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In 1900 Arnold Hills decided to expand his business interests by acquiring the engineering firm of John Penn & sons. Hills was no longer in a position where he would be allowed to pump company money into the football club.
On 7th March, 1900, the West Ham Guardian reported that: "It is announced that the committee of Thames Ironworks FC are to consider some sort reorganization. A proposal is evidently on the table. For one who has it on authority says it will 'if adopted, undoubtedly be to the club's advantage'. This is good news. Supporters are tired of seeing the club so low down as fourth from the bottom".
A few weeks later the West Ham Guardian reported that the football would be sold. "With regard to next season however, a meeting will be called, and the Mayor of West Ham will be asked to preside, at which gathering the locals will be asked to take up 500 £1 shares. If this amount be raised Mr A. F. Hills will add to it another £500, and, in addition, grant the use of the Memorial Grounds. Another condition is that all members of the team must be teetotallers. It is probable too, that the name of the club will be changed to Canning Town." The newspaper was wrong about this and the new club was called West Ham United. The idea that all players should be teetotallers was also dropped.
It was hoped that over 2,000 supporters would buy shares in the new club. The West Ham Guardian urged local people to buy shares: "There is little question that the present question of managing small teams is not the right one. For so many clubs get into debt and finally are snuffed out... A shareholder will have everything to gain, by attending the matches, and inducing others to come with him, therefore it seems to me that the nail has been hit right on the head, and the problem of the football world of management is about to be solved."
Hills announced that anyone who purchased just ten shares would be allowed to join the Board of Directors of the club. Despite this offer, a large number of shares remained unsold and the the finances of the new club remained in a poor state. had trouble selling these shares to supporters.
In September, 1900, The Morning Leader reported: "The prospectus of the new limited liability company, to be known under the title of the West Ham Football Club Company Limited is at hand. The primary object will be to encourage and promote the game of football in West Ham and district, and powers have also been taken by the company authorising them at any time to acquire land and other property."
It was also announced that: "The directors propose to make the following charges, to shareholders only, for season-tickets for the football season 1900/01: admission to ground and open stand, 7s 6d, admission to ground, enclosure and grand stand 10s 6d and 12s 6d respectively.... Mr. A. Hills who will most likely to take up £500 worth of shares, is very keen on playing a teetotal eleven next season, and the experiment is worth trying if only to vindicate the rights of football employers to call their own tune after paying the piper."
The capital of West Ham United was £2,000 (4,000 shares at 10s each). Arnold Hills purchased 1,000 shares and remained the major influence at the club. However, he was unable to enforce the idea that all players should be teetotallers.
Lew Bowen, a clerk at the Thames Iron Works & Shipbuilding Company, became the new club secretary. The club made several new signings including: Hugh Monteith (Bristol City), Fergus Hunt (Arsenal), Freddie Fenton (Gainsborough), George Radcliffe (Grimsby Town), James Reid (Port Vale), Albert Kaye (Chatham) and Billy Grassam (Port Vale).
These new players joined established players in the team such as Charlie Dove, Roderick McEachrane, Fred Corbett, Charles Craig and Syd King. Walter Tranter returned from a spell with Chatham, but the club did lose the services of top scorers, Bill Joyce, Albert Carnelly and Ken McKay.
The season started well with a 7-0 victory over Gravesend (Grassam 4, Reid 2, Hunt). West Ham could not maintain that momentum and lost 7 of its next 13 games. That included a game at Millwall that attracted a crowd of 10,000. The best attendance that season at the Memorial Grounds was the game against Tottenham Hotspur. Unfortunately for the home supporters, they saw West Ham defeated 4-1.
Queen Victoria died in January, 1901. The Football Association called for a stoppage to all soccer on the Saturday following the death of the monarch. The Southern League objected to this directive on the grounds that this was an infringement of a professional footballers' right to earn a living. West Ham's game with Watford on the 26th January was one of only four Southern League fixtures that went ahead. West Ham won the game with Billy Grassam scoring the only goal of the game.
Results improved after Christmas and by the end of the season West Ham was in sixth place behind Southampton, Bristol City, Portsmouth, Millwall and Tottenham Hotspur. West Ham's goals were scored by Billy Grassam (15), Fred Corbett (9), James Reid (5), Albert Kaye (5), George Radcliffe (4) and Fergus Hunt (4).
West Ham had a good run in the FA Cup and over 12,000 saw them draw 1-1 with Clapton Orient. West Ham won the 5th round replay 3-2 with Billy Grassam scoring a hat-trick. The next round saw the visit of mighty Liverpool. Watched by a home crowd of 6,000, Liverpool won 1-0.
Ham Radio Technician Class Practice Test
Amateur radio, more commonly known as “ham radio”, is once again growing in popularity after experiencing years of declining interest in the United States. Today, there are over 700,000 people who hold an amateur radio license. (People who have a license are known as “hams.”) That’s an all-time high, and the upward trend is expected to continue.
There are two main reasons for this renewed interest in ham radio. The first one is the decision by the Federal Communications Commission in 2007 to stop requiring ham operators to know how to send and interpret Morse code. For decades, a person had to pass a Morse code test in order to receive a license. This took a lot of study and practice, and many people who would’ve been interested in receiving a license otherwise lost interest when they discovered that they had to learn Morse code. When the requirement was dropped, a lot more people began applying for a ham radio license.
The other factor, of course, is technology. These days, a person can do far more with an amateur radio license than people could in the past, thanks to the technological breakthroughs of the past couple of decades. Hams can now take advantage of satellites in space, new hardware, and the internet to communicate. Handheld radios are now common, and some hams even send pictures and videos using their technology. Some hams have even bounced their signals off the moon.
Some people predicted a few decades ago that ham radio would be dying off by now, and in a few years would become essentially obsolete. The thought was that with the advent of the internet, ham radio would be seen as unnecessary and archaic, and would suffer the same fate that the horse and buggy did when cars came along. But the opposite has happened, and there are more hams than ever in America. And while ham radio is a fun hobby for most of the ham license holders, it’s also a critical means of communication during natural disasters and other emergencies, even when the internet is down. Ham operators have played vital roles in virtually every emergency, including Hurricane Katrina and the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and will continue to do so for a long time to come.
In order to become a ham radio operator, a person must first be licensed by the FCC. To get licensed, you’ll need to pass an official exam to demonstrate your knowledge and abilities when it comes to amateur radio. There are three difference classes of ham radio licenses – Technician, General, and Amateur Extra. As mentioned above, no knowledge of Morse code is necessary to qualify for any of the three classes.
Technician Class is the “beginner’s” license. It gives the holder the privilege of broadcasting on all VHF/UHF amateur bands, and a few privileges for broadcasting over HF bands (shortwave radio). The Technician Class test is a written exam, consisting of 35 multiple-choice questions.
West Ham United vs. Tottenham Hotspur Historical Head-to-Head
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