cuba, 25 January 1898 to represent US interests during unrest in Cuba. Sunk by an internal explosion, probably caused by unstable and deteriorating powder, or by spontaneous combustion of coal, 15 February 1898 252 killed.

Hulk raised 2 February 1912, towed to sea, and scuttled 16 March 1912.

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Texas second class battleship
Displacement: 6,153 tons normal 6,665 tons full load
Dimensions: 309 x 64 x 22.5 feet/94.1 x 19.5 x 8.7 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 4 150 psi boilers, 1 shaft, 8,600 ihp, 17 knots
Crew: 392 (508 wartime)
Armor: Harvey & NS: 6-12 inch belt, 2-3 inch deck, 12 inch citadel, 1-12 inch turrets, 1.5-12 inch CT
Armament: 2 single 12"/35cal, 2 6"/35cal, 12 6-pound, 6 1-pound, 4 37 mm, 4 14 inch torpedo tubes (above water)

Concept/Program: The second of the two large warships authorized in 1866. Was originally classified as a battleship, but in 1894 was given the more appropriate classification of second class battleship. The design was relatively weak from the start, and ship had a protracted building period as a result she was totally obsolete when finally completed. A much-needed complete redesign was proposed in 1889 but was rejected. Provided valuable experience in construction and operation of large capital ships, and participated in the Spanish-American War, but was in and out of reserve for most of her career.

Design: Designed by Barrow Shipbuilding, UK. The ship was small and outdated from the start. The main turrets were en echelon , rather than on the centerline the forward turret was to port, the aft turret to starboard. This arrangement severely restricted her ability to fire on a broadside. Both turrets were supported and protected by a common citadel or redoubt, rather than separate barbettes. Originally the 12" guns had fixed loading positions, but this was later revised to all-round loading. The armor protected a relatively small area of the hull.

DANFS History

Built by Norfolk Navy Yard. Laid down 1 June 1889, launched 28 June 1892, commissioned 15 August 1896.

Decommissioned 27 January 1896, probably for repairs or overhaul recommissioned 20 July 1896. Operated in the Atlantic and along the east coast through 1898. Served in the Caribbean during the Spanish-American War. Participated in the Battle of Santiago, 3 July 1898 received no significant damage. Decommissioned at Norfolk Navy Yard 3 November 1900 for repairs and overhaul recommissioned 3 November 1902.

Served with coast defense forces, 1902-1905, then as a station ship at Charleston from 1908. Decommissioned to reserve 11 Jan 1908, but recommissioned 1 September 1908. Renamed San Marcos 15 February 1911, sunk as a target 22 March 1911, stricken 11 October 1911.

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Indiana class battleships
Displacement: 10,288 tons normal 11,688 tons full load
Dimensions: 351 x 69 x 24 feet/107 x 21.1 x 7.3 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 6 160 psi boilers, 2 shafts, 9,000 ihp, 15 knots
Crew: 473 (586-636 wartime)
Armor: Harvey & NS: 4-18 inch belt, 2.75-3 inch deck, 6-17 inch barbettes, 2-15 inch turrets, 5-8 inch intermediate battery, 7-10 inch CT
Armament: 2 dual 13"/35cal, 4 dual 8"/35cal, 4 6"/40cal, 6 1-pound, 6 18 inch torpedo tubes (above water) ( Massachusetts : also 2 3")

Concept/Program: The first US battleships that can be considered truly "modern". Designed as "coastline battleships", but had limited seagoing capability, despite low freeboard. This class attempted too much on a limited displacement, but were still useful ships and a major step towards a more modern navy.

Design: Was of typical predreadnought layout, with the main turrets fore aft on the centerline. The 8" intermediate battery was in turrets, two per side, fore and aft. Freeboard was quite low, but the ships could operate even in heavy seas, although they could not fight in those conditions. Were relatively slow.

Modernization: During 1905-1909 the ships underwent limited modernization as part of fleet-wide improvements. The 6" guns, most of the 6-pound guns, and the torpedo tubes were removed, 12 3"/50cal were added, cage mainmasts were installed, and the ships were reboilered with 8 new boilers.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Were obsolete by the early 1900's, and served mainly as training ships after that time, but were not finally discarded until the post-WWI fleet downsizing.

DANFS History

Built by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, PA. Laid down 7 May 1891, launched 28 February 1893, commissioned 20 November 1895.

Operated around New England through 1898. Served in the Caribbean during the Spanish-American War. Participated in the Battle of Santiago, 3 July 1898 received no damage. Postwar operated with the fleet, then made one Naval Academy training cruise. Decommissioned to reserve 29 December 1903.

Recommissioned as a Naval Academy training ship 9 January 1906. Decommissioned to reserve 23 May 1914. Recommissioned as a gunnery training ship 24 May 1917. Decommissioned 31 January 1919 renamed Coast Battleship Number 1 29 March 1919. Designated IX (no number) 17 July 1920. Sunk as bombing target 1 November 1920. The sunken hulk was sold for scrapping 19 March 1924.

DANFS History

Built by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia. Laid down 25 June 1891, launched 10 June 1893, commissioned 10 June 1896.

Overhauled at New York Navy Yard 30 November 1896 to February 1897, then operated in the Atlantic and along the east coast. Served in the Caribbean during the Spanish-American War. Was at Guantanamo Bay during the Battle of Santiago, but returned to Santiago at the conclusion of the battle. Operated with the fleet postwar made one Naval Academy training cruise. Overhauled at New York Navy Yard mid-1904 to January 1905, then returned to the fleet. Decommissioned to reserve 8 January 1906.

Underwent modernization refit in 1906, while in reserve. Recommissioned to reserve as a training ship 2 May 1910. Made three cruises 1910-1912, but was mostly inactive after 1912. Decommissioned to reserve 23 May 1914. Recommissioned as a gunnery training ship 9 June 1917 served as a target ship from June 1918 into 1919.

Renamed Coast Battleship Number 2 28 March 1919 decommissioned 31 March 1919. Designation BB 2 assigned 17 July 1920. Stricken for disposal 22 November 1920. Loaned to the War Department scuttled off Pensacola for use as artillery target 6 January 1921. The sunken hulk was returned to the Navy 20 February 1925 was offered for sale as scrap but was not sold. The hulk was declared the property of the state of Florida 15 November 1956.

DANFS History

Built by Union Iron Works, San Francisco. Laid down 19 November 1891, launched 26 October 1893, commissioned 15 July 1895.

Served briefly on Pacific Station. Dispatched to the US east coast shortly after Maine blew up departed San Francisco 19 March 1898, arrived Florida 24 May 1898, via Cape Horn. Served in the Caribbean during the Spanish-American War. Participated in the Battle of Santiago, 3 July 1898 received no damage. Returned to the Pacific postwar, and operated in the Far East.

Grounded 28 June 1900 in Chinese waters refloated 5 July 1900 and repaired at Kure, Japan. Returned to the US for overhaul 1901 returned to Asian waters 1903. Returned to the US in 1906 and decommissioned to reserve 27 April 1906.

Recommissioned 29 August 1911 but remained mostly inactive in reserve reduced to commissioned reserve 16 September 1914. Placed in full commission 2 January 1915 reduced to commissioned reserve 11 February 1916. Placed in full commission 7 April 1917. Decommissioned to reserve 12 June 1919. Recommissioned for ceremonial duties 21 August 1919 decommissioned 4 October 1919.

Designation BB 3 assigned 17 July 1920 redesignated IX 22 1 July 1921. Rendered incapable of service under the Washington Treaty reclassified as a naval relic 4 January 1924. Loaned to the state of Oregon as a museum 25 June 1925, moored at Portland.

Voluntarily returned to Navy by the state of Oregon 17 February 1941 for "coastal or other defense use." Deemed useless by the Navy and stricken for disposal 2 November 1942. Sold for scrapping 7 December 1942, partially scrapped (cut down to the main deck and the interior gutted), but returned to the Navy September 1943 for use as an explosives storage hulk at Guam. Was not assigned a name or designation when returned.

Drifted to sea during typhoon 14-15 November 1948 and given up as lost, but was relocated 8 December 1948 and towed to port. Sold for scrapping 15 March 1956, resold, and subsequently scrapped at Kawasaki, Japan.

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Iowa battleship
Displacement: 11,410 tons normal 12,647 tons full load
Dimensions: 362.5 x 72 x 24 feet/110.5 x 22 x 7.3 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 5 160 psi boilers, 2 shafts, 11,000 ihp, 16 knots
Crew: 486 (654 wartime)
Armor: Harvey: 4-14 inch belt, 2.75-3 inch deck, 12.5-15 inch barbettes, 15-17 inch turrets, 4-8 inch intermediate battery, 10 inch CT
Armament: 2 dual 12"/35cal, 4 dual 8"/35cal, 6 4"/40cal, 20 6-pound, 4 1-pound, 4 14 inch torpedo tubes (above water)

Concept/Program: A vastly improved battleship, designed as a "seagoing coastline battleship" was the first truly seagoing US battleship. However, her main armament was relatively weak, and she became outdated quite quickly.

Design: Similar to the Indiana class in general arrangement. Had very high freeboard for better seakeeping. Main and intermediate battery arrangement was the same as the previous class, but the guns were 12", rather than 13", and light guns were entirely different. The armor was somewhat thinner, and she was slightly faster.

Modernization: In 1909 the ship underwent limited modernization as part of fleet-wide improvements. Most of the 6-pound guns were removed, four 4" guns were added, and a cage mainmast was installed. The torpedo tubes had been previously removed.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Obsolete by the early 1900's, and served mainly as a training ship after that time, but not finally discarded until the post-WWI fleet downsizing.

Iowa
ex- Seagoing Coastal Battleship Number 1
B-4 - IX 6
Photos: [ Iowa as completed], [During the Spanish-American War].

DANFS History

Built by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia. Laid down 5 August 1893, launched 28 March 1896, commissioned 16 June 1897. Joined the fleet in the Caribbean for Spanish American War service immediately after shakedown. Participated in the Battle of Santiago, 3 July 1898 received no damage. Transferred to the Pacific postwar, but returned to the Atlantic in 1902. Decommissioned to reserve 30 June 1903. Recommissioned 23 December 1903 and operated in the north Atlantic. Reduced to commissioned reserve 6 July 1907 decommissioned to reserve 23 July 1908. Recommissioned as a training ship 2 May 1910. Decommissioned to reserve 27 May 1914.

Placed in reduced commission as a receiving ship 28 April 1917 later served as a training ship and guardship. Decommissioned 31 March 1919 renamed Coast Battleship Number 4 30 April 1919. Designation IX 6 assigned 17 July 1920 converted to a radio controlled target ship. Sunk by gunfire 23 March 1923, stricken 27 March 1923.

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Kearsarge class battleships
Displacement: 11,540 tons normal 12,850 tons full load
Dimensions: 375.5 x 72 x 23.5 feet/114.4 x 22 x 7.2 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 5 boilers, 2 shafts, 10,000 ihp, 16 knots
Crew: 558 (686-690 wartime)
Armor: Harvey: 5-16.5 inch belt, 2.75-3 inch deck, 12.5-15 inch barbettes, 15-17 inch turrets, 6-11 inch intermediate battery, 2-10 inch CT
Armament: 2 dual 13"/35cal, 2 dual 8"/35cal, 14 5"/40cal, 20 6-pound, 8 1-pound, 4 18 inch torpedo tubes (above water)

Concept/Program: A new, slightly larger battleship design, more heavily armed than the previous class, but not very successful. Freeboard was much higher than previously, but there were a number of design flaws which limited the value of these ships. Both ships participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, but were the oldest ships to do so, and were very poorly regarded during the cruise.

Design: General arrangement was typical of predreadnoughts, with the main turrets on the centerline fore and aft. The 8" intermediate turrets were built in a two-level arrangement atop the 13" turrets the entire assembly rotated together. This arrangement provided the same 8" firepower on the broadside as did previous arrangements, but with half as many 8" guns. In all other respects, however, the arrangement was a complete failure, because the 8" and 13" guns interfered with each other when firing, and it proved impossible to devise a workable firing sequence. There were very heavy secondary and light batteries in broadside mountings. The armor was quite heavy, but the main belt was almost entirely submerged, limiting its value. The ships were bad rollers and very bad gun platforms, and were relatively slow. They were the first US battleships to make extensive use of electrical auxiliary equipment.

Modernization: During 1909-1911 the ships underwent modernization as part of fleet-wide improvements. Most of the 6-pound guns were removed, four additional 5" were added, cage foremasts and mainmasts were fitted, and the ships were reboilered. The torpedo tubes had been removed previously. By 1919 all but 8 of the 5" had been removed, and 2 3 inch AA had been added.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Reduced to training and subsidiary duties by 1915, and were discarded in the post-WWI fleet reductions.

DANFS History

Was the only battleship not named for a state named by an act of Congress to honor the Kearsarge of Civil War fame. Built by Newport News SB&DD, VA. Laid down 30 June 1896, launched 24 March 1898, commissioned 20 February 1900.

Operated with the Atlantic Fleet. Suffered minor damage and 10 fatalities in a powder explosion 13 April 1906. Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Decommissioned for modernization at Philadelphia Navy Yard 4 September 1909 apparently placed in reserve upon completion of modernization recommissioned 23 June 1915.

Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1915-1916. Reduced to commissioned reserve 4 February 1916 as a training ship for the Massachusetts and Maine Naval Militias. Operated as a training ship for engineers and armed guard crews during WWI, then as a Naval Academy training ship in 1919.

Decommissioned for conversion to a crane ship at Philadelphia Navy Yard 10 May 1920. Assigned designation IX 16 17 July 1920 additional name Crane Ship Number 1 assigned 5 August 1920. During the conversion the ship was completely stripped and gutted all armament, machinery, superstructure, etc. removed very large bulges, a 250 ton rotating crane, and a small superstructure were fitted displacement was 10,000 tons. Date of conversion completion not known.

Redesignated AB 1 15 April 1939. Name Kearsarge cancelled 6 November 1941 thereafter known as Crane Ship Number 1 (AB 1). Operated on the east coast until 1945, then at San Francisco 1945-1948, and at Boston thereafter. Stricken for disposal 22 June 1955 sold for scrapping 9 August 1955.

DANFS History

Built by Newport News SB&DD, VA. Laid down 30 June 1896, launched 24 March 1898, commissioned 15 May 1900.

Deployed to Asiatic Station upon completion operated in the Far East until 1904. Overhauled at New York Navy Yard May-October 1904, then operated with the Atlantic Fleet. Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909.

Decommissioned to reserve 28 August 1909, modernized at Norfolk Navy Yard 1910 but not recommissioned. Placed in commissioned reserve 4 June 1912 decommissioned to reserve 31 May 1913. Recommissioned 23 June 1915 as a training ship for the New York and Maine Naval Militias, then participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1915-1916. Served as a recruit training ship during WWI, then as a Naval Academy training ship postwar.

Decommissioned 29 May 1920. Designation BB 6 assigned 17 July 1920. Stricken for disposal 27 May 1922, sold for scrapping 23 March 1923 under the Washington Treaty.

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Illinois class battleships
Displacement: 11,565 tons normal 12,250 tons full load
Dimensions: 374 x 72 x 23.5 feet/114 x 22 x 7.2 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 8 boilers, 2 shafts, 10,000 ihp, 16 knots
Crew: 536 (690-713 wartime)
Armor: Harvey: 5.5-16.5 inch belt, 2.75-5 inch deck, 10-15 inch barbettes, 3-14 inch turrets, 2-10 inch CT
Armament: 2 dual 13"/35cal, 14 6"/40cal, 16 6-pound, 6 1-pound, 4 18 inch torpedo tubes (above water)

Concept/Program: A completely new design, although no larger than the previous class. These ships were much better than any of the previous classes, and were generally successful.

Design: Typical predreadnought arrangement. Had very high freeboard forward for good seakeeping. Speed was still only 16 knots the two funnels were side-by-side, giving the appearance of only one funnel in profile. The main battery was in modern British-style turrets. The heavy 8" intermediate battery previously fitted in US battleships was not included. The 6" secondary battery was in casemates midships and in sponsons forward.

Modernization: During 1909-1912 the ships underwent modernization as part of fleet-wide improvements. All but 4 of the 6-pound guns were removed, four 3"/50cal were added, cage foremasts and mainmasts were fitted, and Illinois was reboilered. The torpedo tubes had been removed previously. By 1919 all but 8 of the 6" had been removed, and 2 3 inch AA had been added.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Reduced to training and subsidiary duties by 1912 and were discarded in the post-WWI fleet reductions.

Illinois
B-7 - BB 7 - IX 15
Photos: [ Illinois as completed].

DANFS History

Built by Newport News SB&DD, VA. Laid down 10 February 1897, launched 4 October 1898, commissioned 16 September 1901.

Operated in European waters through 1903, then in the Atlantic Fleet. Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Decommissioned for modernization at Boston Navy Yard 4 August 1909 placed in commissioned reserve 15 April 1915 placed in full commission 2 November 1912. Operated as a Naval Academy training ship during the summers of 1913-1914. Decommissioned to reserve 1919.

Designation BB 7 assigned 17 July 1920. Loaned to the state of New York 25 October 1921 redesignated IX 15 26 June 1922. Reduced to a stationary floating armory and drill ship at New York Navy Yard during 1924, under the terms of the Washington Treaty. Renamed Prairie State 8 January 1941. Served as a stationary training ship during WWII, then as an accommodations ship postwar.

Stricken for disposal 21 December 1956, sold 18 May 1956, and scrapped at Baltimore.

DANFS History

Built by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, PA. Laid down 1 December 1896, launched 18 May 1898, commissioned 16 October 1900.

Operated with the Atlantic Fleet. Overhauled at Philadelphia Navy Yard September-December 1904. Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1908, but dropped out of the cruise in 1908 due to mechanical problems completed an independent world cruise after repairs at Mare Island Navy Yard. Reduced to commissioned reserve 3 November 1908 decommissioned for modernization at New York Navy Yard 17 August 1909. Recommissioned to commissioned reserve 17 April 1912 placed in full commission 25 July 1912.

Reduced to commissioned reserve 10 September 1912 as a naval militia training ship. Decommissioned to reserve 31 October 1913 placed in commissioned reserve 1 July 1914. Recommissioned 22 January 1917 as a recruit training ship served as a Naval Academy training ship postwar.

Was inactive after August 1919. Decommissioned 7 May 1902, stricken for disposal 15 September 1921 and transferred to the War Department for use as a target. Sunk as a bombing target 27 September 1921. The sunken hulk was sold for scrapping 19 March 1924.

DANFS History

Built by Union Iron Works, San Francisco, CA. Laid down 9 February 1897, launched 26 November 1898, commissioned 4 February 1901.

Operated mainly along the west coast of North and South America 1901-1903, then on Asiatic Station, 1903-1906. Decommissioned at Puget Sound Navy Yard 15 November 1906, probably for overhaul recommissioned 1 April 1908. Joined the cruise of the Great White Fleet in 1908. Remained in the Atlantic following the cruise. Modernized at Portsmouth Navy Yard March-June 1909.

Reduced to commissioned reserve early 1910 briefly active 1912 but returned to commissioned reserve. Decommissioned to reserve 31 October 1913. Recommissioned to commissioned reserve 1915 as a Naval Academy training ship placed in full commission 23 April 1917. During WWI served as an engineering training ship.

Decommissioned 15 May 1920. Designation BB 9 assigned 17 July 1920. Stricken for disposal 1 July 1921, sold for scrapping 26 January 1922 under Washington Treaty.

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Maine class battleships
Displacement: 12,846 tons normal 13,700 tons full load
Dimensions: 394 x 72 x 24 feet/120 x 22 x 7.2 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 12 boilers ( Maine : 24), 2 shafts, 16,000 ihp, 18 knots
Crew: 561 (779-813 wartime)
Armor: KC & Harvey: 5.5-11 inch belt, 2.75-4 inch deck, 8-12 inch barbettes, 11-12 inch turrets, 2-10 inch CT
Armament: 2 dual 12"/45cal, 16 6"/50cal, 6 3"/50cal, 8 3 pound, 6 1-pound, 2 18 inch torpedo tubes (submerged)

Concept/Program: A significant improvement upon previous classes introduced several new features to US battleship designs. Generally successful, although rapidly made obsolete by the dreadnoughts.

Design: Were considerably faster than previous designs, as a response to the perceived threat of Russian fast battleships. Were the first US battleships to use high-velocity main guns, and the first with KC armor, which allowed equal protection with thinner armor. As with the previous class, there was no 8" intermediate battery. The 6" guns were arranged as in the previous class. The ships were unfortunately rather wet, despite high freeboard.

Modernization: During 1909-1911 the ships underwent modernization as part of fleet-wide improvements cage foremasts and mainmasts were fitted, and Maine was reboilered. By 1919 all but 8 of the 6" and all of the 3" had been removed, and 2 3 inch AA had been added.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Reduced to training and subsidiary duties by 1915 and were discarded in the post-WWI fleet reductions.

DANFS History

Built by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, PA. Laid down 15 February 1899, launched 27 July 1901, commissioned 29 December 1902.

Operated in the Atlantic and in European waters. Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1908, but dropped out of the cruise in 1908 due to mechanical problems completed an independent world cruise after repairs at Mare Island Navy Yard. Decommissioned for modernization at Portsmouth Navy Yard 31 August 1909 completed and recommissioned 15 June 1911.

During WWI served as a Naval Academy, armed guard, and engineering training ship. Decommissioned 15 May 1920. Designation BB 10 assigned 17 July 1920. Sold for scrapping 22 January 1922 under the Washington Treaty.

DANFS History

Built by Newport News SB&DD, VA. Laid down 7 February 1900, launched 28 December 1901, commissioned 1 December 1903.

Operated with the Atlantic Fleet. Suffered significant damage and 36 fatalities in a powder explosion 13 April 1904 repaired at Newport News. Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Underwent partial modernization 1909. Decommissioned to reserve for full modernization at Boston 1 May 1910 recommissioned and completed 1 June 1911.

From 1912 to 1917 was assigned as a training ship, primarily for the Naval Academy, and was decommissioned to reserve when not needed for that function was in reserve for the following periods: 9 September 1912 to 16 March 1914, 2 December 1914 to 15 April 1915, 18 October 1915 to 2 May 1916, late 1916 to 23 April 1917. During WWI served as an engineering and gunnery training ship for US recruits, foreign crews, and armed guards. Postwar operated as a transport.

Decommissioned 8 September 1919. Designation BB 11 assigned 17 July 1920. Stricken for disposal 1 July 1921, sold for scrapping 26 January 1922 under the Washington Treaty.

DANFS History

Built by Union Iron Works, San Francisco, CA. Laid down 22 April 1899, launched 18 May 1901, commissioned 4 October 1904.

Served on Asiatic Station 1905-1907. Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Modernized 1909. During 1909-1913 served mainly as a training ship for the New York Naval Militia, but was also active with the fleet. Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914. Served as a Naval Academy training ship during the summers of 1914, 1915 and 1916 was reduced to commissioned reserve during the winters of 1914-1915, 1915-1916, and 1916-1917. Placed in full commission 23 April 1917.

Served as a training ship throughout WWI. Reduced to commissioned reserve 7 January 1919. Designation BB 12 assigned 17 July 1920. Decommissioned 31 May 1922, stricken for disposal 14 August 1922, sold for scrapping 24 March 1923 under the Washington Treaty.

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Virginia class battleships
Displacement: 14,948 tons normal 16,094 tons full load
Dimensions: 441 x 76 x 24 feet/134.5 x 23.25 x 7.24 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 12 boilers ( Virginia, Georgia : 24 boilers), 2 shafts, 19,000 ihp, 19 knots
Crew: 812
Armor: KC & Harvey: 6-11 inch belt, 1.5-3 inch deck, 6-10 inch barbettes, 6-12 inch turrets, 4-12 inch secondary battery, 2-9 inch CT
Armament: 2 dual 12"/40cal, 4 dual 8"/45cal, 12 6"/50cal, 12 3"/50cal, 12 3-pound, 4 21 inch torpedo tubes (submerged)

Concept/Program: Significantly larger, more capable battleships in general all capabilities were improved as compared to the previous class. Unfortunately they were completed just as the dreadnoughts came into existence, so they were instantly obsolete.

Design: Essentially an enlarged and improved version of the previous class. These ships re-introduced the 8" intermediate battery unfortunately half the 8" guns were in unworkable double-level turrets, as in Kearsarge . The other four 8" guns were in independent turrets, as in Indiana . The 6" secondary battery was placed in casemates. These ships reached 19 knots, one knot better than the previous class.

Modernization: During 1909-1910 the ships underwent modernization as part of fleet-wide improvements cage foremasts and mainmasts were fitted, and the 3-pound guns were removed. By 1919 all of the 6" and four of the 3" had been removed, and 2 3 inch AA had been added Virginia and Georgia had been reboilered with 12 boilers.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Reduced to reserve or training duties by 1916 and were discarded in the post-WWI fleet reductions.

DANFS History

Built by Newport News SB&DD, VA. Laid down 21 May 1902, launched 6 April 1904, commissioned 7 May 1906.

Served with the Atlantic Fleet. Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Modernized at Norfolk Navy Yard February-June 1909. Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914. Reduced to commissioned reserve for overhaul at Boston Navy Yard 20 March 1916 completed and placed in full commission 27 August 1917. Served as a gunnery training ship during WWI, and briefly as an escort served as a transport postwar.

Was inactive after July 1919. Designation BB 13 assigned 17 July 1920. Decommissioned 13 August 1920, stricken for disposal 12 July 1922. Transferred to the War Department as a target 6 August 1923 sunk as a bombing target 5 September 1923.

DANFS History

Built by Moran Brothers, Seattle, WA. Renamed prior to launch. Laid down 4 July 1902, launched 7 October 1904, commissioned 1 July 1907.

Joined the cruise of the Great White Fleet in 1908. Remained in the Atlantic after the cruise. Underwent partial modernization prior to full modernization. Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914 and 1916. Reduced to commissioned reserve late 1916 placed in full commission 3 April 1917. During WWI operated as a training ship for armed guard crews, and as an escort served as a transport postwar.

Returned to the Pacific in 1919. Decommissioned 2 July 1920. Designation BB 14 assigned 17 July 1920. Stricken for disposal 12 July 1922, rendered incapable of service 9 November 1923, sold for scrapping 30 November 1923 under the Washington Treaty.

DANFS History

Built by Bath Iron Works, ME. Laid down 31 August 1901, launched 11 October 1904, commissioned 4 September 1906.

Operated with the Atlantic Fleet. Suffered minor damage and 10 fatalities in a powder explosion 15 July 1907. Refitted at Philadelphia Navy Yard late 1907, then participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Modernized 1910. Operated mainly as a training and ceremonial ship, 1911-1913. Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914.

Overhauled late 1914-early 1915 spent most of 1915 in training and ceremonial duties. Decommissioned 27 January 1916 as a receiving ship at Boston. Recommissioned for WWI service 6 April 1917 operated with the fleet, as a merchant gunnery crew training ship, and as a convoy escort during WWI. Served as a troop transport postwar, then transferred to the Pacific, and operated in ceremonial duties. Was inactive after 20 July 1919. Decommissioned 15 July 1920, stricken for disposal 12 July 1922, sold for scrapping 1 November 1923 under the Washington Treaty.

DANFS History

Built by Fore River SB, Quincy, MA. Laid down 2 April 1902, launched 10 November 1904, commissioned 12 May 1906.

Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Decommissioned for modernization at Boston Navy Yard 2 May 1910 completed and recommissioned 15 July 1911. Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914. Served as a training ship during WWI, and as a transport postwar.

Decommissioned 6 August 1920. Designation BB 16 assigned 17 July 1920. Stricken for disposal 12 July 1922. Transferred to the War Department as a target sunk as bombing target 5 September 1922.

DANFS History

Built by Fore River SB, Quincy, MA. Laid down 1 May 1902, launched 17 May 1904, commissioned 19 February 1906.

Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Modernized 1909. Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1913-1914. Reduced to commissioned reserve 15 May 1915. Placed in full commission 27 May 1917 participated in antisubmarine patrols and trials. Operated as a transport postwar, then transferred to the Pacific in 1919.

Decommissioned 30 June 1920. Designation BB 17 assigned 17 July 1920. Stricken for disposal 12 July 1922, rendered incapable of service 4 October 1923. Sold for scrapping 1 November 1923 under the Washington Treaty.

[Back To Top]

Connecticut class battleships
Displacement: 16,000 tons normal 17,666 tons full load
Dimensions: 456 x 77 x 24.5 feet/139.1 x 23.4 x 7.5 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 12 250 psi boilers, 2 shafts, 16,500 ihp, 18 knots
Crew: 827 (881-896 wartime)
Armor: KC & Harvey: 6-11 inch belt (BB 20-22, 25: 7-9 inch), 1.5-3 inch deck, 6-10 inch barbettes (BB 25: 6-11 inch), 8-12 inch turrets, 3.75-7 inch intermediate batteries, 2-9 inch CT
Armament: 2 dual 12"/45cal, 4 dual 8"/45cal, 12 7"/45cal, 20 3"/50cal, 12 3-pound, 4 21 inch torpedo tubes (submerged)

Concept/Program: By far the best of the US predreadnoughts. However, they were completed at the same time as HMS Dreadnought , so they were obsolete upon completion. Even so, they formed the core of the US battle fleet until new dreadnoughts joined the fleet in significant numbers. The ships were ordered in three groups: BB 18-19 in 1902, BB 20-22 in 1903, and BB 25 in 1904. The 1903/1904 ships are sometimes considered a separate class, due to differences in armoring details, but were otherwise identical to the 1902 group.

Design: An enlarged and improved edition of the previous design. The speed was one knot lower, but the armament was heavier. For the first time in US predreadnought design, they were truly good sea boats. The 8" intermediate battery was in four turrets, as in Indiana , the previous double-level arrangement having been abandoned. The secondary battery was increased to 7" this seemed justified, in that the 7" was a more powerful weapon than the 6", but still must faster-firing than the big 8". Unfortunately the splashes of 7" and 8" shells were indistinguishable for fire-control purposes, reducing the value of both batteries a more uniform battery of turreted 7" or 8" would have been better.

Variations: BB 20-22 had thinner belt armor, but a larger area was protected BB 25 continued this alteration, and had slight differences in the armoring of her barbettes.

Modernization: During 1909-1910 the ships underwent modernization as part of fleet-wide improvements cage foremasts and mainmasts were fitted, and the 3-pound guns were removed. By 1919 all of the 7" and all but four of the 3" had been removed, and 2 3 inch AA had been added.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Reduced to reserve or training duties during WWI and were discarded in the post-WWI fleet reductions.

DANFS History

Built by New York Navy Yard. Laid down 30 March 1903, launched 29 September 1904, commissioned 29 September 1906.

Was the flagship of the Great White Fleet during the world cruise, 1907-1909. Modernized 1910 remained active with the fleet through 1916. Reduced to commissioned reserve as a receiving ship at Philadelphia Navy Yard, 1916. Restored to full commission 3 October 1916. Served as a Naval Academy and armed guard training ship during WWI as a transport postwar, then as a Naval Academy training ship.

Designation BB 18 assigned 17 July 1920. Transferred to the Pacific in 1921 as flagship of the fleet auxiliary force. Decommissioned 1 March 1923, sold for scrapping 1 November 1923 under the Washington Treaty, officially stricken 10 November 1923, after she had been sold.

DANFS History

Built by Newport News SB&DD, VA. Laid down 7 February 1903, launched 27 August 1904, commissioned 2 June 1906.

Operated with the Atlantic Fleet, then participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Modernized 1910. Cruised to European waters, then made three cruises off Mexico, including participation in operations at Vera Cruz, 1914. Reduced to commissioned reserve as a training ship late 1915 made summer training cruises but was otherwise inactive.

Placed in full commission 1917 as a gunnery and engineering training ship also made one trip as an escort, and served as a transport postwar. Designation BB 19 assigned 17 July 1920. Decommissioned 20 October 1920, sold for scrapping 1 November 1923 under the Washington Treaty, officially stricken 10 November 1923, after she had been sold.

DANFS History

Built by Fore River SB, Quincy, MA. Laid down 21 May 1904, launched 31 August 1905, commissioned 4 March 1907.

Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Modernized at Boston Navy Yard April-July 1910. Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914. Briefly in reserve, 1 October 1916 to 21 November 1916. Served as an engineering training ship during WWI, and as a transport postwar. Transferred to the Pacific in 1919.

Decommissioned 30 June 1920. Designation BB 20 assigned 17 July 1920. Stricken for disposal 10 November 1923, sold for scrapping 30 November 1923 under the Washington Treaty.

DANFS History

Built by New York SB, Camden, NJ. Laid down 10 February 1904, launched 12 August 1905, commissioned 18 April 1907.

Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Overhauled at Philadelphia Navy Yard 1909, then modernized at Norfolk Navy Yard 1910 apparently remained mostly inactive through 1912. Operated as a Naval Academy training ship 1912, then overhauled at Philadelphia Navy Yard 21 December 1912 to 5 May 1913.

Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914. Overhauled at Philadelphia Navy Yard 30 September 1916-July 1917. Operated as a training ship for engineers and as a convoy escort during WWI served as a troopship postwar. Overhauled at Philadelphia Navy Yard 29 June 1919 to 17 May 1920. Operated as a Naval Academy training ship at times during 1920-1921. Designation BB 21 assigned 17 July 1920.

Decommissioned 16 Decemeber 1921, stricken 24 August 1923, scrapped at Philadelphia Navy Yard under the Washington Treaty.

DANFS History

Built by Newport News SB&DD, VA. Laid down 27 October 1903, launched 8 April 1905, commissioned 9 March 1907.

Participated in the cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Modernized 1909, then operated with the Atlantic Fleet. Reduced to commissioned reserve November 1916. Placed in full commission 6 April 1917 as an engineering and gunnery training ship. Seriously damaged by a mine 29 September 1918 repaired at Philadelphia Navy Yard through February 1919. Operated as a transport postwar, then as a training ship, mainly for the Naval Academy. Designation BB 22 assigned 17 July 1920.

Decommissioned and stricken for disposal 1 December 1921 and partially scrapped at Philadelphia Navy Yard under the Washington Treaty remaining hulk sold for scrap 23 January 1924.

DANFS History

Built by New York SB, Camden, NJ. Laid down 1 May 1905, launched 30 June 1906, commissioned 19 March 1908.

Completed too late to participate in the cruise of the Great White Fleet. Operated with the Atlantic Fleet saw varied duty in US and European waters, and in the Caribbean. Modernized 1910 or 1911. Participated in operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914-1915. Overhauled 1917. During WWI operated as a gunnery and engineering training ship, and briefly as an escort postwar served as a transport.

Overhauled 1919-1920, then served with the fleet. Designation BB 25 assigned 17 July 1920. Decommissioned 21 May 1921, sold for scrapping 1 November 1923 under the Washington Treaty, officially stricken 10 November 1923, after she had been sold.

[Back To Top]

Mississippi class second class battleships
Displacement: 13,000 tons normal 14,049 tons full load
Dimensions: 382 x 77 x 25 feet/116.4 x 23.5 x 7.5 meters
Propulsion: VTE engines, 8 250 psi boilers, 2 shafts, 10,000 ihp, 17 knots
Crew: 744 (804 wartime)
Armor: KC & Harvey: 7-9 inch belt, 3 inch decks, 6-10 inch barbettes, 8-12 inch turrets, 3.75-7 inch intermediate battery, 9 inch CT
Armament: 2 dual 12"/45cal, 8 8"/45cal, 8 7"/45cal, 12 3"/50cal, 6 3-pound, 2 1-pound, 2 21 inch torpedo tubes (submerged)

Concept/Program: An attempt to build Connecticut class features into a ship displacing 3,000 tons less not a success. Completed after HMS Dreadnought , so were instantly obsolete. Due to their obsolescence and problems with the design, they were sold in 1914, after only six years of service.

Design: Essentially a cut-down Connecticut design, giving up one knot of speed, four 7" guns, eight 3" guns, two torpedo tubes, and some freeboard. The resulting ships were too slow, and rolled very badly. Originally there was no mainmast.

Modernization: Cage mainmasts were fitted in 1909, and during 1911 the ships underwent limited modernization as part of fleet-wide improvements as part of this modernization cage foremasts were fitted.

Departure from Service/Disposal: Sold in 1914 to pay for a new dreadnought.

DANFS History

Built by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia. Laid down 12 May 1904, launched 30 September 1905, commissioned 1 February 1908.

Operated in the Caribbean and cruised up the Mississippi River in 1909. Modernized 1911 landed troops in Cuba 1912. Reduced to commissioned reserve 1 August 1912. Placed in full commission 30 December 1913 as an aviation station ship at Pensacola modified to support seaplanes. Served as a seaplane support ship during operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, 1914.

Decommissioned, stricken, and transferred to Greece 21 July 1914 at Newport News renamed Lemnos and served as a coast defense ship. Decommissioned 1932 and hulked as a training ship disarmed as accommodation ship 1937. Sunk by German aircraft at Salamis, 23 April 1941. Hulk salvaged 1951 and scrapped.

[Back To Top]
Idaho
B-24
Photos: [None available].

DANFS History

Built by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia, PA. Laid down 12 May 1904, launched 9 December 1905, commissioned 1 April 1908.

Operated with the Atlantic Fleet. Cruised up the Mississippi in 1911. Reduced to commissioned reserve 27 October 1913 returned to full commission May 1914 as a Naval Academy training ship.

Decommissioned, stricken, and transferred to Greece 30 July 1914 at Villefrance, France renamed Kilkis and served as a coast defense ship. Decommissioned to reserve 1932 hulked as a training ship 1935. Sunk by German aircraft at Salamis, 23 April 1941. Hulk salvaged 1951 and scrapped.


USS Patterson (DD-36) fitting out, 1911 - History

R adio B oulevard
Western Historic Radio Museum


Featuring Full Length Articles on:

Rebuilding Vintage Radio Communication Equipment
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Featuring Equipment from:

Wireless Era. Roaring Twenties. Classic Thirties
Pre-WWII Ham Gear. Post-WWII Ham Gear
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Website Navigation Index

Part One - Detailed history of the design and manufacturing of the Grebe MU-1, MU-2 and other variants, Dr. Mu QSL cards, Color Advertising Brochure

Detailed history write-ups and performance evaluations on several different models of pre-WWII, WWII and post-WWII LW receivers with examples from the US Navy, US Army Signal Corps, Radiomarine Corp., Mackay Radio and Telegraph Co., Hammarlund Mfg. Co., Collins Radio Co. and National Company. Includes info on using vintage LW gear on 630 meters. Lots of information and lots of photos.

Part One - Radiomarine IP-501-A, Mackay Radio Type 105A, National Company RIO, USN RAA-3, USN RAG-1, Hammarlund SP-100LX, USN RAZ-1, USN RAK-7 & RAL-7,

Part Two - USN RBL-5, Signal Corps BC-344-D, Radiomarine Corp. AR-8510, USN RBA-1 (with rebuild info and reception log,) RBA-6, Mackay Radio Type RC-123 & Type 3001A,

Part Three - Collins R-389/URR (with rebuild info,) Hammarlund SP-600VLF-31 (with performance details,) RACAL RA-17 with RA-237-B L.F. Converter (performance details and reception log,) Using Selective Level Meters as Long Wave Receivers, Other Communication Receivers with some Long Wave Coverage

Part Four - What to listen to below 500kc, USN VLF Stations, SAQ 17.2kc, 630M amateur operation. 2007 Photo-tour of Loran-C "Master" Station in Fallon, Nevada. NDB stations in Nevada. Complete NDB reception log.

Comprehensive history of the design and manufacturing of the HRO. Serial number log for determining build date of your HRO. Several restoration write-ups. Lots of photos and information.

Part One - History of the development of the HRO receiver, detailed descriptions on pre-WWII HRO Models, WWII HRO Models, post-WWII HRO Models

Part Two - Serial Number Analysis and Log, Current Owners of D & E run HROs, Chronologically listed Engineering Upgrades, HRO Accessories - Power Supplies, Speakers, Coil Boxes

Part Three - Guild to Restoring HRO Receivers, Gear Box, PW-D Dial, Coil Set Details, Restoration Articles on 1935 HRO SN H-103, 1940 HRO Senior SN 463-K

Comprehensive history of the design and manufacturing. Details on most of the sixty+ different types of Moving Coil receivers. Includes details on the Airport Receivers, the WWII versions and the post-WWII versions. Serial Number Analysis and Log. Several detailed restoration write-ups. Serial number analysis and log. Lots of photos and lots of information.

Part One - Design History, profiles on NC-100 (1936) to NC-2-40D (1947) Receivers, Airport Receivers (1937 through 1948), WWII Receivers USN RAO Series, RBH Series, Signal Corps NC-100ASD, USCG R-116

Part Two - Serial Number Analysis & Log, Chronologically Listed Engineering Changes, Catacomb Coils Details, PW Gearbox, PW-Dial info, S-Meter, Speakers

Part Three - Restoration Write-ups: NC-200 Silver Anniversary, NC-100XA, US Army NC-100ASD

Comprehensive history of design and manufacturing. Includes the SX-28A, AN/GRR-2, R-45/ARR-7 and other receivers. Serial number analysis and log allows dating your SX-28. Restoration information. Performance comparisons. Lots of photos.

Part One - History of the design, the SX-28, SX-28A, AN/GRR-2, R-45/ARR-7, R-12 Speaker, PM-23 Speaker, Estimated Production Quantities, Serial Number Log

Detailed history of design and manufacturing. Profile of XE1G ham station and the first amateur diversity receiver. DD-1 prototype information. Serial number analysis. List of current owners of known DD-1 receivers. Restoration information. Performance details. Lots of photos.

Part One - Detailed history of the DD-1 development, XE1G diversity receiver (inspiration for the DD-1,) Prototype DD-1, Production DD-1

Comprehensive history of the AR-88 family of receivers with circuit details and variations in construction. Includes details on AR-88D, AR-88LF, AR-88F, CR-91, CR-91A, CR88, CR88A, CR-88B, including triple diversity receivers RDM, DR-89, OA-58. Sweep Alignments, Restoration Hints, Serial Number Analysis. Collector Photo Gallery. Lots of photos and lots of information.

Part One - Comprehensive History of design and manufacturing, Russian hams using the AR-88, General information on the various models

Part Two - Triple Diversity Models, Serial Number Analysis, Restoration Suggestions

Part Three - Sweep Alignment of the IF (includes photos of the actual 'scope patterns using modern equipment,) RF Tracking alignment, Restoration of a typical AR-88D

Comprehensive history of the Super Pro receivers from 1935 to 1948. Includes SP-10, SP-100, SP-200, SP-400, BC-779, BC-794, BC-1004, SPA, R-270 Wickes Eng. version and other military versions. Includes special appendices on the Comet Pro receiver and HQ-120X/RBG receivers. Restoration details on SP-10, SP-100 and SP-400 receivers. Collector Photo Gallery. Lots of photos and lots of information.

Part One - History of the Pre-WWII Super Pro, details on SP-10, SP-100 Series, SP-150, SP-200 Series, Military Versions, SP-400 Series, Power Supplies, Power Cable, Serial Number Analysis and Serial Number Log

Part Two - Chronological Listing of Engineering Changes, Restoration hints, History of the Louis Geisler Modifications (1947 to 1950s,) Restoration of SP-10 from WMI, Restoration of SP-100X

Part Three - Restoration of SP-100LX, Rebuilding the SP-400-SX, Collector Gallery Photos, Appendices on the Comet Pro and HQ-120X/RBG

Part One - History of the R-390 and R-390A, description of each module and basic rebuilding information, Main Frame, RF Deck, IF Deck, AF Module, PS Module, PTO, Lots of photos

Part Two - Front panel restoration, Contractor list by year, Alignment Suggestions, Performance expectations

Part Three - Miscellaneous Information, Restoration - detailed restoration profiles of several R-390A receivers, (2) 1967 EAC versions, Arvin R-725 version, Diversity R-390As

Part One - History of the ATC and ART-13, Accessories, Testing Prospective Purchases, Powering the ART-13 with a Dynamotor, PP-1104-C High Current Power Supply details

Part Two - Powering the ART-13 with a homebrew AC Power Supply, Three AC Power Supply Plans with Schematics, Updates to AC power supplies, Mechanical Servicing of the Autotune

Part Three - Restoration profile of the USAAF ART-13A Basket Case, Restoration profile of the USN Collins ART-13 "typical restoration," Restoration of the $10 (Wasp's Nest) ART-13A

Part One - History of the design, Overview of the task, Rebuilding the RF Platform, Replacing Capacitors in IF, Xtal Osc, Conversion Osc, Chassis, Lots of photos

Part Two - Miscellaneous Electronic Work, Rebuilding the Carrier Level/Audio Level Meter

Part One - Rebuilding and Retrofitting the DM-28 Dynamotor into the Single Ended Tube Versions of the BC-348 (Q, N or J only,) with schematics

Part Two - Rebuilding and Retrofitting the DM-28 Dynamotor into the Grid Cap Versions of the BC-348 (all other versions,) Retrofitting the DM-24 into the BC-224 versions, with schematics

History of the design, overview of the T-195, testing and repairing the T-195, lots of photos and information , Testing and repairing the R-392 receiver, GRC-19 Operation suggestions

Part One - History of the design, circuit description, testing and repair of the three decks, testing and repair of cabinet harness

Part One - Hand Keys , includes Spark Keys, Boston Keys, Early Radio Keys, Leg Keys, Flame-proof Keys, Recently Made Keys, "British-style" Morse, Land Line Telegraph Equipment, Sounders, Keys, Relays , KOBs

Part Two - Semi-Automatic Keys or Bugs , History of Vibroplex showing many early models, Mecograph, ATOZ, J-36 versions, Speed-X Radio Mfg, Speed-X Mfg, Speed-X E.F. Johnson, McElroy Mfg, Buzza, Kenco, Speed Bug, Dow-Key, 73 Bug and more - Learning Tools, records, oscillators, Instructographs


Vintage Microphones - Broadcast Mikes - RCA, Western Electric - General Purpose Mikes - Shure Bros, Astatic, Turner, American, Carbon Mikes - Detailed Manufacturer History and Engineering-Construction

Part One - 1928 to 1935, includes Pilot Radio, National Co, RME, Hammarlund, Patterson, Breting, RCA, Hallicrafters, Tobe Deutschmann and more

Part One - WWII US Navy Equipment, includes RAZ-1, RAK&RAL, RBA, RBB, RBC, RBG, RBH, RCD, RCH and more, US Navy Shipboard and Shore Entertainment Receivers

Part Two - WWII US Navy and USAAF Airborne Radio Comms and Air Nav Gear - includes DZ-2, RU-16, ARB, ZB-3, Gibson Girls, BC-224, BC-348, BC-375, ART-13, BC1206, ARR-5, ARR-7, lots of info on Pre-WWII Air Navigation

Part Three - WWII Radiomarine Corp WWII gear, US Coast Guard gear, US Army Signal Corps, WWII Radio Test Gear

Part Four - WWII Ally Radio Communications Equipment - Marconi/RAF R1155 Receiver, Kingsley Radio Co. AR7 "HRO knock-off," Marconi/RN C.R. 300/1 Navy Receiver, Canadian Marconi Co. CSR-5 RCN Receiver

Includes Airport and Airways Receivers, Shipboard Receivers, General Purpose Receivers, Pre-WWII and Post-WWII Military Radio Equipment

Part One - 1930 to 1958 - National Co Airport Rcvrs RHM, AGS, RIO, RHQ, RCA AVR-11A, Mackay Radio 105A & 101A, USN RAG-1, USN RAA-3, USCG-RCA CGR-32 (AR-60,) RCA AR-88 family, Radiomarine AR-8506-B, AR-8510, AR-8516, AR-8711, Hammarlund SP-100LX

Part Two - 1949 to 1960s - Collins 51J Series, R-388, R-390, R-390A, R-389, R-648, R-725, Hammarlund SP-600 Series, Signal Corps-Hallicrafters R-274, TMC GPR-90RXD, National NC-400, RACAL RA-17, Nems-Clarke VHF Receivers, Zenith Morale Radios R-520 & R520A, PRD-1 Direction Finding Set, GRC-19 Transmitter-Receiver, T-368 Transmitter

Header Artwork: from "Magic Dials" 1939 by Lowell Thomas

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Watch the video: Patreon 34: Inter-war Naval Aircraft Development - what could have been? (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Hagan

    Granted, a great idea

  2. Timothy

    It is not clear to me.

  3. Baldwin

    Congratulations, you have a wonderful thought.

  4. Narisar

    Interesting moment



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