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Faces of Roman Emperors: Imperial Crisis & the Barracks Emperors

Faces of Roman Emperors: Imperial Crisis & the Barracks Emperors


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A series of facial reconstructions of Roman emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 CE), including the Gordian Emperors. These so-called "Barracks emperors" seized power during a time of turmoil, and their reigns were typically brief and violent. During this period, the Roman Empire fragmented, before being eventually reunified during the reign of Aurelian (270-275 CE).

These photorealistic reconstructions are only best guesses at how their subjects may have appeared, based on literary and artistic evidence. Some artistic license has been taken to fill in certain details that ancient sources failed to note. In some cases, artistic evidence is scarce, so portraits of close relatives are used to give an indication of how a subject likely would have appeared. Part of "Appearance of the Principate", a larger series by Daniel Voshart, made using Photoshop and Artbreeder, a neural net tool.


Emperor's Royal Guard

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Lesser Known and Would be Roman and Byzantine Emperors (27BC-695AD)

Crossover flag of the Roman and Byzantine Empires

Welcome back to another article from The Byzantium Blogger! It’s been a long time since I last posted something and you wonder if I’m still alive or what, but here I am with a new article for all of you to read. This here will be another article on Roman and Byzantine emperors except unlike the many previous ones I made, this one will not focus on the emperors we know like Augustus Caesar, Trajan, Constantine the Great, and Justinian the Great but of those whose named are never really found in the history books. This article will rather focus and mention names of the Roman and Byzantine emperors that we never heard of or aren’t considered legitimate emperors in the history books. The emperors here will mostly be either men who were named emperors including family members who were co-emperors but aren’t heard of that much as they are not so vital in history, emperors who were actually in power but were not considered legitimate rulers as they were enemies of the state, emperors who actually took power but remain to be usurpers, and would be usurpers against reigning emperors who came so close to ruling the empire but were defeated before they could take the throne. This article will be written simply and in a list format going by names of emperors which begins in the time of the early days of the Roman Empire after its formation by Augustus in 27BC and ending in the year 695 in the Byzantine era. Take note, this article will be a 2-part series as it will be too long to mention all the names of unknown and would-be emperors from 27BC to 1453. On the other hand, this list would not go on for so long because not all emperors of Rome and Byzantium had another person challenging them or being crowned emperor at the same time but this article will also try its best to name emperors you have never heard of and some others you might have heard of but are not given so much attention to like for example Lucius Verus who was emperor Marcus Aurelius’ co-emperor for the longest time and the rest will include sons or brothers of emperors who were made co-emperors of their fathers or brothers and rebel leaders who tried to claim the throne or if not already were proclaimed emperor by their troops. This article too will feature emperors of the Roman Empire and of its successor empires the Eastern and Western Roman Empires other Roman emperors who did not rule from Rome such as the Gallic emperors from 260-274AD, the rulers of the breakaway Roman Empire of Palmyra at the same time, other co-rulers of the Roman Tetrarchy between 286 and 325, puppet emperors of the Western Roman Empire, and Roman and Byzantine usurpers, but not rulers of Roman successor states like Soissons in the 5th century as it was just an independent Roman state that was born out of the empire but not one ruled by an actual emperor. In addition, other records like the Historia Augusta mention some names of usurping emperors who may have not existed so these names will not be mentioned in this article. This article too will be divided into sections each with a list of lesser known and would be emperors of that period which will begin with the early Principate exactly at the year 42AD with the first would-be but failed Roman emperor. The list then goes on but will have more volume when getting to the Crisis of the 3rd Century era wherein the Roman Empire had numerous usurpers and pretenders and also in the 5th century Western Roman Empire and Byzantine period after the 6th century as from then on there would be many to challenge the power of the emperor. Again, before starting, the Byzantine Empire though being located in the east with Constantinople as its capital and becoming culturally and linguistically Greek overtime is still considered the continuation of the Roman Empire as the capital moved east to Constantinople and so did the seat of the Roman emperor.

To learn more the emperors of the Roman Empire including lesser known ones, please follow Roman Emperors on Instagram, some images in this article come from there as well.

Also subscribe to Dovahhatty on Youtube to learn more about the Unbiased History of Rome in which many of its videos will be linked in this article. Some information in this article and many of the images of different characters of ancient Rome which are rare online were taken from this channel. Also, the finale of Unbiased History has just been released, so to not spoil you about it, nothing of that episode is featured here. Watch it here if you want to see the finale The Fall of Rome.

Byzantine Empire flag The Roman Empire at its height, 117 The Byzantine Empire’s extents in 3 different periods

Related Articles from The Byzantium Blogger:

I. The Early Principate (27BC-235AD)

Camillus Scribonianus (42AD)- In 41AD, Caligula the 3 rd emperor of the Roman Empire was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard in a plot led by the Praetorian commander Cassius Chaerea who proceeded to kill Caligula’s wife and child but another division of the Praetorian Guard instead of wanting to finish off the imperial family wanted to replace Caligula with his uncle Claudius who they found hiding behind a curtain and there they proclaimed him emperor. Claudius I at first did not want to become emperor as it was never planned for him but he had to accept it anyway otherwise civil war would break out and as emperor, Claudius’ main goal was to restore order from the bloody and decadent reign of Caligula. Meanwhile in the Roman province of Dalmatia in 42AD, its governor who was the Roman senator Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus who was considered to be emperor following the assassination led a rebellion against Claudius with his troops in Dalmatia aiming to march on Rome and take over seeing Claudius would not succeed as emperor and as emperor Camillus planned to restore the old authority of the senate. Claudius when hearing of Camillus’ revolt considered abdicating in favor of Camillus but was dissuaded by the senate so Claudius sent an army to Dalmatia to deal with Camillus’ rebellion which was on the other hand made up of new and inexperienced soldiers. Within 5 days in the year 42AD, the legions loyal to Claudius were able to crush Camillus’ rebellion, yet it was never recorded if both forces met in battle or if Camillus just decided to give up on rebelling. However, what actually happened was that after 5 days of rebelling, Camillus’ soldiers refused to obey his orders so Camillus fled to the island of Issa in the Dalmatian coast committing suicide to avoid capture. Now if Camillus actually had the strength and a disciplined army, he would have actually marched against Claudius and overthrow him, thus ending the Julio-Claudian Dynasty in 42AD.


Faces of Roman Emperors: Imperial Crisis & the Barracks Emperors - History

Coins for this issuer were issued from 235 until 238.

Gaius Julius Valerius Maximinus was born in Thrace and began life as a lowly soldier. He rose through the ranks until, by the military campaigns of Severus Alexander, he had control of a legion and governorship of Mesopotamia. He was involved in Alexander’s German campaign and acclaimed emperor by his troops near Mainz.

The Senate did not like Maximinus because he spent no time in Rome and extorted huge sums of money to finance his very successful military campaigns. They also viewed him with prejudice because of his very humble origins. Gordian I and II tried to take over the government from Africa, but that rebellion was put down in Rome, Balbienus and Pupienus were elected joint emperors by the Senate and Maximinus marched towards Rome. He was stopped in Aquileia when the town refused to offer him shelter. He started a siege but was killed by assassins who took his head to Rome.

Maximinus, also called Maximinus Thrax in refernce to his Thracian origins, was a huge man with a prominent chin. Reports characterize him as abnormally tall and very muscular.

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Information from Wikipedia

  • Preferred label: Maximinus Thrax
  • Full names:
    • Maximinus Thrax
    • Father:
    • Mother:
    • Consul of the Roman Empire
    • List of Roman emperors

    Denominations issued

    • As - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Aureus (Republic/Empire) - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Denarius (Empire) - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Dupondius - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Sestertius - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Semis - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Dupondius or as - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Quadrans - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Quinarius - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Radiate (antoninianus) - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus
    • Medallion - view all records of this denomination issued by Maximinus

    Issuing mints

    This video has been embedded from Adrian Murdoch's series of podcasts on the Emperors of Rome. Many thanks to him for allowing us to use these podcasts.

    Other formats: this page is available as xml json rdf representations.


    Faces of Roman Emperors: Imperial Crisis & the Barracks Emperors - History

    Chapter 107 – The Four Military Leaders

    Ye Qingyu made his decision, not hesitating anymore and preparing to act.

    He activated his inner yuan, then struck out with his fist.

    A large hole was directly created in the stone bridge he was hiding under…

    The rock structure shattered immediately, dust and smoke rising in the air.

    At this instant, Ye Qingyu was like a bolt of lightning flying from beneath the bridge with his palm strikes like electricity. In a split second he had struck four times. The four elite soldiers of the [Black Mountain Barracks] that were wearing black armoured face masks did not react to this ambush in time. They were hit directly in the foreheads. With a muffled grunt, their bodies went limp, falling down.

    Ye Qingyu only knocked them unconscious, he did not kill them.

    On the bridge, the last soldier of the [Black Mountain Barracks] holding the black-clothed person was still there. He was shocked, his mouth opened wide and loudly exclaiming.

    The voice belonged to Xia Houwu

    Ye Qingyu let out a cold laugh, nearing the distance in an instant.

    Xia Houwu felt that this laughter was somewhat familiar, as if he had heard it before somewhere. But in this brief moment he could not investigate too deeply before he needed to defend, the long spear in his hands blocking the strike of the enemy.

    Ye Qingyu still only utilized his fists.

    Within the sound of the impact, the standard weapon made from steel was bent in a split second by this punch.

    The fist completely crushed past the wailing spear, striking onto Xia Houwu’s body.

    The body of the spear snapped.

    Xia Houwu felt his soul flying away and scattering. He could sense a vast force behind the punch entering within his chest. Afterwards, like a mountain torrent breaking out and unleashing, the force destroyed everything in its path. In this moment, he could even hear the terrifying noise of his own internal organs shattering and crumbling apart.

    This was the sound of death arriving.

    The pupils of Xia Houwu dilated.

    “It’s you…” He was finally able to recognize Ye Qingyu at the last moment.

    The next second, Xia Houwu was possessed by hatred and mad regret, incomparably alarmed. That he would meet Ye Qingyu here, could it be that his fate had already been decided by the Heavens? This meeting was different from their last in the [Boundary Canyon Battlefield]. Dying here represented a true death, without the chance to resurrect.

    “You should have long died. This time, who can save you?” A second force exploded from Ye Qingyu’s fist.

    “You… would really dare kill me, you…” he bellowed with a dark guttural roar, his facial features covered with hatred and venom. His body was like a kite that had its string broken, landing against a stone wall. Blood spurted madly from his mouth, completely fainting.

    Ye Qingyu’s hand struck out again, forming a blade with his hand and snapping the shackles of the black-clothed man.

    “Follow me and leave.” Ye Qingyu extended his hand to support him.

    The black-clothed man that was heavily injured was able to recognize Ye Qingyu. But instead of taking a hand, he took a step backwards and shook his head.

    Ye Qingyu was taken aback.

    A bitter smile appeared on the black-clothed man, determinedly shaking his head. “Young lord, quickly go. They have already seen my face they know what I look like. Today within Deer City, everyone under the Bitter Sea stage prosecuted by the army will ultimately be found. Don’t worry about me. Bringing me along will only be your burden…”

    Ye Qingyu still could not bear leaving him behind.

    Since this black-clothed person was tasked with the responsibility of bring him to see Wang Jianru and little loli, then evidently he was a person that Wang Jianru trusted very much. If possible, Ye Qingyu of course wanted to save him.

    “You should leave quickly, don’t linger in such a dangerous place.” The black-clothed man took another step or two backwards. “My life is cheap, if not for my master in these past years, I would have long died. Right now I will give my life back to my master… Young lord, quickly go. Master has already arranged everything the little princess will definitely be unharmed. You don’t need to worry.”

    As he finished, he grabbed a long sword lying beside him. With a slice, quick as lightning, he mercilessly sliced apart his own face.

    Ye Qingyu was greatly shocked.

    He was able to see that this sword had completely sliced apart the skin of his face. His entire facial features were a bloody mess. There was absolutely no way anymore of recognizing his original features. The black-clothed man let out a long laugh, then stabbed the blade into his own chest. He jumped into the river under the stone bridge.

    Ye Qingyu remained silent with no words he could say.

    He knew the reason why this black-clothed man had destroyed his facial features. He was afraid that even if he died, that the army would be able to trace his background and history. He was worried that his family in the city would be affected. Therefore, he would completely destroy his face and chose to commit suicide.

    What kind of man was this to be so staunch and loyal?

    In this instant, Ye Qingyu was completely shaken.

    And at this time, there was the sound of footsteps coming from far away. There was a large quantity of elite soldiers from the [Black Mountain Barracks] that quickly rushed over.

    Ye Qingyu let out a long sigh of regret, turning and heading towards another direction.

    As he passed by the corpse of Xia Houwu, a thought occurred to him that this fellow may be faking his death. As he ran, he kicked a boulder, and under his inner yuan, the boulder was like an arrow released from a bow. It completely smashed and mutilated the head of the corpse. Confirming there was nothing else to be taken care of, Ye Qingyu quickly hid in the rubble and dust far away.

    Very quickly, tens of soldiers from the [Black Mountain Barracks] came to the stone bridge.

    Ye Qingyu had successfully managed to escape from the chaotic battlefield around the [Mist Residence].

    The experience that he had in killing and passing through the wilderness area of the [Boundary Canyon Battlefield] had given him a sensitive instinct like that of a wild beast. At this moment, it proved to be of vital use. He continuously ran into the encirclement and blockages of the [Black Mountain Barracks], but manage to successfully break through the surrounding troops every time.

    The battle in the skies was still ongoing.

    Chen Jiuxing along with tens of expert of Deer City continued to entangle Wang Jianru.

    This was the fight that would determine the final outcome of this battle.

    The sword light was like lightning, constantly slicing apart the skies.

    With every swipe of Chen Jiuxing’s huge hatchet, there would be a vast energy striking out along with it. The yuan qi hatchet chopped apart space, tides of air visible to the human eye spreading out everywhere, incomparably vigorous. By Ye Qingyu’s rough estimation, the strength of this person, should have already reached the thirty Spirit springs stage. No wonder he was one of the four military leaders of Deer City, his strength was indeed powerful.

    But even if so, along with the cooperation of tens of Spirit spring experts, Chen Jiuxing was still at a disadvantage.

    Wang Jianru seemed to be holding something in her left arm. Her right arm casually struck out, and another ray of sword light sliced apart the space. The tightly clustered sword light was like shooting stars. Although the sword light was not as vast or as large as the yuan qi hatchet, but it was far brighter. The radiance was able to completely shroud the splendour of the sun and moon. In an instant, it completely broke apart the yuan qi hatchet.

    Ye Qingyu retreated below to a restaurant a thousand meters away, mixing into the crowd. All his attention and concentration was focused on the battle in the skies.

    The surrounding conversation was noisy and clamorous, discussing the events that were occurring within the city.

    “Did you hear that the demonic girl of darkness appeared from the Qingluo Merchant Company? ”

    “That’s right. Do you not see the woman holding the sword in the skies, her background is very great. I hear that even if she dies, she wants to protect the demonic girl of darkness!”

    “It seems like this demonic girl of darkness was even a student of White Deer Academy.”

    “Hopefully the army can quickly eliminate that demonic girl. Otherwise, I hear that the demonic girl of darkness will bring with her a curse. If so, our entire Deer City will be plunged into misfortune.”

    In such a world where the martial way was prosperous, there were some people afraid of dying. But people who were not scared and loved to spectate the excitement was in greater numbers. Not only this restaurant, but many of the structures just outside the forbidden radius of entry was especially packed with all sorts of people. Every one of them was observing the battle that was like a fight between deities occurring in the skies.

    Characters like Chen Jiuxing had not fought with their full strength for a very long time. Even martial artists of the city had not seen such a world shaking battle for many years. Every one of them was fascinated by what was occurring.

    Ye Qingyu had already changed into another pair of clothing, pushing himself into the crowd without saying anything.

    And at this time, the battle in the skies had already continued on for over an hour.

    Ye Qingyu sensed that something was slightly strange, but could not say what exactly it was.

    During this moment, within the air another abrupt change occurred.—

    Another beam of light, came from the Western district of the city. Radiant like the sun, it transformed into tightly clustered dots of light. Like rain itself, it shot towards Wang Jianru

    When Ye Qingyu looked carefully, it was not green dots of light at all.

    It was evidently a large swathe of densely packed green sword lights. As if it was a hurricane rainstorm, it struck to kill Wang Jianru.

    Another true expert had acted.

    It was the number one person of the Western military office, military leader Qian Yuan.

    The people all around instantly became excited.

    The two great military leaders of Deer City had high status with great power and prestige. For the normal citizens of the city, they were existences where they could see the dragon’s head but not the dragon’s tail*. This time, where the two of them united to face a common enemy, could be counted as a grand occasion that had not occurred for tens of years.

    But Ye Qingyu was somewhat anxious.

    Out of the so many people observing the battle, he was the only one who hoped that Wang Jianru and the little loli would be able to safely depart.

    Only after a moment could Ye Qingyu’s worry lessen slightly.

    The Western military leader Qian Yuan demonstrated a powerful strength. His sword light transformed into rain, and within the green light there was a strange and fearful energy. He was not in any way less powerful than the Southern military leader Chen Jiuxing. but what was strange was that even after Qian Yuan entered into the battlefield, he could not change the situation at all. Gradually in the this fight, Wang Jianru still completely suppressed and controlled the experts of Deer City.

    “This is strange, Wang Jianru can evidently handle their attacks with ease, why doesn’t she break through?” Ye Qingyu sensed that something was peculiar undergoing.

    Accompanied by the two yuan qi radiance exploding from the Northern and Eastern city districts, there were yet more true experts appearing. Like long streaks of red light shooting through the air, they joined the battle in an instant.

    Another two military leaders had appeared.

    A commotion was instantly created in the crowd observing the battle.

    The four great military leaders attacking at the same time!

    “Haha, the four trashes have finally appeared?” The voice of Wang Jianru resounded throughout the sky, bringing with it a pride and contempt. “Qin Ying, your city leader, why has he not yet appeared? To dare act against me, but not have the guts to appear in front of me. He sends scraps such as you people to your death?”

    A sword light exploded from Wang Jianru’s right arm.

    This sword was enough to shroud all the grace and colour of the world in this very moment.

    No matter whether it was Chen Jiuxing’s yuan qi hatchet or Qian Yuan’s green sword light, nothing could block it. Everywhere in the sky, along with the two other great military leaders and the tens of experts, everything was swept away. Their yuan qi attacks, facing such a sword light was like white snow meeting boiling water. It completely disappeared. Everywhere this sword light passed, space was sliced apart. The clouds were completely dispelled, an azure blue crack sweeping across Deer City.

    *acts extremely mysteriously

    If you find any errors ( broken links, non-standard content, etc.. ), Please let us know so we can fix it as soon as possible.


    Joint Emperor

    When Septimius Severus died in Eboracum in early 211, Caracalla and Geta were proclaimed joint emperors and returned to Rome.


    Their joint rule was a failure. Later sources speculated that the
    brothers wished to split the empire in two halves. By the end of 211,
    the situation had become unbearable. Caracalla tried unsuccessfully to
    murder Geta during the festival of Saturnalia.
    Finally, on the 19th of December, Caracalla had his mother arrange a
    peace meeting with his brother in his mother's apartments, and then had
    him murdered in her arms by centurions.


    Faces of Roman Emperors: Imperial Crisis & the Barracks Emperors - History

    Coins for this issuer were issued from 218 until 222.

    Reportedly beautiful, Elagabalus was the chief priest of the eponymous Syrian sun-god. He attempted to introduce this cult to Rome, even bringing with him the huge stone which represented the god and building it a temple near the Colosseum. Elagabalus also had notorious sexual appetites for both men and women, and promised a huge reward to any doctor who could perform a sex-change operation. He married at least three women within four years. Eventually, the Roman army and senate could no longer respect Elagabalus, and the women behind his administration began quarrelling. He adopted the future Alexander Severus in an attempt to legitimize his power, but the Praetorian Guards murdered Elagabalus and his mother anyway.

    Elagabalus had large eyes and a youthful, underdeveloped face. He tended to wear gold or purple tunics, and at times a female diadem.

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    Other resources about Elagabalus

    View all coins recorded by the scheme attributed to Elagabalus.

    Information from Wikipedia

    • Preferred label: Elagabalus
    • Full names:
      • Elagabalus
      • Father: Sextus Varius Marcellus
      • Mother: Julia Soaemias
      • Consul of the Roman Empire
      • List of Roman emperors
      • Oclatinia (gens)
      • Macrinus

      Denominations issued

      • As - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Aureus (Republic/Empire) - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Denarius (Empire) - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Dupondius - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Sestertius - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Semis - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Dupondius or as - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Quadrans - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Quinarius - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Radiate (antoninianus) - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus
      • Medallion - view all records of this denomination issued by Elagabalus

      Issuing mints

      This video has been embedded from Adrian Murdoch's series of podcasts on the Emperors of Rome. Many thanks to him for allowing us to use these podcasts.

      Other formats: this page is available as xml json rdf representations.


      References

      • Birley, Anthony R. (1999) [1971]. Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. London: Routledge. ISBNـ-415-16591-1.   . The Roman Emperors, 1985. ISBN 0-7607-0091-5. . The Severans: The Changed Roman Empire, 1996. ISBN 0-415-12772-6.
      • Continuité gentilice et continuité sénatoriale dans les familles sénatoriales romaines à l'époque impériale, 2000.
      • A. Daguet-Gagey, Septime Sévère (Paris, 2000). , "Septimius Severus: the Augustan Emperor," in Simon Swain, Stephen Harrison and Jas Elsner (eds), Severan culture (Cambridge, CUP, 2007).
      • Johannes Hasebroek, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Septimius Severus (Cambridge, 1921).
      • R.G. Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004
      • Achim Lichtenberger, Severus Pius Augustus: Studien zur sakralen Repräsentation und Rezeption der Herrschaft des Septimius Severus und seiner Familie (193–211 n. chr.) (Leiden Boston: Brill, 2011) (Impact of Empire, 14).

      Introduction: Narratives of Early Modern German History
      I. Germany and the Holy Roman Empire in 1500
      1:Origins and Frontiers
      2:The Reich as a Polity
      3:Fragmented Territories
      4:The Reich and the German Nation
      II. The Reform of the Reich and the Church c. 1490-1519
      5:The Reformation Era in German history
      6:The Reich under Maximilian I
      7:Reich, Papacy, and Reichskirche
      8:Religious Renewal and the Laity
      9:Humanism in the Reich
      10:The 'Print Revolution' and the Public Sphere
      11:Economic Landscapes, Communities, and their Grievances
      12:Martin Luther and the 'Luther affair' 1517-1519
      III. Charles V and the Challenge of the Reformation in the 1520s
      13:The Reich During the First Decade of Charles V
      14:Luther and Imperial Politics, 1519-1526
      15:Luther and the German Reform Movement
      16:Alternative Reformations and the Dominance of Lutheranism
      17:The Knights' War, 1522-1523
      18:The Peasants' War, 1525
      19:Reformation in the Cities
      IV. Mastering the Reformation c. 1526-1555
      20:The Emergence of Protestant Territories
      21:The Persistence of Catholicism
      22:Charles V, Ferdinand, and the Reich in Europe
      23:The Establishment of Protestantism, 1526-1530
      24:The Schmalkaldic League, its Counterparts, and the Politics of the Reich, 1530-1541
      25:Charles V as 'Lord of Germany', 1541-1548
      26:The Triumph of the Reich, 1548-1555
      V. Managing the Peace 1555-1618
      27:Contours of the 'Confessional Age'
      28:Emperors, Imperial Officials, and Estates after the Peace of Augsburg
      29:Constitutional developments after 1555: Reichstag, Kreise, Courts, and Legislation
      30:The Reich in Europe
      31:Managing the Domestic Peace, 1555-c.1585
      32:The Consensus Falters, c. 1585-1603
      33:Paralysis, 1603-1614
      34:Problems of the Habsburg Dynasty
      35:The Reich in the Reign of Emperor Matthias, 1612-1619
      36:The Crisis of the Habsburg lands
      37:Imperial Public Law and the Struggle over the Imperial Constitution
      38:Irenicism and Patriotism on the Eve of War
      VII. The German Territories and Cities after 1555
      39:Problems of Interpretation
      40:A Benign Environment?
      41:State Formation?
      42:Domestic Order and Defence
      43:Confessionalization?
      44:Finance, Taxation, and Estates
      45:The Resurgence of the Courts
      46:The Imperial Cities
      47:Responding to Crises
      VII. The Thirty Years War 1618-1648
      48:The Thirty Years War in German History
      49:What Kind of Conflict?
      50:The Reconquest of Austria and Bohemia, 1618-1623
      51:Ferdinand Victorious
      52:Denmark and the War for the Reich, 1623-1629
      53:What Kind of Reich? Sweden and the Defence of German Liberties, 1630-1635
      54:Wallenstein and After
      55:France, Sweden, and the German Way, 1635-1648
      56:The Peace of Westphalia
      57:The Impact of the War on German Society
      58:The Thirty Years War and the German Polity
      Glossary
      Bibliography
      Index

      Joachim Whaley

      Oxford History of Early Modern Europe


      Germany and the Holy Roman Empire offers a striking new interpretation of a crucial era in German and European history, from the great reforms of 1495-1500 to the dissolution of the Reich in 1806. Over two volumes, Joachim Whaley rejects the notion that this was a long period of decline, and shows instead how imperial institutions developed in response to the crises of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, notably the Reformation and Thirty Years War. The
      impact of international developments on the Reich is also examined.

      The first volume begins with an account of the reforms of the reign of Maximilian I and concludes with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. It offers a new interpretation of the Reformation, the Peasants' War, the Schmalkaldic War and the Peace of Augsburg, and of the post-Reformation development of Protestantism and Catholicism. The German policy successfully resisted the ambitions of Charles V and the repeated onslaughtsof both the Ottomans and the French, and it remained stable in the face of
      the French religious wars and the Dutch Revolt. The volume concludes with an analysis of the Thirty Years War as an essentially German constitutional conflict, triggered by the problems of the Habsburg dynasty and prolonged by the interventions of foreign powers. The Peace of Westphalia, which ended
      the conflict, both reflected the development of the German polity since the late fifteenth century and created teh framework for its development over the next hundred and fifty years.
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