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When the cotton arrived in England, because of the way it had been stored on the boats, it was in hard matted lumps. The cotton wool also contained seeds and dirt. The breaking up of this cotton and removing impurities was called willowing. Initially done by hand, the first willowing machines began to be used at the end of the 18th century.

Willy (textile machine)

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A willy or twilly is a machine used in the textile industry, comprising a hollow cone or cylinder with internal spikes which revolves, opening and cleaning wool, [1] cotton, [2] or flax. [3] Terms used have included wool-mill, willow (especially for cotton), willey, twilley, and devil. [4] The process has been called willowing, willying, or woolleying. [4]

  1. ^National Museum of Wales: Historic machinery
  2. ^Children and cotton
  3. ^ Opening, Dusting and Willowing Machines for Wool, Wool Waste, Rags, Cotton, Cotton Linters, Flax, Etc. and for Carbonizing, by C.G. Sargent's Sons Corporation
  4. ^ ab Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed, entries for "willy, willey" n3, "willow" v, "devil" n8a, "twilley" n2

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Cotton manufacturing Edit

Cotton manufacturing processes
Bale breaker Blowing room
Breaker scutcher Batting
Finishing scutcher Lapping
Carding Carding room
Sliver lap
Roving Fine roving
Mule spinning Ring spinning Spinning
Reeling Doubling
Winding Bundling Bleaching
Weaving shed Winding
Beaming Cabling
Warping Gassing
Sizing/slashing/dressing Spooling
Cloth Yarn (cheese) Bundle Sewing thread

Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year 2007, the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. [1] There are five stages: [2]

  • Cultivating and Harvesting
  • Preparatory Processes
  • Spinning — giving yarn
  • Weaving — giving fabrics [a]
  • Finishing — giving textiles

Synthetic fibres Edit

Artificial fibres can be made by extruding a polymer, through a spinneret (polymers) into a medium where it hardens. Wet spinning (rayon) uses a coagulating medium. In dry spinning (acetate and triacetate), the polymer is contained in a solvent that evaporates in the heated exit chamber. In melt spinning (nylons and polyesters) the extruded polymer is cooled in gas or air and then sets. [3] All these fibres will be of great length, often kilometres long.

Artificial fibres can be processed as long fibres or batched and cut so they can be processed like a natural fibre.

Natural fibres Edit

Natural fibres are either from animals (sheep, goat, rabbit, silk-worm) mineral (asbestos) or from plants (cotton, flax, sisal). These vegetable fibres can come from the seed (cotton), the stem (known as bast fibres: flax, hemp, jute) or the leaf (sisal). [4] Without exception, many processes are needed before a clean even staple is obtained- each with a specific name. With the exception of silk, each of these fibres is short, being only centimeters in length, and each has a rough surface that enables it to bond with similar staples. [4]

Cottage stage Edit

There are some indications that weaving was already known in the Palaeolithic. An indistinct textile impression has been found at Pavlov, Moravia. Neolithic textiles were found in pile dwellings excavations in Switzerland and at El Fayum, Egypt at a site which dates to about 5000 BC.

In Roman times, wool, linen and leather clothed the European population, and silk, imported along the Silk Road from China, was an extravagant luxury. The use of flax fiber in the manufacturing of cloth in Northern Europe dates back to Neolithic times.

During the late medieval period, cotton began to be imported into Northern Europe. Without any knowledge of what it came from, other than that it was a plant, noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandeville, writing in 1350, stated as fact the now-preposterous belief: "There grew in India a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the edges of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungry." This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in many European languages, such as German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool". By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions of Asia and the Americas.

The main steps in the production of cloth are producing the fibre, preparing it, converting it to yarn, converting yarn to cloth, and then finishing the cloth. The cloth is then taken to the manufacturer of garments. The preparation of the fibres differs the most, depending on the fibre used. Flax requires retting and dressing, while wool requires carding and washing. The spinning and weaving processes are very similar between fibers, however.

Spinning evolved from twisting the fibers by hand, to using a drop spindle, to using a spinning wheel. Spindles or parts of them have been found in archaeological sites and may represent one of the first pieces of technology available. [5] The spinning wheel was most likely invented in the Islamic world by the 11th century. [6]

India Edit

The textile industry in India traditionally, after agriculture, is the only industry that has generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labour in textiles. The textile industry continues to be the second-largest employment generating sector in India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million in the country. [7] According to the Ministry of Textiles, the share of textiles in total exports during April–July 2010 was 11.04%. During 2009–2010, the Indian textile industry was pegged at US$ 55 billion, 64% of which services domestic demand. [7] In 2010, there were 2,500 textile weaving factories and 4,135 textile finishing factories in all of India. [8] According to AT Kearney’s ‘Retail Apparel Index’, India was ranked as the fourth most promising market for apparel retailers in 2009. [9]

India is first in global jute production and shares 63% of the global textile and garment market. India is second in global textile manufacturing and also second in silk and cotton production. 100% FDI is allowed via automatic route in textile sector. Rieter, Trutzschler, Saurer, Soktas, Zambiati, Bilsar, Monti, CMT, E-land, Nisshinbo, Marks & Spencer, Zara, Promod, Benetton, and Levi’s are some of the foreign textile companies invested or working in India. [10]

Britain Edit

The key British industry at the beginning of the 18th century was the production of textiles made with wool from the large sheep-farming areas in the Midlands and across the country (created as a result of land-clearance and enclosure). This was a labour-intensive activity providing employment throughout Britain, with major centres being the West Country Norwich and environs and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The export trade in woolen goods accounted for more than a quarter of British exports during most of the 18th century, doubling between 1701 and 1770. [11]

Exports by the cotton industry – centered in Lancashire – had grown tenfold during this time, but still accounted for only a tenth of the value of the woolen trade. Before the 17th century, the manufacture of goods was performed on a limited scale by individual workers, usually on their own premises (such as weavers' cottages). Goods were transported around the country by clothiers who visited the village with their trains of packhorses. Some of the cloth was made into clothes for people living in the same area, and a large amount of cloth was exported. River navigations were constructed, and some contour-following canals. In the early 18th century, artisans were inventing ways to become more productive. Silk, wool, fustian, and linen were being eclipsed by cotton, which was becoming the most important textile. This set the foundations for the changes. [12]

Industrial revolution Edit

The woven fabric portion of the textile industry grew out of the industrial revolution in the 18th century as mass production of yarn and cloth became a mainstream industry. [13]

In 1734 in Bury, Lancashire John Kay invented the flying shuttle — one of the first of a series of inventions associated with the cotton woven fabric industry. The flying shuttle increased the width of cotton cloth and speed of production of a single weaver at a loom. [14] Resistance by workers to the perceived threat to jobs delayed the widespread introduction of this technology, even though the higher rate of production generated an increased demand for spun cotton.

In 1761, the Duke of Bridgewater's canal connected Manchester to the coal fields of Worsley and in 1762, Matthew Boulton opened the Soho Foundry engineering works in Handsworth, Birmingham. His partnership with Scottish engineer James Watt resulted, in 1775, in the commercial production of the more efficient Watt steam engine which used a separate condenser. [ citation needed ]

In 1764, James Hargreaves is credited as inventor of the spinning jenny which multiplied the spun thread production capacity of a single worker — initially eightfold and subsequently much further. Others [15] credit the invention to Thomas Highs. Industrial unrest and a failure to patent the invention until 1770 forced Hargreaves from Blackburn, but his lack of protection of the idea allowed the concept to be exploited by others. As a result, there were over 20,000 spinning jennies in use by the time of his death. Also in 1764, Thorp Mill, the first water-powered cotton mill in the world was constructed at Royton, Lancashire, and was used for carding cotton. With the spinning and weaving process now mechanized, cotton mills cropped up all over the North West of England.

The stocking frame invented in 1589 for silk became viable when in 1759, Jedediah Strutt introduced an attachment for the frame which produced what became known as the Derby Rib, [16] that produced a knit and purl stitch. This allowed stockings to be manufactured in silk and later in cotton. In 1768, Hammond modified the stocking frame to weave weft-knitted openworks or nets by crossing over the loops, using a mobile tickler bar- this led in 1781 to Thomas Frost's square net. Cotton had been too coarse for lace, but by 1805 Houldsworths of Manchester were producing reliable 300 count cotton thread. [17]

19th-century developments Edit

With the Cartwright Loom, the Spinning Mule and the Boulton & Watt steam engine, the pieces were in place to build a mechanised woven fabric textile industry. From this point there were no new inventions, but a continuous improvement in technology as the mill-owner strove to reduce cost and improve quality. Developments in the transport infrastructure that is the canals and after 1831 the railways facilitated the import of raw materials and export of finished cloth.

Firstly, the use of water power to drive mills was supplemented by steam driven water pumps, and then superseded completely by the steam engines. For example, Samuel Greg joined his uncle's firm of textile merchants, and, on taking over the company in 1782, he sought out a site to establish a mill.Quarry Bank Mill was built on the River Bollin at Styal in Cheshire. It was initially powered by a water wheel, but installed steam engines in 1810. Quarry Bank Mill in Cheshire still exists as a well-preserved museum, having been in use from its construction in 1784 until 1959. It also illustrates how the mill owners exploited child labour, taking orphans from nearby Manchester to work the cotton. It shows that these children were housed, clothed, fed and provided with some education. In 1830, the average power of a mill engine was 48 hp, but Quarry Bank mill installed a new 100 hp water wheel. [18] William Fairbairn addressed the problem of line-shafting and was responsible for improving the efficiency of the mill. In 1815 he replaced the wooden turning shafts that drove the machines at 50rpm, to wrought iron shafting working at 250 rpm, these were a third of the weight of the previous ones and absorbed less power. [18]

Secondly, in 1830, using an 1822 patent, Richard Roberts manufactured the first loom with a cast iron frame, the Roberts Loom. [14] In 1842 James Bullough and William Kenworthy, made the Lancashire Loom, a semiautomatic power loom: although it is self-acting, it has to be stopped to recharge empty shuttles. It was the mainstay of the Lancashire cotton industry for a century, until the Northrop Loom (invented in 1894, with an automatic weft replenishment function) gained ascendancy.

Thirdly, also in 1830, Richard Roberts patented the first self-acting mule. Stalybridge mule spinners strike was in 1824 this stimulated research into the problem of applying power to the winding stroke of the mule. [19] The draw while spinning had been assisted by power, but the push of the wind had been done manually by the spinner, the mule could be operated by semiskilled labor. Before 1830, the spinner would operate a partially powered mule with a maximum of 400 spindles after, self-acting mules with up to 1300 spindles could be built. [20]

Number of looms in the UK [21]
Year 1803 1820 1829 1833 1857
Looms 2400 14650 55500 100000 250000

The industrial revolution changed the nature of work and society The three key drivers in these changes were textile manufacturing, iron founding and steam power. [22] [23] [24] [25] The geographical focus of textile manufacture in Britain was Manchester and the small towns of the Pennines and southern Lancashire.

Textile production in England peaked in 1926, and as mills were decommissioned, many of the scrapped mules and looms were bought up and reinstated in India.

20th century Edit

Major changes came to the textile industry during the 20th century, with continuing technological innovations in machinery, synthetic fibre, logistics, and globalization of the business. The business model that had dominated the industry for centuries was to change radically. Cotton and wool producers were not the only source for fibres, as chemical companies created new synthetic fibres that had superior qualities for many uses, such as rayon, invented in 1910, and DuPont's nylon, invented in 1935 as in inexpensive silk substitute, and used for products ranging from women's stockings to tooth brushes and military parachutes.

The variety of synthetic fibres used in manufacturing fibre grew steadily throughout the 20th century. In the 1920s, the computer was invented in the 1940s, acetate, modacrylic, metal fibres, and saran were developed acrylic, polyester, and spandex were introduced in the 1950s. Polyester became hugely popular in the apparel market, and by the late 1970s, more polyester was sold in the United States than cotton. [26]

By the late 1980s, the apparel segment was no longer the largest market for fibre products, with industrial and home furnishings together representing a larger proportion of the fibre market. [27] Industry integration and global manufacturing led to many small firms closing for good during the 1970s and 1980s in the United States during those decades, 95 percent of the looms in North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia shut down, and Alabama and Virginia also saw many factories close. [27]

The largest exporters of textiles in 2013 were China ($274 billion), India ($40 billion), Italy ($36 billion), Germany ($35 billion), Bangladesh ($28 billion) and Pakistan ($27 Billion). [28]

Pakistan Edit

The textile sector accounts for 70% of Pakistan's exports, but the working conditions of workers are deplorable. Small manufacturing workshops generally do not sign employment contracts, do not respect the minimum wage and sometimes employ children. Violations of labour law also occur among major subcontractors of international brands, where workers may be beaten, insulted by their superiors or paid below the minimum wage. Factories do not comply with safety standards, leading to accidents: in 2012, 255 workers died in a fire at a Karachi factory. With 547 labour inspectors in Pakistan supervising the country's 300,000 factories, the textile industry is out of control. Nor are workers protected by trade unions, which are prohibited in industrial export zones. Elsewhere, "workers involved in the creation of trade unions are victims of violence, intimidation, threats or dismissals". [29]

Bangladesh Edit

Many Western multinationals use labour in Bangladesh, which is one of the cheapest in the world: 30 euros per month compared to 150 or 200 in China. Four days is enough for the CEO of one of the top five global textile brands to earn what a Bangladeshi garment worker will earn in her lifetime. In April 2013, at least 1,135 textile workers died in the collapse of their factory. Other fatal accidents due to unsanitary factories have affected Bangladesh: in 2005 a factory collapsed and caused the death of 64 people. In 2006, a series of fires killed 85 people and injured 207 others. In 2010, some 30 people died of asphyxiation and burns in two serious fires.

In 2006, tens of thousands of workers mobilized in one of the country's largest strike movements, affecting almost all of the 4,000 factories. The Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) uses police forces to crack down. Three workers were killed, hundreds more were wounded by bullets, or imprisoned. In 2010, after a new strike movement, nearly 1,000 people were injured among workers as a result of the repression. [30]

Ethiopia Edit

Employees of Ethiopian garment factories, who work for brands such as Guess, H&M or Calvin Klein, receive a monthly salary of 26 dollars per month. These very low wages have led to low productivity, frequent strikes and high turnover. Some factories have replaced all their employees on average every 12 months, according to the 2019 report of the Stern Centre for Business and Human Rights at New York University.

The report states:" Rather than the docile and cheap labour force promoted in Ethiopia, foreign-based suppliers have met employees who are unhappy with their pay and living conditions and who want to protest more and more by stopping work or even quitting. In their eagerness to create a "made in Ethiopia" brand, the government, global brands and foreign manufacturers did not anticipate that the base salary was simply too low for workers to make a living from. » [31]

The Multi Fibre Arrangement (MFA) governed the world trade in textiles and garments from 1974 through 2004, imposing quotas on the amount developing countries could export to developed countries. It expired on 1 January 2005.

The MFA was introduced in 1974 as a short-term measure intended to allow developed countries to adjust to imports from the developing world. Developing countries have a natural advantage in textile production because it is labor-intensive and they have low labor costs. According to a World Bank/International Monetary Fund (IMF) study, the system has cost the developing world 27 million jobs and $40 billion a year in lost exports. [32]

However, the Arrangement was not negative for all developing countries. For example, the European Union (EU) imposed no restrictions or duties on imports from the very poor countries, such as Bangladesh, leading to a massive expansion of the industry there.

At the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Uruguay Round, it was decided to bring the textile trade under the jurisdiction of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing provided for the gradual dismantling of the quotas that existed under the MFA. This process was completed on 1 January 2005. However, large tariffs remain in place on many textile products.

Bangladesh was expected to suffer the most from the ending of the MFA, as it was expected to face more competition, particularly from China. However, this was not the case. It turns out that even in the face of other economic giants, Bangladesh's labor is “cheaper than anywhere else in the world.” While some smaller factories were documented making pay cuts and layoffs, most downsizing was essentially speculative – the orders for goods kept coming even after the MFA expired. In fact, Bangladesh's exports increased in value by about $500 million in 2006. [33]

For textiles, like for many other products, there are certain national and international standards and regulations that need to be complied with to ensure quality, safety and sustainability.


Cotton manufacturing processes
Bale breaker Blowing room
Breaker scutcher Batting
Finishing scutcher Lapping
Carding Carding room
Sliver lap
Roving Fine roving
Mule spinning Ring spinning Spinning
Reeling Doubling
Winding Bundling Bleaching
Weaving shed Winding
Beaming Cabling
Warping Gassing
Sizing/slashing/dressing Spooling
Cloth Yarn (cheese) Bundle Sewing thread

Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year 2007, the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries. [2]

Cultivating and harvesting Edit

Cotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity. Indian cotton, Gossypium arboreum, is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing. American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, produces the longer staple needed for machine production. [4] Planting is from September to mid-November and the crop is harvested between March and June. The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers that remove the entire boll from the plant. The cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant attached to each of the thousands of seeds are fibres about 2.5 cm long. [5]

Preparatory processes – preparation of yarn Edit

  • Ginning, bale-making and transportation is done in the country of origin.
  • Opening and cleaning

Scutching refers to the process of cleaning cotton of its seeds and other impurities. The first scutching machine was invented in 1797, but did not come into further mainstream use until after 1808 or 1809, when it was introduced and used in Manchester, England. By 1816, it had become generally adopted. The scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, and then striking it with iron or steel bars called beater bars or beaters. The beaters, which turn very quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out. This process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through. At the same time, air is blown across the bars, which carries the cotton into a cotton chamber.

  • Combing is optional, but is used to remove the shorter fibres, creating a stronger yarn. [10]
  • Drawing the fibres are straightened
  • Drawing frame: Draws the strand out
  • Slubbing Frame: adds twist, and winds onto bobbins
  • Intermediate Frames: are used to repeat the slubbing process to produce a finer yarn.
  • Roving frames: reduces to a finer thread, gives more twist, makes more regular and even in thickness, and winds onto a smaller tube. [12]

Spinning – yarn manufacture Edit

  • Spinning
  • The mule was an intermittent process, as the frame advanced and returned a distance of 5ft. It was the descendant of 1779 Crompton device. It produces a softer less twisted thread that was favoured for fines and for weft.
  • The ring was a descendant of the Arkwright Water frame 1769. It was a continuous process, the yarn was coarser, had a greater twist and was stronger so was suited to be warp. Ring spinning is slow due to the distance the thread must pass around the ring, other methods have been introduced.
  • Checking
  • Folding and twisting
  • Gassing

Measurements Edit

  • Cotton Counts: Refers to the thickness of the cotton yarn where 840 yards of yarns weighs 1 pound (0.45 kg). 10 count cotton means that 8,400 yards (7,700 m) of yarn weighs 1 pound (0.45 kg). This is coarser than 40 count cotton where 40x840 yards are needed. In the United Kingdom, Counts to 40s are coarse (Oldham Counts), 40 to 80s are medium counts and above 80 is a fine count. In the United States ones to 20s are coarse counts.
  • Hank: A length of 7 leas or 840 yards (the worsted hank is only 560 yd [18] )
  • Thread: A length of 54 in (the circumference of a warp beam)
  • Bundle: Usually 10 lb
  • Lea: A length of 80 threads or 120 yards [19]
  • Denier: this is an alternative method. It is defined as a number that is equivalent to the weight in grams of 9000m of a single yarn. 15 denier is finer than 30 denier.
  • Tex: is the weight in grams of 1 km of yarn. [20]

Weaving-fabric manufacture Edit

The weaving process uses a loom. The lengthway threads are known as the warp, and the cross way threads are known as the weft. The warp, which must be strong, needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle, that carries the yarn on a pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence. [21]

  • Sizing
  • Drawing in, Looming
  • Pirning (Processing the weft)
  • Weaving
  • Shedding: The operation of dividing the warp into two lines, so that the shuttle can pass between these lines. There are two general kinds of sheds-"open" and "closed." Open Shed-The warp threads are moved when the pattern requires it-from one line to the other. Closed Shed-The warp threads are all placed level in one line after each pick.
  • Picking:The operation of projecting the shuttle from side to side of the loom through the division in the warp threads. This is done by the overpick or underpick motions. The overpick is suitable for quick-running looms, whereas the underpick is best for heavy or slow looms.
  • Beating-up: The third primary movement of the loom when making cloth, and is the action of the reed as it drives each pick of weft to the fell of the cloth. [24]

Measurements Edit

  • Ends and Picks: Picks refer to the weft, ends refer to the warp. The coarseness of the cloth can be expressed as the number of picks and ends per quarter-inch square, or per inch square. Ends is always written first. For example: Heavy domestics are made from coarse yarns, such as 10's to 14's warp and weft, and about 48 ends and 52 picks.[25]

Associated job titles Edit

Issues Edit

When a hand loom was located in the home, children helped with the weaving process from an early age. Piecing needs dexterity, and a child can be as productive as an adult. When weaving moves from the home to the mill, children are often allowed to help their older sisters, and laws have to be made to prevent child labour becoming established.

Knitting – fabric manufacture Edit

Knitting by machine is done in two different ways warp and weft. Weft knitting (as seen in the pictures) is similar in method to hand knitting with stitches all connected to each other horizontally. Various weft machines can be configured to produce textiles from a single spool of yarn or multiple spools depending on the size of the machine cylinder (where the needles are bedded). In a warp knit there are many pieces of yarn and there are vertical chains, zigzagged together by crossing the cotton yarn.

Warp knits do not stretch as much as a weft knit, and it is run-resistant. A weft knit is not run-resistant, but stretches more. This is especially true if spools of spandex are processed from separate spool containers and interwoven through the cylinder with cotton yarn, giving the finished product more flexibility and making it less prone to having a 'baggy' appearance. The average t-shirt is a weft knit. [26]

Finishing – processing of textiles Edit

Finishing is a broad range of physical and chemical processes/treatments that complete one stage of textile manufacturing and may be preparing for the next step. And makes the product more receptive to the next stage of manufacturing. Finishing adds value to the product and makes it more attractive, useful and functional for the end-user. Improving surface feel, aesthetics and addition of advanced chemical finishes are some examples of textile finishing. [27]

The woven cotton fabric in its loom-state not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment to develop its full textile potential. Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes. [28] [29]

Desizing Edit

Depending on the size that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid and then rinsed, or enzymes may be used to break down the size. [30]

Scouring Edit

Scouring, is a chemical washing process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural wax and non-fibrous impurities (e.g. the remains of seed fragments) from the fibres and any added soiling or dirt. Scouring is usually carried in iron vessels called kiers. The fabric is boiled in an alkali, which forms a soap with free fatty acids (saponification). A kier is usually enclosed, so the solution of sodium hydroxide can be boiled under pressure, excluding oxygen which would degrade the cellulose in the fibre. If the appropriate reagents are used, scouring will also remove size from the fabric although desizing often precedes scouring and is considered to be a separate process known as fabric preparation. Preparation and scouring are prerequisites to most of the other finishing processes. At this stage even the most naturally white cotton fibres are yellowish, and bleaching, the next process, is required. [30]

Bleaching Edit

Bleaching improves whiteness by removing natural coloration and remaining trace impurities from the cotton the degree of bleaching necessary is determined by the required whiteness and absorbency. Cotton being a vegetable fibre will be bleached using an oxidizing agent, such as dilute sodium hypochlorite or dilute hydrogen peroxide. If the fabric is to be dyed a deep shade, then lower levels of bleaching are acceptable, for example. However, for white bed sheetings and medical applications, the highest levels of whiteness and absorbency are essential. [31]

Mercerising Edit

A further possibility is mercerizing during which the fabric is treated with caustic soda solution to cause swelling of the fibres. This results in improved lustre, strength and dye affinity. Cotton is mercerized under tension, and all alkali must be washed out before the tension is released or shrinkage will take place. Mercerizing can take place directly on grey cloth, or after bleaching. [32]

Many other chemical treatments may be applied to cotton fabrics to produce low flammability, crease resist and other special effects but four important non-chemical finishing treatments are:

Singeing Edit

Singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibres from the fabric to produce smoothness. The fabric passes over brushes to raise the fibres, then passes over a plate heated by gas flames.

Raising Edit

Another finishing process is raising. During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth to lift the surface fibres, thereby imparting hairiness, softness and warmth, as in flannelette.

Calendering Edit

Calendering is the third important mechanical process, in which the fabric is passed between heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossed effects depending on roller surface properties and relative speeds.

Shrinking (sanforizing) Edit

Finally, mechanical shrinking (sometimes referred to as sanforizing), whereby the fabric is forced to shrink width and/or lengthwise, creates a fabric in which any residual tendency to shrink after subsequent laundering is minimal.

Dyeing Edit

Finally, cotton is an absorbent fibre which responds readily to colouration processes. Dyeing, for instance, is commonly carried out with an anionic direct dye by completely immersing the fabric (or yarn) in an aqueous dyebath according to a prescribed procedure. For improved fastness to washing, rubbing and light, other dyes such as vats and reactives are commonly used. These require more complex chemistry during processing and are thus more expensive to apply.

Printing Edit

Printing, on the other hand, is the application of colour in the form of a paste or ink to the surface of a fabric, in a predetermined pattern. It may be considered as localised dyeing. Printing designs onto already dyed fabric is also possible.

Economic, environmental and political consequences of cotton manufacture Edit

Production of cotton requires arable land. In addition, cotton is farmed intensively and uses large amounts of fertilizer and 25% of the world's insecticides. Native Indian varieties of cotton were rainwater fed, but modern hybrids used for the mills need irrigation, which spreads pests. The 5% of cotton-bearing land in India uses 55% of all pesticides used in India. [4]

The consumption of energy in form of water and electricity is relatively high, especially in processes like washing, de-sizing, bleaching, rinsing, dyeing, printing, coating and finishing. Processing is time consuming. The major portion of water in textile industry is used for wet processing of textile (70 per cent). Approximately 25 per cent of energy in the total textile production like fibre production, spinning, twisting, weaving, knitting, clothing manufacturing etc. is used in dyeing. About 34 per cent of energy is consumed in spinning, 23 per cent in weaving, 38 per cent in chemical wet processing and five per cent in miscellaneous processes. Power dominates consumption pattern in spinning and weaving, while thermal energy is the major factor for chemical wet processing. [2]

Cotton acts as a carbon sink as it contains cellulose and this contains 44.44% carbon. However, due to carbon emissions from fertiliser application, use of mechanized tools to harvest the cotton and so forth cotton manufacture tends to emit more CO2 than is stored in the form of cellulose. [33]

The growth of cotton is divided into two segments i.e. organic and genetically modified. [2] Cotton crop provides livelihood to millions of people but its production is becoming expensive because of high water consumption, use of expensive pesticides, insecticides and fertiliser. Genetically modified products aim to increase disease resistance and reduce the water required. The organic sector was worth $583 million. Genetically modified cotton, in 2007, occupied 43% of cotton growing areas. [4]

Before mechanisation, cotton was harvested manually by farmers in India and by African slaves in America. In 2012 Uzbekistan was a major exporter of cotton and uses manual labour during the harvest. Human rights groups claim that health care professionals and children are forced to pick cotton. [34]

Flax Edit

Flax is a bast fibre, which means it comes in bundles under the bark of the Linum usitatissimum plant. The plant flowers and is harvested.

It is now treated like cotton. [35]

Jute Edit

Jute is a bast fibre, which comes from the inner bark of the plants of the Corchorus genus. It is retted like flax, sundried and baled. When spinning a small amount of oil must be added to the fibre. It can be bleached and dyed. It was used for sacks and bags but is now used for the backing for carpets. [36] Jute can be blended with other fibres to make composite fabrics and work continues in Bangladesh to refine the processes and extend the range of usage possible. In the 1970s, jute-cotton composite fabrics were known as jutton fabrics. [37]

Hemp Edit

Hemp is a bast fibre from the inner bark of Cannabis sativa. It is difficult to bleach, and is used for making cord and rope.

Other bast fibres Edit

These bast fibres can also be used: kenaf, urena, ramie, nettle.

Other leaf fibres Edit

Sisal is the main leaf fibre used others are: abacá and henequen.

Wool Edit

Wool comes from domesticated sheep. It is used to create two kinds of yarn, woolens and worsteds. These are distinguished by the direction of the wool fibres in relation to the thread woolens are perpendicularly arranged, allowing for fluffy yarns that trap air, while worsteds have parallel fibres, creating a strong and smooth yarn.

Modern sheep have uniform fleeces, while primitive and landrace sheep often have dual coats a soft, short under layer and a hardier, coarser, and longer guard layer. These can be sorted to be processed separately, or spun together. The differing characteristics of each coat allows for very different yarn the guard hairs can be used for durable outerwear, while the inner coat is what is traditionally used to produce the ultrafine wedding ring shawls across Europe. [39] Spinning them together, like in lopi, produces a unique yarn that combines the strength of the guard hairs with the loft and softness of the undercoat.

Wool that has never been used is known as virgin wool and can be mixed with wool that has been recovered from rags. Shoddy is the term for recovered wool that is not matted, while mungo comes from felted wool. Extract is recovered chemically from mixed cotton/wool fabrics.

The fleece is shorn in one piece from the sheep. Ideally, the wool is cut as close to the skin as possible to maximise fibre length. Going over the same spot twice produces small fibres that will produce pills in finished fabric, something that skilled shearers are usually able to avoid. This is then skirted to remove the soiled wool from around the legs and anus, graded, and baled. Grading is done on quality as well as length of the fibres. Long wool fibres can be up to 15 in, but anything over 2.5 inches is suitable for combing into worsteds. Fibres less than that form short wool and are described as clothing or carding wool, and are best suited for the jumbled arrangement of woolens.

At the mill the wool is scoured in a detergent to remove grease (the yolk) and impurities. This is done mechanically in the opening machine. Vegetable matter can be removed chemically using sulphuric acid (carbonising). Washing uses a solution of soap and sodium carbonate. The wool is oiled before carding or combing.

  • Woollens: Fibre is prepared through carding, which arranged fibres perpendicular to the spun yarn. It can also use noils from the worsted combs, mungo, and shoddy.
  • Worsteds

Silk Edit

The processes in silk production are similar to those of cotton but take account that reeled silk is a continuous fibre. The terms used are different.

  • Opening bales. Assorting skeins: where silk is sorted by colour, size and quality, scouring: where the silk is washed in water of 40 degrees for 12 hours to remove the natural gum, drying: either by steam heating or centrifuge, softening: by rubbing to remove any remaining hard spots.
  • Silk throwing (winding). The skeins are placed on a reel in a frame with many others. The silk is wound onto spools or bobbins.
  • Doubling and twisting. The silk is far too fine to be woven, so now it is doubled and twisted to make the warp, known as organzine and the weft, known as tram. In organzine each single is given a few twists per inch (tpi), and combine with several other singles counter twisted hard at 10 to 14 tpi. In tram the two singles are doubled with each other with a light twist, 3 to 6 tpi. Sewing thread is two tram threads, hard twisted, and machine-twist is made of three hard-twisted tram threads. Tram for the crepe process is twisted at up to 80 tpi to make it 'kick up'.
  • Stretching. The thread is tested for consistent size. Any uneven thickness is stretched out. The resulting thread is reeled into containing 500 yd to 2500 yd. The skeins are about 50 inches in loop length.
  • Dyeing: the skeins are scoured again, and discoloration removed with a sulphur process. This weakens the silk. The skeins are now tinted or dyed. They are dried and rewound onto bobbins, spools and skeins. Looming, and the weaving process on power looms is the same as with cotton.
  • Weaving. The organzine is now warped. This is a similar process to in cotton. Firstly, thirty threads or so are wound onto a warping reel, and then using the warping reels, the threads are beamed. A thick layer of paper is laid between each layer on the beam to stop entangling. [40]

Environmental consequences of wool and silk manufacture Edit

Both wool and silk require farmland. Whereas silkworms require mulberry leaves, sheep eat grass, clover, forbs and other pasture plants. Sheep, like all ruminants emit CO2 via their digestive system. [41] Also, their pastures may sometimes be fertilised [42] which further increases emissions.

Synthetic fibres Edit

Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive development by scientists to improve upon the naturally occurring animal and plant fibres. In general, synthetic fibres are created by forcing, or extruding, fibre forming materials through holes (called spinnerets) into the air, thus forming a thread. Before synthetic fibres were developed, cellulose fibres were made from natural cellulose, which comes from plants.

The first artificial fibre, known as art silk from 1799 onwards, became known as viscose around 1894, and finally rayon in 1924. A similar product known as cellulose acetate was discovered in 1865. Rayon and acetate are both artificial fibres, but not truly synthetic, being made from wood. Although these artificial fibres were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century, successful modern manufacture began much later in the 1930s. Nylon, the first synthetic fibre, made its debut in the United States as a replacement for silk, and was used for parachutes and other military uses. [ citation needed ]

The techniques used to process these fibres in yarn are essentially the same as with natural fibres, modifications have to be made as these fibres are of great length, and have no texture such as the scales in cotton and wool that aid meshing. [ citation needed ]

Unlike natural fibres, produced by plants, animals or insects, synthetic fibres are made from fossil fuels, and thus require no farmland. [43]

Keeping Feathers Off Hats–And On Birds

It’s easy to imagine the glamorous early 20th-century woman who might wear the tiara in front of me. Delicate and adorned with wispy white feathers that wouldn’t come cheap, this aigrette (the French word for egret) would rest atop the head of a rich and fashionable society figure. Such an ornament made of feathers represented the height of contemporary style.

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And for many others, the tiara would be a walking symbol of man’s inability to respect the natural world, for as a 1917 Field and Stream story on migratory birds and the devastation fashion wrought upon them notes, each bunch of feathers on an aigrette “probably means that a mother egret has been murdered and her three or four baby herons have been left to starve to death in the nest.”

These birds, and their repurposing as gaudy fashion statements, are the subject of a new exhibit at the New-York Historical Society marking 100 years since the passage of the 1918 Migratory Bird Act Treaty, a piece of legislation that put a swift end to the hunting of birds like egrets (and swans, eagles and hummingbirds). Open through July 15, Feathers: Fashion and the Fight for Wildlife showcases a collection of garments and accessories made with the feathers, beaks, and in some cases, the full bodies of dead birds. Paintings by John James Audubon depict those same birds alive and in-flight, making a case for what activists, governments, and ordinary citizens can do in the face of seemingly inevitable environmental destruction.

J. H. Johnston & Co, Aigrette hair ornament (from a Snowy or Great Egret), 1894, Egret feathers, gold, gold wire, diamonds (Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Mrs. Mary S. Griffin, 1961)

It took the feathers of four egrets to produce one aigrette, a fact reflected in the sheer number of birds killed. Exhibit co-curator Debra Schmidt Bach says one set of statistics suggests that in 1902, one-and-a-half tons of egret feathers were sold, which according to contemporary estimates, calculates to 200,000 birds and three times that many eggs. By other figures, the number of birds being killed by hunters in Florida alone each year was as high as five million.

Milliners decorated hats with entire birds (often dyed in rich purples and blues), earrings made from the heads and beaks of hummingbirds, and a muff and tippet made from two Herring gulls, a species pushed almost to the brink of extinction in the 1900s. The set is especially poignant because, as co-curator Roberta Olson points out, their distinctive red markings indicate the gulls were harvested while they were breeding. “So it's kind of heartbreaking,” she says. “It's as though that's a mating pattern that will face each other for all eternity.”

The demand for birds and their feathers reached a fever pitch at the turn of the 20th century, and both curators hypothesize that as cities expanded, it was easier to feel increasingly distant from nature. Ironically, they saw the use of birds in fashion was a way to foster a connection with the animal world. And while Bach acknowledges that women were the “most visible purveyors and users of feathers,” hunters, scientists, and collectors contributed equally to the decimation of bird populations.

That didn’t stop the news media from blaming women for the mass die-off of migratory birds: the aigrette came to be known as the “white badge of cruelty,” and a 1917 Washington Post story challenges bird lovers to push back against “selfishly indifferent followers of fashion.”

Perhaps less talked about were the women—often Italian immigrants—who earned their wages directly through the production of these hats. The exhibit introduces us to a family doing a kind of work called willowing—a way of extending ostrich feathers – labor that might earn them $2.50 a week, or the equivalent of $75 in today's money, and a comparatively high wage for unskilled workers. The work put them at risk for exposure to illness that might come from doing dusty, repetitive work in small, unventilated tenement spaces. They suffered as well, through reduced wages, when the public demand shifted to bird-free alternatives like the “Audobonnet,” named after the environmentalist and made from silk and ribbon.

The popularity of Audobonnets and other cruelty-free accessories can be traced directly to the women who campaigned tirelessly to end the use of migratory birds in fashion. Some, like Florence Merriam Bailey, who as a Smith College student in 1886 organized a local chapter of the Audubon Society, combined their activism with work that pushed others to appreciate the beauty of birds in their natural habitats. Bailey’s Birds Through an Opera-Glass, published in 1899, helped non-experts spot, identify and appreciate bird life, and over the course of her ornithology career she’d write six birding books focused primarily on birds of the southwestern United States.

John James Audubon, Great Egret (Ardea alba), 1821 (Purchased for the New-York Historical Society by public subscription from Mrs. John J. Audubon, 1863)

Others, like German opera star Lilli Lehmann, used their celebrity to bring attention to the cause. “One of the things that she would do,” Bach says, “is when she met her fans, or when she had different kinds of audiences that she could speak to, she would encourage women not to wear feathers, and in exchange, would offer her autographs—if they made the promise not to wear feathers.”

As the public took increasing interest in saving and restoring bird populations, individual states passed laws regulating the hunting and collection of birds, eggs and feathers, but migratory birds—those most impacted by the feather trade—remained without protection at the federal level until the passage of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918. According to the Audubon Society, the MBTA is “credited with saving numerous species from extinction, such as the Snowy Egret, Wood Duck, and Sandhill Crane, and millions, if not billions of other birds.”, and while hats decorated with the feathers of non-migratory birds like chickens and ostriches remained popular, aigrettes and other accessories featuring the plumes and parts of migratory birds vanished from the heads of fashionable women.

The egret now serves as the Audubon Society’s emblem, and Bach and Olson point to the naturalist’s famed watercolor portraits of migratory birds as an example of how to celebrate and admire wildlife from afar. Audobon, painting in the 1820s and 1830s, was one of the first artists to capture the images of birds in their natural habitats and part of their success, says Olson, is how Audubon presented his avian subjects.

“Notice how Audubon's birds always look at you,” she says says. “They’re alive, he uses the reserve of the paper to be the reflection in the eye. And so you feel like you're having a relationship with them.” While Audubon died in 1851, his art and work remain central to American conservation movements--Bach and Olson both call his work ahead of its time and instrumental in the development of later activists, many of whom organized Audubon Society chapters of their own.

The exhibit, and the chance it gives us to see the majesty of these birds, comes at a crucial time—the Department of the Interior recently announced plans to reinterpret the MBTA to weaken punishments for “incidental” destruction of birds and eggs. While the government suggests this interpretation is meant to benefit average citizens—a homeowner who might accidentally destroy an owl’s nest, for example—many in conservation circles think it will be used as a loophole for corporations to wreak havoc on bird populations with little to no punishment.

Before I leave, Olson shows me one more Audubon watercolor, this one of an egret. “You can see he is lifting off his back flip, as though it were a windup toy. And you can see, it's just so full of tension and life. And it's alive.”

It shows, she says, what the Migratory Bird Treaty Act really did. “And there is an undercurrent, I think, all for sustainability. And if one is a good steward of the environment, and of nature, we can get along.”

Plant the weeping mulberry tree in well drained soil, and full sun to partial shade. This tree adapts to most soils (acidic or alkaline). During the first few years after planting it will need to be watered on a regular basis, once it is established it will be fairly drought tolerant. The weeping mulberry has no serious pest or disease problems.

  • There are two major types of cultivars: Morus alba ‘Chaparral’, which is a male tree.
  • Plant the weeping mulberry tree in well drained soil, and full sun to partial shade.

My Art YouTube Videos!

Another Haunted Painting? The Tragic True Story Behind the Painting: Man Proposes, God Disposes

This is the tragic true story behind the Edwin Landseer painting “Man Proposes, God Disposes.” Buckle up because there’s cannibalism, a painting that disturbs college exam takers, and two ships that disappeared for 150 years.

Enjoy and let me know your thoughts in the comments!

What Can We Learn From the Well-Preserved “Franklin Expedition” Mummies? (futurism.com)

John Rae: The Scottish hero of the Arctic who was denied his place in history | The National

The Grisly and Heroic Propaganda of the Doomed Franklin Expedition (hyperallergic.com)

Buried in Ice - The Franklin Expedition Cemetery - Secrets of the Ice

Cursed Painting Allegedly Causes University Students To Go Insane | Mysterious Universe

Edwin Henry Landseer Biography, Mental Breakdown, Paintings, Lions (victorian-era.org)

Grisly 'cursed' painting's story recalled after shipwreck discovery - Surrey Live (getsurrey.co.uk)

Theresa's Haunted History of the Tri-State: Man Proposes, God Disposes (theresashauntedhistoryofthetri-state.blogspot.com)

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer (1802-1873), Victorian Art History (avictorian.com)

A troubled artist: Sir Edwin Landseer | RCVSK Blog

Inside John Franklin's Lost Expedition And Its Grisly Arctic Demise (allthatsinteresting.com)

The Franklin Expedition: What Really Happened? (mysteriesofcanada.com)

Ship From Doomed Franklin Expedition Found in Arctic After 169 Years (nbcnews.com)

All from the YouTube Song Library

Drunken Sailor, Cooper Cannell

Rolling Hills, Sir Cubworth

Drunken Sailor, The Midshipmen Glee Club

Crewmate being ejected What happens after when a crewmate gets ejected - YouTube

All other clips: Free Stock Video Footage HD 4K Download Royalty-Free Clips (videvo.net)

More of My Videos like this one:

Murder and Mayhem: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6S0rCvZ2IV0&t=5s

The world’s most haunted painting? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d65QwebRZwI&t=160s

Art Conspiracy Theories: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c72aeAc5PcM

4 More Haunted Paintings: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdagWFXiNSY&t=849s

Art Mandela Effect? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TffNUdbOKVI

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I am a member of a local art collective: http://www.artistswo.com

I am a mixed media artist who creates mainly oil portraits with a mixed media background. I am learning to oil paint from a master painter who studied in Germany and worked as a professional illustrator for over 25 years. I eat and breathe art and . . . glitter is my homey.

Contact me at: [email protected]

Hack for Drawing Realistic Eyes: Using a Lightbox! Tips, Tricks & Demos! Improve Your Art Skills

If you've ever tried to draw a portrait, you may have noticed how hard it is to accurately draw eyes. It may look simple, but the truth is when you draw, your brain tries to trick you because it thinks it knows what eyes look like, so why not go based off what you already know about eyes?

Well, because if you do, your eyes may not look right and it can throw off your whole drawing or painting.

The good news is this - if you have a lightbox, you can use it to practice drawing eyes and help yourself improve as an artist!

Photograph website: http://www.unsplash.com

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Time Lapse Halloween Lightbox Drawing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N47gwuI30LM&t=1s

Using My Lightbox to Draw Another Portrait: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7v1KDB87Jj8&t=59s

Using a Lightbox to Draw a Portrait: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x79PGd0_Ros&t=10s

My videos are filmed with: iPhone 6s & Canon eos Rebel t3i

Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/dieselandink
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My Mixed Media Art Blog: http://www.jaimeleighwrites.com

I am a member of a local art collective: http://www.artistswo.com

I am a mixed media artist who creates mainly oil portraits with a mixed media background. I am learning to oil paint from a master painter who studied in Germany and worked as a professional illustrator for over 25 years. I eat and breathe art and . . . glitter is my homey.

Contact me at: [email protected]

Did This Painting Help Solve a Crime? The Strange True Tale of the Brooklyn Thriller Killers!

Juvenile Delinquents!
Comic Books?

What happened in the Summer of 1954 in New York City? Bands of juvenile delinquents roamed the city, causing mayhem and committing crimes. The public was outraged and fearful - and demanding something be done. Horror comics were making their debut - and shining a spotlight on an industry horrified parents viewed as smutty and a bad influence on kids.

Add to this brewing storm four teenage boys looking for some trouble and throw in one Robert Rauschenberg painting and what do you get?

A sensational case that put on trial the group of boys known as the Brooklyn Thrill Kill Gang.

But, what was the true story? And does that painting hold an important clue?

Hope you find this one as fascinating as I did!

Did an Artwork Solve a Decades-old NYC Crime? | Observer.com

The Brooklyn Thrill-Kill Gang and the Great Comic Book Scare of the 1950s - Kindle edition by Adin, Mariah. Politics & Social Sciences Kindle eBooks @ Amazon.com.

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I am a mixed media artist who creates mainly oil portraits with a mixed media background. I am learning to oil paint from a master painter who studied in Germany and worked as a professional illustrator for over 25 years. I eat and breathe art and . . . glitter is my homey.

Contact me at: [email protected]o.com

(Art) Stuff I Don't Have Time for in 2021! #2021 #ain'tnobodygottimeforthat

There’s plenty of things we want to leave behind in the dumpster fire that was 2020 as we head into 2021. Let’s also leave some of these unhelpful art things in there, too:

*Putting your art down.

We ain’t got time for that.

Smokey Glow’s video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b9CW8MeTJn0&t=1s

Amandabb’s video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93TV-0xLIIk

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Becoming an Artist: My Journey https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imWWizkNFC0

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I am a mixed media artist who creates mainly oil portraits with a mixed media background. I am learning to oil paint from a master painter who studied in Germany and worked as a professional illustrator for over 25 years. I eat and breathe art and . . . glitter is my homey.

Contact me at: [email protected]

Art History Doesn't Suck? Strange and Interesting Tales About Famous Artists

I used to think art history was so boring. It could have been that I was trying to learn it as an exhausted college student in a dark basement classroom at 8 am? Because I’m here to tell you that it’s actually fascinating.

That doesn’t sound boring at all, right?

In today’s video I’ll tell you about four artists from history who have waaaaay more interesting stories than I learned in art history class!

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My videos are filmed with: iPhone 6s & Canon eos Rebel t3i

Follow me:
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I am a member of a local art collective: http://www.artistswo.com

I am a mixed media artist who creates mainly oil portraits with a mixed media background. I am learning to oil paint from a master painter who studied in Germany and worked as a professional illustrator for over 25 years. I eat and breathe art and . . . glitter is my homey.

The Six Seasons of the Christian's Heart

B. Most people ignore the seasons of life, and have no day of rest in a week have no time just with God have no regular sleeping patterns have no job or season of work have no regular season of eating - always helter-skelter

C. God made seasons, and cycles, and expects us to know about them, and understand them.

A. Seasons are all about changes - called cycles - they affect us

1. The sun is cycling - every 11 years - and changing

2. The human body is changing, and going through seasons

3. The heart does the same

B. Seasons are normal (Gen 1:14 2 Kgs 4:16,17) - don't be ashamed

C. Seasons are NOT forever (Gen 40:4 Josh 24:7)

D. Seasons are subject to change (Dan 2:21)

E. Some things are NOT to be affected by seasons

2. Right Preaching (1 Tim 4:2)

F. Some seasons never come (Acts 24:25)

III. Message - The Six Seasons of the Christian's Heart ( Selected Scriptures )

A. Begins with the Season of Testing, Temptation - the Night Season (Ps 16:7 Luke 4:1-13).

1. This is where most people are - it is where all of the seasons bring you back through to if you are not careful!

2. It is the time when it gets dark (Ex 5:1-23)

a. You can either give in to the testing - results in Sin (Heb 11:25)

1) Results in another season - the season of Chastening (Heb 12:6 Acts 13:9-11)

2) If chastening does not work, then your next stop is Home (Jam 1:14,15 Rom 6:23 1 Cor 11:28-32)

3) But, if chastening does its job - or rather you respond to its work on you, then you go to the next season (Heb 12:11)

b. Endure hardness (Jam 1:12 1 Pet 1:6 2 Tim 2:3)

4. Every event in your life has only two paths - period! You have to choose one on the other, and then deal with the consequences.

5. The best thing is to know that the hardest path is worth it all

B. The Season of Rest (Rev 6:11 Jer 6:16 Mt 11:29).

1. This is the time in your life when nothing is happening - this is when you just need to rest, and have patience (Ps 27:14), and trust in the Lord to do things in His way, in His time!

a. Patience (James 5:8 Heb 10:36) - Wait on the Lord, just stay on track. You find rest when you trust the Lord, and just stay following Him, and obeying Him, and waiting on HIS timing.

b. Get impatient - You will go be back in the season of temptation, and darkness (James 5:9)

3. This period of time can be long or short - you just have to sometimes wait it out (i.e., Joseph in prison - didn't complain or get impatient).

C. The Season of Fruitfulness (Ezek 34:26 Ps 1:3 Josh 1:8). Two paths

1. This is a time in your life when everything starts paying off - all your faith, your obedience, all your prayers, and time in the Bible, and soul-winning (Isa 55:11) - it paid off in Joseph's life didn't it?

2. It is a season where you watch God bring the increase (1Cor 3:6). Sowing is not in here yet, because we need some grain FIRST to start sowing, and God will GIVE you what you need to start sowing, so that you can reap more later.

a. Start labouring to reap the results of your walk with Christ - almost want to bottle it up for the later days - Joseph started working everybody in Egypt for the NEXT season that God had said was coming up!

b. Ignore the need to bring in the sheaves (Pr 27:23,24) - just think it will always be there - die like the people of Noah's day!

4. Everyone has a season of fruitfulness - of accomplishment - we just don't stop and smell the roses, and take note of the little things, because we always want so much more than we have!

D. The Season of Reaping - Harvest Time - Time of Joy (Ps 126:5,6 Gal 3:9 1Cor 15:58)

1. This season is considered before sowing because for the Christian it is more important right now - was it not in the garden (Gen 2:5)?

a. Re-investing the fruit of your labours - tithe, and planning for the next planting - investing in the future

b. Neglect the harvest (John 4:35)

E. The Season of Sowing - Planting - Investing in the Future

1. There is a time for sowing, and planting, and investing - but you only can do so much - the rest has to be left up to the Lord (Prov 3:5,6)

2. You do not reap right away - there are three seasons you have to go through before you can start reaping from your Christian walk with Christ

a. Diligently plant and plant, and plant as much as you can, and then wait in patience (James 5:7,8 Heb 4:9,10 2Cor 9:6), knowing again that God will bring the increase!

b. Be lazy (Prov 20:4) Slack off in your Christian walk and get attracted by something you think is more important!

Home Work in the Tenements

The text in this article is supported by price and wage figures revealing how little workers profited from their own labor. Such research facts were common in the Survey, a journal committed to informing the public about social welfare problems. Lewis Hine (1874-1940), who took the photos used here, often worked on assignments for the Survey as well as for reform minded organizations. Many of his photos continue to be the most graphic evidence of early century poverty and child labor.



(From Sorrowful Rhymes of Working Children.)

And so it came about, and grew and grew, until now there are thirteen thousand some odd tenement houses in New York licensed by the bureau of factory inspection of the State Department of Labor, in which work given out by manufacturers and contractors can be made or finished in the homes, where the labor of all members of the family can be utilized without reference to age or factory law.

Securing a license permitting a tenement house to take in certain homework is a very simple matter. The owner or agent renting the property files with the Department of Labor a personal application for a license. The department sends out an inspector to investigate the building. If it comes up to the sanitary regulations and there are no charges filed against it in the Health or Tenement House Departments, a license is granted that allows all families living in the house to take in work if they desire. The house may contain one or forty families. The number makes no difference. The license is for the entire house, and entitles all the tenants to do homework.

The law calls for two inspections of licensed tenements a year, but owing to the limited number of inspectors only one complete inspection is made, at which time thirty-five or more inspectors make a complete survey of the licensed houses. Only four inspectors are detailed regularly to this department for work the year round.

The law regulating this branch of industry is Section 100 of the labor laws which prohibits, except when licensed, the use of a room or apartment in a tenement house or of a building on the same lot with one for "manufacturing, altering, repairing or finishing" of

This is all very well so far as it goes, but as the law applies only to the things on the licensed list and has no jurisdiction whatever over the home manufacturing of any articles not on that list, work can and does go merrily and legally on in houses refused a license, or in which a license has been revoked on account of unsanitary conditions.

For instance, in one house in which the license had been revoked on account of unsanitary conditions, and in which there had been several cases of contagious disease, I found flower making, garment finishing, and fur work. Work requiring a license could not be legally done, but any work not requiring a license could be. No license was necessary to sort coffee, therefore it could be and was sorted.

The halls and stairways in this house were in unspeakable condition. A series of complaints had been filed against it in the Tenement House Department and the apartment of the family engaged in coffee sorting was deplorably out of repair and dirty. Bags of broken coffee were bought at a nominal price from a coffee factory in a nearby street, and taken home, where all the children of the family, plus a small cousin from a neighboring apartment, sorted the whole beans from the broken ones. The two little girls of the family, one aged nine the other eleven, were continually staying out of school and only attended enough days to keep off the truant list.

The child labor law prevents any child under fourteen years of age from being employed in any factory, mercantile establishment, restaurant and other places of business, but no law reaches the homeworking child save the compulsory education law--and that has jurisdiction over his school day only. He may work from six in the morning until school opens, and from three on to midnight, with no respite, every school day, and all day long, as many days a week as he can conveniently remain out of school without being regarded as a truant and there is no law in our enlightened city to stop him.

The predominating home industries in New York are finishing clothing, making artificial flowers and willowing ostrich plumes. Children work in all three.

  • Ten per cent is done by Italians.
  • Ten per cent is done by Germans, Irish, Americans, Syrians, Jews (chiefly Russians).
  • Fine custom made vests German
  • Finishing clothing making Ninety-eight per cent is done by artificial flowers
    • Italians willowing ostrich plumes
    • Globe neckties, Irish and Americans blouses and clothing for United States Navy
    • Kimonas, crochet, lace, Syrians. embroidery and crocheted lady sacques
    • Plaiting hat straw all Jews kinds of women's neck wear fancy bows.

    Thus "homework" is an unknown term best expressed by x. In fact, so little is known of it that the more we scratch about on the surface of the situation the keener our realization of the paucity of facts concerning it. The State Department of Labor tells us the number of houses licensed to take in certain specified work. But it knows nothing of the number of people in each of these licensed houses doing such work. It cannot tell us the number of houses in which such work is done without a license, nor has it knowledge of the quantity of work done not requiring a license. And no one knows or can estimate the number of children helping in this work. In fact, in order to know all this it would require an inspector for each house!

    Yet for all our lack of definite information on the subject, we have some indications of the extent of homework. One of these indications is the "Help Wanted--Female" columns in the daily papers most widely read by the workers. These are full of advertisements for homeworkers.

    In one paper, during a period of two weeks' time chosen at random, there were 205 advertisements for women to take work home--almost fifteen advertisements a day. Some of these, for crochet workers on babies' hoods and bootees, wanted a hundred workers at a time and continued their advertisement many days.

    Some light has been thrown on the situation by following these advertising columns for three months. For instance, workers in the predominating trades in tenement houses, such as finishers of clothing, are never advertised for. Artificial flower makers to work at home are rarely advertised for (once in the three months, I believe) and home workers on willow plumes were advertised for just twice during the three months, although the willow plume trade was at that time in its busiest season. Absence of advertisements for workers in the predominating tenement trades indicates, significantly enough, that these trades are well established in the homes, the source of supply for such work is well known to the workers and the applicants for work are more than equal to the demand for workers. This gives manufacturer and contractor power to dictate the lowest terms--as we shall see later on in the history of the willow plume trade.

    The kind of work done in different parts of the city depends wholly on the character of the factories in the neighborhood. Throughout the lower West Side we find artificial flowers, fancy feathers, finishing of clothing on the lower East Side finishing of clothing the upper East Side willowing plumes, and beginnings of flower making. Several kinds of work in the vicinity mean that there is no respite for home-workers--the slack season of one industry is supplemented by the busy season of another. In the Bronx are embroidery factories. Consequently we find the Bronx families cutting out embroideries, embroidered handkerchiefs and the like. Tiny children, four years old can cut out embroideries. As soon as they can manage little scissors they help separate the strips, even if they are unable to cut out the scallops. One small, pathetically weary looking child, probably five years old, on being asked how long she had been cutting embroidery, shrugged her little shoulders and replied, "O! Ever since I was."

    Very small children can help pull out bastings in finishing clothing, sort and sew buttons on cards, and separate flower petals. Willow pluming is a little more difficult for little children, the complicated knot making it almost impossible for very small fingers however during the past summer several children of seven years were found doing it.

    With the exception of these trades, and the finishing of underwear, the character of work carried on in homes takes it out of the smaller children's hands, leaving it for mothers and older members of the family. Small children cannot embroider, knit angora hoods or mittens. But girls of eight, nine and ten years can and do crochet lace, though lace making is a comparatively minor industry. Passementerie, beading nets, making millinery ornaments, and operative work, such as making kimonas and rompers, requires older, more experienced handling than a small child can give.

    But even here the child is utilized in carrying work to and from factories and shops. (A very small child with a very big bundle of clothing--as big as itself--is a common sight in the tenement districts.) The physical results from these heavy loads are yet to be proved. Again, the children take entire care of the smaller children and babies and carry on the entire work of the household. Little girls of eleven and twelve do the family washing before going to school in the morning, or remain out of school to do it.

    Last March, on a bitter cold day with snow falling, while visiting a tenement in which finishing was done, a little shivering group of children was found whimpering and huddling in the second floor hallway. The baby, a tiny scrap of fourteen months, was crying with cold, while the little mother (of seven) cuddled him in her arms, trying to forget her own discomfort in caring for him. A third child, a little girl of five, said they were locked out because the mother had taken the work to the boss. On returning, the mother was much distressed at finding her little family crying with the cold. Shrugging her shoulders, she asked: "What, I must do? I maka the coats, my man he no gotta job. He walk this day for work. I lock a children in, they burn up. I lock a children out, they cry. What I must do?"

    And so the stories go on, a series of tales of neglect, overwork, undernourishment, the latter the result of several things--poor food bought in a hurry from the ubiquitous push cart, or the stress of work where every minute counts making it impossible for the mother to take time to prepare food properly and often has to leave it for the children to cook. Then, too, even if the family has nourishing food the children are often just too tired to eat.

    The continuous indoor life, the lack of play time, the overcrowding and general demoralization of the home through its conversion into a factory, must eventually register, and if we find it impossible now to measure in exact terms the injury of this system on the child, we will reckon with it later on in his physical and psychological reactions.

    One picturesque old Italian nonna (grandmother) in a family working at home, was asked if she liked America. With a shrug of her shoulders she replied: "Not much, not much. Good money, good people, but my country--my country--good air, much air, nice air down Italy. Blue sky, the water laugh in the bay." Then, spreading out her arms, hands up, with a pathetic gesture "In my country peoples cook out of doors, maka the wash out of doors, eat out of doors, tailor out of doors, maka macaroni out of doors. And my people laugh, laugh all a time. And we use the house only in the night time to maka the sleep. America--it is sopra, sopra, (up, up, with a gesture of going up stairs). Many peoples one house, worka, worka, all a time. Good money, but no good air."

    Some twenty-five years ago the New York Court of Appeals handed down the following- -known as the Jacobs decision:

    What home influences can there be where a mother and three children, (the youngest just five), having been in this country, but four months and speaking no English, are making artificial flower wreaths (in an unlicensed house) at six cents a dozen wreaths, day in and day out?

    The table below of prices for work and the weekly incomes from it will show the compensation these homeworkers, victims of their own unrestricted competition, receive for converting their homes into factories.

    To show the effect of home work at close range, the Work and Wages Committee of the New York Child Welfare Committee decided last May to make an intensive and comparative study of two groups of the same nationality, living under the same conditions, in new law tenements, subject to the same educational and civic influences, differing only in occupation-- one group doing home work and the other not doing it. Willowing ostrich feather, a typical homework trade, (in its busy season) was chosen for study.

    Willowing consists of lengthening the short strands, called flues, of inferior feathers by tying on one, two or three flues until the feather has the desired depth and grace. The work is paid for by the inch and varies with the number of sets of knots to the inch.

    Three years ago when the trade started, few knew how to willow, and fifteen cents was paid for tying one set of knots (per inch). The following season more workers were in the field and the price went down to thirteen cents an inch. Then it dropped to eleven cents (an inch), nine cents, seven cents, five cents and last summer (1910) the workers were receiving but three cents an inch while some of them in late summer were beginning to work by the piece. One feather fourteen and a half inches long, tied three times to the inch, brought its maker one dollar and ten cents. The woman who made it said "Pretty soon, the bossa, he wants us work for nothing."

    One plume bringing the set price of three cents an inch contained 8,613 knots. A woman and two children worked at it for a day and a third, tying at the rate of forty-one knots for a cent.

    The neighborhood chosen for study was in the upper East Side, where the feather industry flourishes. In one block between Second and Third avenues there are eighteen factories or shops in which the older girls of the district work, and where the families living in the upper floors and in adjacent houses secured their supplies for home work. In one house (above one of these shops), occupied by fourteen families, we found twenty-eight children under twelve years of age busily plying this trade. The streets and stoops are full of ostrich feather refuse, the stairways are littered and the air full of feather particles. The houses are filled with homeworkers, regardless of license. During the summer 370 homes were visited in order to get the history of one hundred families not engaged in home work and not one-half of these houses were licensed.

    To show how impossible it would be to inspect and license this trade properly the story of Fortunata must be told.

    A group of Italian men stood around the door of No. 324. "Yes, Fortunata live here." Then one cried at the top of his voice: "Fortunata, Fortunata," which promptly brought a stout, good-natured, rugged-faced South Italian woman carrying a black oilcloth bag fairly bulging with greens, peppers and their curious Italian squashes.

    "She my girl, she my girl. She live upstairs. What you want? You Board of Health?"

    On being told I was not the Board of Health, she said: "I takes you upstairs to see her. I take you up." then, turning to a little girl on the doorstep, in Italian: "Quick, sopra (up). Sopra! Tell Fortunata give her plume to her godmother. Go, Mara. A lady comes who will arrest her if she work on feathers."

    Slowly she toiled up the stairs, I behind her. No use trying to speed beyond her portly figure. In the middle of the first flight she stopped, slowly wiped her brow, and said: "I big, big woman--takes me much time to go upstairs. My house way upstairs." Meanwhile she called at the top of her voice in Italian: "Fortunata, Fortunata, take the plumes into your godmother's. There comes a lady."

    Reaching the first floor nothing would do--we must stop at a neighbor's and admire the baby. Meanwhile she explained to her neighbor that the lady was from the Board of Health, coming to arrest the children who worked on feathers, and that she wanted Fortunata to put the feathers away before we reached the apartment.

    Slowly we climbed the second flight. This time we paused in the middle of the hallway where, with many gesticulations, she showed me the bad places in the plaster. "The boss he no care--house look bad." Later "the boss" we find is her own brother.

    Laboriously we climbed the third flight, stopping at the head of the stairs to visit in the hallway, with all the neighbors who had come out to look over the "lady from the Board of Health, who had come to arrest them for making feathers." One of them even went so far as to say me no one ever made feathers in that house. In vain did I tell them I did not come from the Board of Health I could not arrest them if they made feathers in their own homes.

    Finally we reached the home of Fortunata. Four rooms clean as a pin, save for one little place by the front window where there still remained a few tiny remnants of the snipped flues of the feathers. After talking to Fortunata for some time we ask her if she makes feathers. Her mother replies for her.

    "No, no! She no make feathers. Feathers hurt their eyes. I no let Fortunata tie them."

    Turning to Fortunata, I said: "Fortunata, go into your godmother's and bring the plume."

    She looked at me as if she were dazed. "Bring me your plume from your godmother's, Fortunata"--and she did. When her mother saw her returning with the feather she said: "Senorina, you speak Italian?"

    "I speak a little, but I understand more," and with that she put her hands to her side and rolled with laughter. Then we all laughed together, whereupon she patted me on both cheeks and said: "You very nice lady! You very nice lady! You very happy lady!"

    A glance at the budgets of the families in the next column--particularly of the wages of the fathers--tell their own story and show why home work is necessary.

    This budget is not small because the fathers are lazy. Some of them are city employes in the street cleaning department, others are carpenters, bricklayers, rock drillers, etc. Many of them are skilled workmen earning good pay by the day, but one woman summed up the whole situation when she said: "Everybody, all a people, they willow the plumes. It hurts the eyes, too, bad, bad. How we can help it? The man he no work, two days, three days, may be in one week, two weeks. Sundays he no work, no pay. The holidays, no work, no money. Rainy, snowy days, bad days, he no work. Well, what we can do? My girl, me, we maka the feathers. The children must have to eat."

    So, to supplement the family income, the children work, tying these feathers, bringing all kinds of eye trouble and strain in their wake, remaining out of school--whenever possible.

    The school records of the homeworking children show an average non-attendance of twenty-nine days out of an eighty-nine-day term, as against an average non-attendance of ten days by those not doing home-work. Six of the nonhomeworking children had perfect attendance records, while some of the homeworkers had been absent seventy whole and three half days. One, a child of eight, although a resident in the district nearly three years, had never been in school at all and could scarcely speak English.

    The family records of these two groups show a tendency to more deaths (of children) in the homeworking families--177 as against 104--and a larger number of deaths from contagious disease, which might be interpreted as an indication that the homeworking child's power of resistance is less than that of the non-homeworker.

    What are we going to do about it? Are we ready to ask that all children be exempt from such work? Is the time ripe to say all such work must be eliminated from the tenement homes? And if so how shall we do it?

    • Finishing coats. 6c a piece $2.40 to $3.00
    • Finishing pants. 6c to 10c a pair $3.00 to $4.20
    • Making violets. 3c a gross up $2.75 to $3.50
    • Making little roses. 8c a gross $2.75 to $4.00
    • Making large roses. 16c to 18c a gross $3.00 (7 and 8 petals)
    • Making baby dresses. 45c a dozen $3.20 to $5.00 (Sewing up two sides, hemming skirt, making sleeves and sewing them in, gathering and binding the neck into a band, sewing on one button and making one button hole.)
    • Embroidering crepe de. $5.00 a dress chine dresses (It takes 10 days to complete one.)
    • Making kimonas. 4c a dozen (4 seams--2 sleeve seams, hemming and binding.)

    Men's neckwear--

    • Cotton string ties. 5c a dozen $2.75
    • Silk ties. 15c a dozen $3.60 (Lined, turned and pressed.)
    • Sorting and mounting. 2c a dozen cards .25 a day buttons on cards
    • Embroidery and tucking. $1.00 $6.00 shirtwaists (if material included)(Women working from 5 o'clock in morning until 8 o'clock at night can complete one a day.)
    • Plaiting hat straw. 10c a dozen yards $4.00 (Season trade only, lasting 4 months in fall and winter.)
    • Embroidering silk. 20c to 45c a pair Girls average of stockings 12 1/2 cents
    • Muslin underwear. 15c to 25c a dozen $3.25 to $4.20(Running in ribbons, making three button-holes and sewing on three buttons.)
    • Cutting out embroideries. 5c a dozen yards $2.75 trimming scallops, etc.
    • Trimming embroidered. 25c a hundred $3.00 to $4.25 handkerchiefs
    • Making baby bootees. 25c a dozen ?
    • Making Irish lace collars. 50c to$1.50 a piece ?
    • Making Irish lace. 35c to 50c a dozen medallions
    • Making Irish lace. 15c a yard by yard--insertion


    • Average income of father per year. $370.57
    • Average size of family. 7
    • Average number of family. 5
    • Average rent per month. $ 11.17
    • Average number of room. 4
    • Average income of father week. $ 7.13
    • Average income from other sources outside home work. $ 6.60
    • Average total income outside home work. $ 13.73
    • Average income from feather making per week. $ 3.00
    • Average income from all sources per week. $ 16.73
    • Average rent per week. $ 2.79
    • Average amount per week to cover food, lighting, clothing, insurance, emergencies,etc., for 7 people. $ 13.94 --OR--
    • Average amount per week per capita for food, lighting, heating, clothing, insurance, and emergencies. $ 1.99


    • Average wages of father per year. $840.84
    • Average size of family. 7
    • Average number of children. 5
    • Average rent per month. $ 11.39
    • Average number of rooms. 4
    • Average income of father per wee. $16.17
    • Average income from other source. $ 9.36
    • Average total income per week. $ 25.53
    • Average rent per week. $ 2.85
    • Average amount per week left for heating, lighting, clothing, insurance, and emergencies. $ 22.68
    • Average amount per week per capitafor heating, lighting, clothing, insurance, and emergencies. $ 3.24

    Additional Poems From "Sorrowful Rhymes of Working Children"

    Jack Sprat had little work,
    His wife could get much more.
    She and the children worked all
    To keep the wolf from the door.

    This little child made laces,
    This little child made flowers,
    This little child made willow
    This one held baby for hours,
    And all of them worked in a close,
    warm room
    Through the good, bright summer

    How doth the manufacturer
    Improve the ostrich tail?
    By willowing the scraggy ends
    Until they're fit for sale.
    How cheerfully he sits and smiles
    Throughout the livelong day,
    While children knot the tiny flues
    And make the plumes that pay.

    Ten little Ten'ment kids standing in a line,
    One went to pulling threads and then there were nine.
    Nine little children, happy by the gate,
    One went to willow plumes, then there were eight.
    Eight little children gazing up at heaven,
    One went down to tend the shop, then there were seven.
    Seven little children all in a mix,
    One went to crochet lace, then there were six.
    Six little children, very much alive,
    One went to braiding straw, then there were five.
    Five little children sitting by the door,
    One went to finish coats, then there were four. Four little children happy as could be,
    One sews on buttonholes, now there are three.
    Three little children watching the baby coo,
    One went to crochet boots, then there were two.
    Two little children playing all alone,
    One got the violets and went to work at home.
    One little child alone can't have heaps of fun,
    She was put at stringing beads and then there were none.

    Elizabeth C. Watson
    Secretary of the Work and Wages Committee of the Child Welfare Exhibit

    Willowing - History

    It seems right briefly to direct the reader’s thoughts here to what is recorded of the Baptist’s ministry in the other Gospels the questions of the priests and Levites (John 1:19-25) the counsels given to publicans, soldiers, and others (Luke 3:10-14) the presence, among the crowd, of Galileans, some of whom were afterwards Apostles (John 1:35-42). A curious legendary addition, found in the Apocryphal Gospel according to the Hebrews, is worth noting, as preparing the way for what follows: “Behold, the mother of the Lord and his brethren said unto Him, ‘John the Baptist baptiseth for the remission of sins let us go that we may be baptised by him.’ But He said unto them, ‘In what have I sinned that I should go and be baptised by him? unless, perhaps, even that which I have thus spoken be a sin of ignorance.’ “This was obviously an attempt to explain the difficulty of the Sinless One seeking a baptism of repentance. It was, of course, probable enough that the household of Nazareth, cherishing, as they did, hopes of the kingdom of heaven, should be drawn with other Galileans to the Baptist’s preaching.

    Matthew 3:12 . Whose fan is in his hand — That is, the doctrine of the gospel, which is of such a nature as effectually discovers what is the real disposition of the hearts of men, and perfectly distinguishes between the hypocritical and the sincere. Perhaps, also, the Baptist might refer to the persecutions and tribulations which should attend the preaching of the gospel. Dr. Campbell renders the original expression, το πτυον , winnowing shovel, mentioned Isaiah 30:24, “an implement of husbandry, very ancient, simple, and properly manual: whereas the fan, (or van, as it is sometimes called,) is more complex, and, being contrived for raising an artificial wind, by the help of sails, can hardly be considered as proper for being carried about in the hand.” “In the eastern countries,” says Dr. Shaw, “after the grain is trodden out, they winnow it by throwing it up against the wind with a shovel. ” “To understand the Baptist’s meaning aright, we should observe, that in this verse he describes the authority of Christ’s ministry, as in Matthew 3:16 he had described its efficacy. As if he had said, The Messiah is infinitely mightier than I, not only as he will bestow on you the miraculous gifts of the Spirit, but as he has power to reward those who obey him with eternal life, and to punish such with everlasting destruction, as reject him.” — Macknight. He will thoroughly purge his floor — His Church, at present covered with a mixture of wheat and chaff. As if he had said, Though, for the present, the good and bad, the fruitful and unfruitful, are joined together in the visible Church, yet in due time he will sever them, Malachi 3:2-3 and rid his Church of all hypocrites and ungodly persons. And gather his wheat — The, truly pious, into his garner — Will lay them up in heaven as his peculiar treasure. But the chaff — Those who have only a show of religion, without the power, and produce not the fruits of righteousness, he will burn with unquenchable fire — He will treat them as men do the refuse of the floor. He will destroy them as worthless and unprofitable trash. There is, in these words, an evident allusion to the custom of burning the chaff after winnowing, that it might not, by the wind’s changing, be blown back again, and so be mingled with the wheat. And though this may in part refer to the calamities to come upon the Jewish nation for rejecting Christ, yet, it seems chiefly to intend the final destruction of all sinners in hell, which alone is properly opposed to the gathering the wheat into the garner. See Matthew 13:40-42. And certainly this burning of the chaff with unquenchable fire, is absolutely inconsistent with all views of the restoration of the wicked, nor can it, by any easy or just interpretation, be reconciled with their annihilation, which, it is certain, no punishment of mind or body can, of itself, effect.

    His floor - The threshing-floor was an open space, or area, in the field, usually on an elevated part of the land, Genesis 50:10. It had no covering or walls. It was a space of ground 30 or 40 paces in diameter, and made smooth by rolling it or treading it hard. A high place was selected for the purpose of keeping it dry, and for the convenience of winnowing the grain by the wind. The grain was usually trodden out by oxen. Sometimes it was beaten with flails, as with us and sometimes with a sharp threshing instrument, made to roll over the grain and to cut the straw at the same time. See the notes at Isaiah 41:15.

    Shall purge - Shall cleanse or purify. Shall remove the chaff, etc.

    The garner - The granary, or place to deposit the wheat.

    Unquenchable fire - Fire that shall not be extinguished, that will utterly consume it. By the floor, here, is represented the Jewish people. By the wheat, the righteous, or the people of God. By the chaff, the wicked. They are often represented as being driven away like chaff before the wind, Job 21:18 Psalm 1:4 Isaiah 17:13 Hosea 13:13. They are also represented as chaff which the fire consumes, Isaiah 5:24. This image is often used to express judgments, Isaiah 41:15 "Thou shall thresh the mountains and beat them small, and shalt make the hills as chaff." By the unquenchable fire is meant the eternal suffering of the wicked in hell, 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9 Mark 9:48 Matthew 25:41.

    is in his hand—ready for use. This is no other than the preaching of the Gospel, even now beginning, the effect of which would be to separate the solid from the spiritually worthless, as wheat, by the winnowing fan, from the chaff. (Compare the similar representation in Mal 3:1-3).

    and he will throughly purge his floor—threshing-floor that is, the visible Church.

    and gather his wheat—His true-hearted saints so called for their solid worth (compare Am 9:9 Lu 22:31).

    into the garner—"the kingdom of their Father," as this "garner" or "barn" is beautifully explained by our Lord in the parable of the wheat and the tares (Mt 13:30, 43).

    but he will burn up the chaff—empty, worthless professors of religion, void of all solid religious principle and character (see Ps 1:4).

    with unquenchable fire—Singular is the strength of this apparent contradiction of figures:—to be burnt up, but with a fire that is unquenchable the one expressing the utter destruction of all that constitutes one's true life, the other the continued consciousness of existence in that awful condition.

    Luke adds the following important particulars (Lu 3:18-20):

    And many other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people—showing that we have here but an abstract of his teaching. Besides what we read in Joh 1:29, 33, 34 3:27-36, the incidental allusion to his having taught his disciples to pray (Lu 11:1)—of which not a word is said elsewhere—shows how varied his teaching was.

    But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done—In this last clause we have an important fact, here only mentioned, showing how thoroughgoing was the fidelity of the Baptist to his royal hearer, and how strong must have been the workings of conscience in that slave of passion when, notwithstanding such plainness, he "did many things, and heard John gladly" (Mr 6:20).

    Added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison—This imprisonment of John, however, did not take place for some time after this and it is here recorded merely because the Evangelist did not intend to recur to his history till he had occasion to relate the message which he sent to Christ from his prison at Machærus (Lu 7:18, &c.).

    Judea is at present God’s floor, the only church he hath upon the earth but there is chaff upon this floor, as well as wheat. Now he is come who will make a separation between the chaff and the wheat who by his preaching the gospel will distinguish between Israel and those that are of Israel, Romans 9:6 between those who, living in the true expectation of the Messias, shall receive him now he is come, and those who, by their not owning and receiving him, shall declare that they never had any true expectation of him: shall separate them into distinct heaps, raising up a gospel church, and shall at the last day make yet a stricter discrimination, and

    thoroughly purge his floor, taking true believers into heaven, and burning unbelievers

    with unquenchable fire, casting them into torments like unquenchable fire.

    (n) In Misn. Celim. c. 13. sect. 7. Vid. Jarchi & Bartenora in ib. & in Misn. Tibbul. Yom. c. 4. sect. 6. (o) Misn. Sabbat. c. 7. sect. 2. & Gittin, c. 5. sect. 9. (p) Misn. Oholot. c. 18. sect. 2.

    (6) The triumphs of the wicked will end in everlasting torment.

    (m) Will clean it thoroughly, and make a full riddance.

    Matthew 3:12. And fire , I say for what a separation will it make!

    οὗ ] assigns a reason, like our: He whose [German, Er, dessen ]. See Ellendt, Lex. Soph . II. p. 371 Kühner, II. p. 939. It is not, however, as Grotius, Bengel, Storr, Kuinoel think, pleonastic, but the literal translation is to be closely adhered to: whose fan is in his hand that is, he who has his (to him peculiar, comp. Matthew 3:4) fan in his hand ready for use. Comp LXX. Isaiah 9:5. According to Fritzsche, ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ is epexegetical: “cujus erit ventilabrum, sc. in manu ejus.” But such epexegetical remarks, which fall under the point of view of Appositio partitiva , stand, as they actually occur, in the same case with the general word, which they define more minutely ( οὗ τὸ πτύον , τῆς χειρὸς αὐτοῦ ). See Ephesians 3:5, and remarks in loc .

    ἅλωνα ] ἅλως (Xen. Oec . xviii. 6 Dem. 1040. 23), in Greek writers commonly after the Attic declension, is the same as נֹּרֶן , a circular firmly-trodden place upon the field itself, where the grain is either trodden out by oxen, or thrashed out by thrashing machines drawn by oxen. Keil, Arch. II. p. 114 Robinson, III. p. 370. Similarly in Greek writers see Hermann, Privatalterth. xv. 6, xxiv. 3. The floor is cleansed in this way, that the seed grains and the pounded straw and similar refuse are not allowed to lie upon it indiscriminately mingled together, in the state in which the threshing has left this unclean condition of the floor, but the grain and refuse are separated from each other in order to be brought to the place destined for them. In the figure, the floor, which belongs to the Messiah, is not the church (Fathers and many others), nor mankind (de Wette), nor the Jewish nation (B. Crusius), but, because the place of the Messiah’s activity must be intended (Ewald), and that, according to the national determination of the idea of the Baptist, the holy land, as the proper sphere of the work of the Messiah, not the world in general (Bleek), as would have to be assumed according to the Christian fulfilment of the idea. In accordance with this view, we must neither, with Zeger, Fischer, Kuinoel, de Wette, explain τ . ἅλωνα , according to the alleged Hebrew usage (Job 39:12 Ruth 3:2), as the grain upon the floor nor, with Fritzsche, regard the cleansing as effected, removendo inde frumentum, which is an act that does not follow until the floor has been cleansed. The διακαθαρίζειν , to purify thoroughly, which is not preserved anywhere except in Luke 2:17, designates the cleansing from one end to the other in classical writers διακαθαίρειν , Plat. Pol. iii. pp. 399 E, 411 D Alciphr. iii. 26.

    ἀποθήκην ] place for storing up, magazine. The grain stores ( σιτόβολιον , Polyb. iii. 100. 4 θησαυροὶ σίτου , Strabo, xii. p. 862 σιτοδόκη , Pollux) were chiefly dry subterranean vaults. Jahn, Archäol. I. 1, p. 376.

    ἄχυρον ] not merely chaff in the narrower sense of the word ( מֹץ ), but all those portions of the stalk and ear which contain no grain, which are torn in pieces by the threshing, and remain over ( חֶּכֶן ), Herod. iv. 72 Xen. Oec. xvii. 1, 6. f. Genesis 24:25 Exodus 5:7. These were used as fuel. Mishna tract, Schabbath ii. 1 Parah. iv. 3. Paulsen, vom Ackerbau der Morgenl. p. 150.

    The sense, apart from figurative language, is: The Messiah will receive into His kingdom those who are found worthy (comp. Matthew 13:30) but upon the unworthy He will inflict in full the everlasting punishments of Gehenna. Comp. Mal. 3:19.

    ἀσβέστῳ ] which is not quenched (Hom. Il. xvii. 89 Pind. Isthm. iii. 72 Dion. Hal. Antt. i. 76, corresponding to the thing portrayed comp. Isaiah 66:24). Not, therefore: which is not extinguished till all is consumed (Paulus, Bleek).

    John 1:26 is not to be regarded as parallel with Matthew 3:12, for, according to John, the Baptist speaks after the baptism of Jesus, and to the members of the Sanhedrim. And doubtless he had often given expression to his testimony regarding Christ, who was the point which the prophet had in view in his preaching of repentance and baptism.

    That he is not yet definitely designated in Matthew as Elijah (Luke 1:17 Matthew 11:10 Matthew 11:14), is rightly regarded as an evidence of the truth of the gospel narrative, which has not anticipated the subsequently developed representation of John. To relegate, however, the announcement of the Messiah from the preaching of the Baptist into the realm of legend (Strauss) is a mockery of the entire evangelical testimony, and places it below the narrative of Josephus, which was squared according to the ideas of political prudence ( Antt . xviii. 5. 2).

    Matthew 3:12. This ver. follows up Matthew 3:11, and explains the judicial action emblemed by wind and fire.— οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐ . τ . χ . αὐτοῦ . The construction is variously understood. Grotius takes it as a Hebraism for ἐν οὗ χειρὶ τὸ πτύον . Fritzsche takes ἐν τ . χειρὶ αὐτοῦ as epexegetical, and renders: “whose will be the fan, viz. , in His hand”. Meyer and Weiss take οὗ as assigning a reason: “He ( αὐτὸς of Matthew 3:11) whose fan is in hand and who is therefore able to perform the part assigned to Him”. Then follows an explanation of the modus operandi .— διακαθαριεῖ from διακαθαρίζω , late for classic διακαθαίρω . The idea is: He with His fan will throw up the wheat, mixed with the chaff, that the wind may blow the chaff away He will then collect the straw, ἄχυρον (in Greek writers usually plural τὰ ἄχυρα , vide Grimm), and burn it with fire, and collect the wheat lying on the threshing floor and store it in His granary. So shall He thoroughly ( δια intensifying) cleanse His floor. And the sweeping wind and the consuming fire are the emblems and measure of His power stronger than mine, as the tempest and the devastating flames are mightier than the stream which I use as my element.— ἅλων , a place in a field made firm by a roller, or on a rocky hill top exposed to the breeze.— ἀποθήκη means generally any kind of store, and specially a grain store, often underground. Bleek takes the epithet ἀσβέστῳ applied to the fire as signifying: inextinguishable till all the refuse be consumed. It is usually understood absolutely.

    12 . fan ] An instrument by which the corn after being threshed is thrown up against the wind to clear it of chaff.

    floor ] Here put for the contents of the threshing-floor, the mingled grain and chaff.

    St Matthew represents the picturesque side of John’s preaching, these verses are full of imagery. How many similes are compressed into his teaching! The vipers, the stones, the trees, the slave, the threshing-floor, are all used to illustrate his discourse. St Luke throws into prominence the great teacher’s keen discrimination of character. St John has recorded a fragment of the Baptist’s deeper teaching as to the nature and mission of the Son of God.

    Matthew 3:12. οὖ , whose ) This, and Αὐτοῦ , His , being placed emphatically thrice, shows the power of Christ. οὗ — αὐτοῦ is a Hebraism.— τὸ πτύον , the fan) i.e. the Gospel.— ἐν τῇ χειρὶ Αὐτοῦ , in His hand ) even now. The whole of John’s harangue, and therefore the commencement of the Gospel, agrees entirely with the last clause of Old Testament prophecy, in Mal. 3:19–24, where the connection of things from Moses to the conclusion of ancient prophecy, and thence to Christ’s forerunner and Christ Himself, and the day of His universal judgment, is exquisitely and solemnly declared.— Αὐτοῦ , His ) Neither His forerunner, nor any of His apostles, had this fan in the same manner as the Lord Jesus Himself. The consolation of His ministers in then weakness is, “The Lord will do it.” Their wrath, though void of strength, is not vain.— τὴν ἅλωνα Αὐτοῦ , His threshing-floor ) The wayfarers are in the threshing-floor, the conquerors in the garner.[129]— Αὐτοῦ , His ) See Hebrews 3:6.— καὶ συνάξει τὸν σῖτον Αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν ἀποθήκην , and will gather His wheat into the garner ) Αὐτου , His , must either be omitted or construed with ἀποθήκην , garner [130] cf. Matthew 13:30, τὸν δὲ σῖτον συναγάγετε εἰς τὴν ἀποθήκην Μου , but gather the wheat into My garner . The Same is Lord of the wheat as of the garner: the Same of the garner as of the threshing-floor . See Luke 3:17.— ἄχυρον , chaff ) The chaff is held of no[131] account.[132]— πυρὶ , with fire ) Every one must be either baptized with fire here, or burned with fire hereafter: there is no other alternative.— ἀσβέστῳ , unquenchable ) See therefore that your sins be first blotted out. In Job 20:26, the LXX. have πῦρ ἄκαυστοι , incombustible fire [ i.e. fire that cannot be burnt out] shall consume the ungodly: or , rather, from the Cod. Alex., ἄσβεστον , unquenchable, unextinguishable (which word would otherwise not be found in the LXX.), so as to render אֵשׁ לא̇ נֻפָּח , fire which can never be extinguished .

    [129] One cannot well express in English the contrast implied in the very rhythm of Bengel’s Latin, “In area sunt viatores, in horreo victores.”—ED.

    [130] “Which Luther has rightly done.”—Not. Crit.

    [131] Cf. Gnomon on chap. Matthew 13:49.—(I. B.)

    [132] Although at times it is not unlike the wheat.— Vers. Germ .

    The picture is of a farmer at his threshing-floor, the area of hard-beaten earth on which the sheaves are spread and the grain trodden out by animals. His fan, that is his winnowing-shovel or fork, is in his hand, and with it he throws up the mingled wheat and chaff against the wind in order to separate the grain.

    Throughly (retained by Rev.) obsolete form of thoroughly, is the force of the preposition διά (through). In that preposition lies the picture of the farmer beginning at one side of the floor, and working through to the other, cleansing as he goes.

    The whole metaphor represents the Messiah as separating the evil from the good, according to the tests of his kingdom and Gospel, receiving the worthy into his kingdom and consigning the unworthy to destruction (compare Matthew 13:30, Matthew 13:39-43, Matthew 13:48-50).