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This Day In History: 09/05/1836 - Sam Houston Elected President of Texas

This Day In History: 09/05/1836 - Sam Houston Elected President of Texas

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Russ Mitchell recaps the major historical events that occurred on September 5 in this video clip from This Day In History. The nation's first Labor Day Parade was held in New York City on September 5, and the novel On the Road was published. Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme pointed a gun at president Gerald Ford, and was later sentenced to life in prison. Samuel Houston was elected the first president on the Republic of Texas, before it became a Confederate state.

This day in history

► Today is Monday, Sept. 5, the 248th day of 2011. There are 117 days left in the year. This is Labor Day.

► Today’s birthdays: Former Federal Reserve Board chairman Paul A. Volcker is 84. Comedian-actor Bob Newhart is 82. Actress-singer Carol Lawrence is 79. Actor William Devane is 72. Actor George Lazenby is 72. Actress Raquel Welch is 71. Movie director Werner Herzog is 69. Singer Al Stewart is 66. Actor-director Dennis Dugan is 65. College Football Hall of Famer Jerry LeVias is 65. Singer Loudon Wainwright III is 65. “Cathy’’ cartoonist Cathy Guisewite is 61. Actor Michael Keaton is 60. Country musician Jamie Oldaker (the Tractors) is 60. Actress Debbie Turner-Larson is 55. Actress Kristian Alfonso is 48. Singer Terry Ellis is 48. Rock musician Brad Wilk is 43. TV personality Dweezil Zappa is 42. Actress Rose McGowan is 38. Actor Andrew Ducote is 25. Actress Katerina Graham is 25. Olympic gold medal figure skater Kim Yu-na is 21. Actor Skandar Keynes is 20.

► In 1774, the first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia.

► In 1793, the Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution.

► In 1836, Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas.

► In 1939, four days after war had broken out in Europe, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a proclamation declaring US neutrality.

► In 1961, President John F. Kennedy signed legislation making aircraft hijackings a federal crime.

►In 1972, Black September terrorists attacked the Israeli delegation at the Munich Olympic games 11 Israelis, five guerrillas, and a police officer were killed in the siege.

► In 1975, President Gerald R. Ford escaped an attempt on his life by Lynette “Squeaky’’ Fromme, a disciple of Charles Manson, in Sacramento.

► In 1986, four hijackers who had seized a Pan Am jumbo jet in Karachi, Pakistan, opened fire when the lights inside the plane failed a total of 22 people were killed in the hijacking.

► In 1991, the 35th annual Naval Aviation Symposium held by the Tailhook Association opened in Las Vegas. (The gathering was marred by reports that dozens of people, most of them women, had been sexually assaulted or otherwise harassed during the meeting.)

Historical Events in 1836

Event of Interest

Jan 12 HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin reaches Sydney, Australia

    Whig Party holds its 1st national convention (Albany NY) HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin arrive in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania)

Historic Publication

Feb 7 "Sketches by Boz" (essays) published by Charles Dickens

Battle of the Alamo

Feb 23 Alamo besieged for 13 days until March 6 by Mexican army under General Santa Anna entire garrison eventually killed

The Fall of the Alamo by Robert Jenkins Onderdonk shows folk hero Davy Crockett shortly before being killed by Mexican soldiers

Historic Invention

Feb 25 Samuel Colt patents first multi-shot revolving-cylinder revolver, enabling the firearm to be fired multiple times without reloading

Event of Interest

Feb 25 Showman P. T. Barnum exhibits African American slave Joice Heth, claiming she was the 161 year-old nursemaid to George Washington

Event of Interest

    Samuel Colt manufactures first pistol, 34-caliber "Texas" model Battle of the Alamo: After 13 days of fighting 1,500-3,000 Mexican soldiers overwhelm the Texan defenders, killing 182-257 Texans including William Travis, Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett Constitution of the Republic of Texas approved, legalises slavery 1st Mormon temple dedicated (Kirtland, Ohio)

Event of Interest

May 22 Felix Mendelssohn's oratorio "St Paul" premieres in Dusseldorf

    HMS Beagle anchors in Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope Charles Darwin returns to Cape Town in South Africa Arkansas becomes 25th state of the Union London Working Men's Association forms

Event of Interest

Jul 1 US President Andrew Jackson announces to Congress bequest by James Smithson of 100,000 gold sovereigns to found institution in Washington.

    Wisconsin Territory forms Charles Darwin reaches Saint Helena in HMS Beagle and takes up lodgings near the tomb of Napoleon US patent #1 (after 9,957 unnumbered patents), for locomotive wheels HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin arrives in Ascension Island 1st Canadian RR opens, between Laprairie and St John, Quebec The ship the "Duke of York" arrives with the first colonists at Nepean Bay, Kangaroo Island, South Australia Inauguration of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris First English language newspaper published in Hawaii

Election of Interest

Sep 5 Sam Houston elected President of the Republic of Texas

Historic Publication

Sep 9 Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes his influential essay "Nature" in the US, outlining his beliefs in transcendentalism

    HMS Beagle anchors at St Michael After 5 years at sea Charles Darwin returns to England aboard the HMS Beagle 18" of snow falls in Bridgewater, NY Sam Houston inaugurated as 1st elected President of the Republic of Texas Earliest American patent for a phosphorus friction match by Alonzo Dwight Phillips of Springfield, Massachusetts Louis Napoleon banished to America Chile declares war on Bolivia & Peru Whig party holds its first national convention, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Election of Interest

Dec 7 Martin Van Buren elected the 8th President of the United States

This day in history

Wednesday, Sept. 5, is the 249th day of 2012. There are 117 days left in the year.

Today's birthdays: Former Federal Reserve Board chairman Paul A. Volcker is 85. Comedian-actor Bob Newhart is 83. Actress-singer Carol Lawrence is 80. Actor William Devane is 73. Actor George Lazenby is 73. Actress Raquel Welch is 72. Movie director Werner Herzog is 70. Singer Al Stewart is 67. Actor-director Dennis Dugan is 66. Singer Loudon Wainwright III is 66. Actor Michael Keaton is 61. Actress Kristian Alfonso is 49. Rock musician Brad Wilk is 44. TV personality Dweezil Zappa is 43. Actress Rose McGowan is 39. Gold medal figure skater Kim Yu-na is 22. Actor Skandar Keynes is 21.

In 1774, the first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia.

In 1793, the Reign of Terror began during the French Revolution as the National Convention instituted harsh measures to repress counter-revolutionary activities.

In 1836, Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas.

In 1914, the First Battle of the Marne, resulting in a French-British victory over Germany, began during World War I.

In 1939, four days after war had broken out in Europe, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a proclamation declaring US neutrality in the conflict.

In 1945, Japanese-American Iva Toguri D'Aquino, suspected of being wartime broadcaster ''Tokyo Rose,'' was arrested in Yokohama. (D'Aquino was later convicted of treason and served six years in prison she was pardoned in 1977 by President Ford.)

In 1957, the novel ''On the Road'' by Jack Kerouac was first published by Viking Press.

In 1972, terrorism struck the Munich Olympics as members of the Palestinian group Black September attacked the Israeli delegation 11 Israelis, five guerrillas, and a police officer were killed in the resulting siege.

In 1975, President Ford escaped an attempt on his life by Lynette ''Squeaky'' Fromme, a disciple of Charles Manson, in Sacramento.

In 1986, four hijackers who had seized a Pan Am jumbo jet on the ground in Karachi, opened fire when the lights inside the plane failed a total of 22 people were killed in the hijacking.

In 1997, Mother Teresa died in Calcutta at age 87.

In 2002, Afghan President Hamid Karzai survived an assassination attempt in Kandahar.

On This Day: Mother Teresa dies at age 87

Sept. 5 (UPI) -- On this date in history:

In 1774, the first Continental Congress convened in secret in Philadelphia.

In 1836, Sam Houston was elected president of Texas.

In 1877, Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse was fatally bayoneted by a U.S. soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson, Neb. A year earlier, Crazy Horse was among the Sioux leaders who defeated George Armstrong Custer's Seventh Cavalry at the Battle of Little Bighorn in Montana Territory.

In 1882, 10,000 workers marched in the first Labor Day parade -- in New York City.

In 1935, singing cowboy Gene Autry starred in his first Western feature, Tumbling Tumbleweeds.

In 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a proclamation declaring U.S. neutrality in World War II. The United States joined the war in 1941 after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

In 1972, Palestinian militants invaded the Olympic Village outside Munich, West Germany, and killed 11 Israeli athletes and six other people.

In 1975, Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a follower of mass murderer Charles Manson, failed in an attempt to shoot U.S. President Gerald Ford. Fromme was paroled in 2009 after 34 years in prison.

In 1978, President Jimmy Carter hosted Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin at Camp David, Md., for Middle East peace talks that laid the groundwork for a permanent peace agreement between Egypt and Israel after three decades of hostilities. The summit resulted in the Camp David Accords, which earned Sadat and Begin the Nobel Peace Prize.

In 1995, France conducted an underground nuclear test at the Mururoa Atoll in the South Pacific. It was the first of several -- all of which were met by protests worldwide.

In 2006, Katie Couric, longtime co-host of the NBC Today show, became the first solo female anchor on a major U.S. television network when she took over the CBS Evening News.

In 2007, wealthy, record-setting U.S. adventurer-aviator Steve Fossett, 63, vanished on a short flight in western Nevada. He was declared dead five months later. Among his many records, he was the first person to fly around the world solo in a balloon and first to fly around the globe solo without refueling.

In 2014, U.S. officials said Ahmed Abdi Godane, leader of the Somalia-based Islamic militant organization al-Shabab, was killed in a U.S. airstrike. In 2012, the United States had posted a $7 million reward for his arrest.

In 2017, Swiss chocolatier Barry Callebaut introduced a new, fourth type of chocolate called "ruby chocolate." The red-hewed chocolate is made from the ruby cocoa bean and has a berry-fruit flavor.

This day in history — Sept. 5

Blasts From the Past looks at significant events that happened on this day in history.

Today's highlight in history

On Sept. 5, 1997, Mother Teresa, whose charitable works in India's poorest neighborhoods became a global inspiration and earned her the Nobel Peace Prize, died in Calcutta. She was 87.

On this date

In 1774, the first Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia.

In 1836, Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas.

In 1939, four days after war had broken out in Europe, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a proclamation declaring U.S. neutrality in the conflict.

In 1957, the novel "On the Road," by Jack Kerouac, was published by Viking Press.

In 1972, the Palestinian group Black September attacked the Israeli Olympic delegation at the Munich Games 11 Israelis, five guerrillas and a police officer were killed in the resulting siege.

In 1975, President Gerald R. Ford escaped an attempt on his life by Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a disciple of Charles Manson, in Sacramento, Calif.

In 1997, breaking the royal reticence over the death of Princess Diana, Britain's Queen Elizabeth II delivered a televised address in which she called her former daughter-in-law "a remarkable person."

Ten years ago: President George W. Bush nominated John Roberts to succeed the late William Rehnquist as chief justice of the United States.

Five years ago: Jefferson Thomas, one of nine black students to integrate a Little Rock high school in America's first major battle over school segregation, died in Columbus, Ohio. He was 67.

One year ago: Ukraine, Russia and Kremlin-backed separatists signed a ceasefire after five months of bloodshed.

September 5, 1836 -- Sam Houston is Elected as President of Texas

On this day in 1836, Sam Houston is elected as president of the Republic of Texas, which earned its independence from Mexico in a successful military rebellion.

Born in Virginia in 1793, Houston moved with his family to rural Tennessee after his father’s death as a teenager, he ran away and lived for several years with the Cherokee tribe. Houston served in the War of 1812 and was later appointed by the U.S. government to manage the removal of the Cherokee from Tennessee to a reservation in Arkansas Territory. He practiced law in Nashville and from 1823 to1827 served as a U.S. congressman before being elected governor of Tennessee in 1827.

A brief, failed marriage led Houston to resign from office and live again with the Cherokee. Officially adopted by the tribe, he traveled to Washington to protest governmental treatment of Native Americans. In 1832, President Andrew Jackson sent him to Texas (then a Mexican province) to negotiate treaties with local Native Americans for protection of border traders. Houston arrived in Texas during a time of rising tensions between U.S. settlers and Mexican authorities, and soon emerged as a leader among the settlers. In 1835, Texans formed a provisional government, which issued a declaration of independence from Mexico the following year. At that time, Houston was appointed military commander of the Texas army.

Though the rebellion suffered a crushing blow at the Alamo in early 1836, Houston was soon able to turn his army’s fortunes around. On April 21, he led some 800 Texans in a surprise defeat of 1,500 Mexican soldiers under General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna at the San Jacinto River. Santa Anna was captured and brought to Houston, where he was forced to sign an armistice that would grant Texas its freedom. After receiving medical treatment for his war wounds in New Orleans, Houston returned to win election as president of the Republic of Texas on September 5. In victory, Houston declared that “Texas will again lift its head and stand among the nations….It ought to do so, for no country upon the globe can compare with it in natural advantages.”

Houston served as the republic’s president until 1838, then again from 1841 to 1844. Despite plans for retirement, Houston helped Texas win admission to the United States in 1845 and was elected as one of the state’s first two senators. He served three terms in the Senate and ran successfully for Texas’ governorship in 1859. As the Civil War loomed, Houston argued unsuccessfully against secession, and was deposed from office in March 1861 after refusing to swear allegiance to the Confederacy. He died of pneumonia in 1863.

Political Beginnings

Houston&aposs relationship with Jackson proved crucial. On the advice of the future president, Houston returned to Tennessee and embarked on a successful political career. He studied law and was elected the district attorney in Nashville. Houston&aposs first real taste of national politics came in 1823 when he was elected to Congress, where he served two terms. In 1827 Tennessee voters elected him their governor.

But his political ambitions were complicated by personal problems. Houston was a known drinker, and following the marriage to his first wife, Eliza Allen, rumors circulated about his alcoholism and apparent infidelity.

His marriage soon fell apart, and in 1829, Houston left Tennessee for Arkansas, where he renewed his close contact with the Cherokee Indians. He married a Cherokee woman, Tiana Rodgers, in 1830, and began representing the Cherokee Nation and other Native Americans in Washington D.C. in Indian affairs.

Sam Houston

Few figures in Texas history are as controversial as Sam Houston. In his own lifetime, he so dominated Texas affairs that the political camps were divided into pro and anti Houston factions. His motives in coming to Texas, his military and political abilities all have been called into question. Notwithstanding, he remains someone who cannot be ignored, who cannot be viewed dispassionately.

Born the same year as Stephen F. Austin, on March 2, 1793, Houston had already served in the United States army, had represented Tennessee in the United States House of Representatives, and had acted as governor of that state as well. The circumstances leading to his resignation continue to fire speculation.

He entered Texas in December 1832 and was immediately swept into the ferment of political activity. He was a delegate to the Convention of 1833, the Consultation, and the Convention of 1836. He was appointed major general in the regular army by the Consultation and was made commander in chief by the Convention of 1836. Also during this period, he negotiated a treaty with the Cherokee on February 3, 1836.

The battle of San Jacinto brought the active war to a close on April 21, 1836. The capture of president/general Santa Anna the next day gave Houston the upper hand in negotiating with the Mexican troops remaining in the country. A few days later, he was taken to the United States for treatment: his ankle had been shattered by a Mexican bullet.

Image: President Houston's Official Residence, 1837. Houston served as president of Texas from October 1836 to December 10, 1838, and from December 13, 1841 to December 9, 1844. Between terms, he was a representative in Congress for San Augustine from 1839 to 1841. After annexation in 1845, he was elected one of the two United States senators by the Texas legislature. He served in there until 1857.

Sam Houston ran twice for Texas governor, first in 1857 and, successfully, in 1859. He thus became the only person so far to serve as governor of two states. Just as in Tennessee, however, he resigned the office. The Texas Secession Convention replaced him with Lt. Governor Edward Clark on March 16, 1861, when Houston refused to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederate States of America. Although he opposed Texas' withdrawal from the Union, Houston also refused to use military force to counter secession.

He retired to Huntsville in 1862 where he died July 26, 1863.

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Cherokee Treaty, 1836.

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Ratification of 1838 treaty setting boundaries between the Republic of Texas and the United States.

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Sam Houston's passport, 1839.

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Letter to Sam Houston from Robert E. Lee, 1860.

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Letter to Sam Houston from Samuel B. Morse, 1860.

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Letter from Sam Houston to Sam Houston, Jr., 1861.

High Kicks Across the Color Line

Freddie Deloise Goosby Evans was the first-ever African American to high kick her way across the color line in East Texas when she was chosen as a member of the prestigious Kilgore College Rangerettes. A 1973 graduate of Oak Cliff High School in the Dallas area, Evans was the Co-Captain of the Pivoteers Dance/Drill Team her senior year. Evans was number eighty out of over one hundred hopeful dancers to be lucky enough to get one of the 35 spots. She was one of the lucky ones and made the 34th line of Rangerettes. “I came down here to make it. I didn’t know anyone at Kilgore Junior College, but I just knew I’d make it no matter what,” she told Texas Monthly during an interview about her ground-breaking accomplishment. Evans was confident in her abilities as a dancer and felt it was where she needed to be.

The World-Famous Kilgore College Rangerettes of Kilgore, Texas, are known for their high kicks, precision, and poise as a dance team. The very first of its kind, the Rangerettes were founded in 1940 by Miss Gussie Nell Davis as a way to keep the rowdy fans in the stands during halftime at the Junior College football games. Entertaining fans for the first time in the fall of 1940 under the direction and leadership of Miss Davis, the team regularly performs now 80 years later at Dallas Cowboys and Houston Texans games, the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City, the Cotton Bowl in Dallas, the last 5 Presidential Inaugurations in Washington, D.C., and by invitation at festivals and events all around the world.

The Rangerettes were Miss Davis’ girls, and she was very proud of what she instilled in them beyond the stage floor or the football field, explaining in an interview for Sports Illustrated “They’ll forget every dance step and drill routine I teach them, but I trust they’ll never forget the values we have here.”

Sometimes criticized for her emphasis on physical appearance and strict discipline regarding the girls on her team, Miss Davis famously retorted “that there is nothing wrong in learning self-confidence, discipline, cooperation, and the ability to perform precision dance, along with poise, etiquette, and personal grooming.” The Rangerette motto is “Beauty Knows No Pain.” Rangerettes know this and continue to live up to the expectation, even after they leave Kilgore.

Evans lived up to this as well and made the most of her time at Kilgore Junior College. She was an active student beyond the classroom and beyond her commitment as an elite member of the Rangerettes. She was selected as a Freshman Class Senator and served as a liaison between the student governing body, Student Affairs Congress (SAC), and the student body. She was one of the very first students in the newly established Fashion Merchandising course at Kilgore College, which culminated in an end-of-the-year fashion show created and run by the students themselves. Evans was also a member of the Kilgore College Sten-O-Ettes, a local organization for women business students. She was even nominated for Homecoming Queen her Sophomore year by the KC Soul Unlimited Club.

After Kilgore, Evans began a career with the United States Postal Service where she spent thirty years working in various capacities. Now retired, she continues to be an active citizen in her church as well as being named Outstanding Volunteer 2013-2014 for her continued commitment and services at the African American Museum of Dallas. In 2015, the former Rangerette was awarded for her Leadership Through Community Service by the South Dallas Business and Professional Women.

Evans returned to her alma mater in June of 2014. As the first Black woman to wear the Rangerettes’ trademarked uniform of red, white, and blue, she was asked to be the Grand Marshall of Kilgore’s first city-wide Juneteenth Parade and festivities. This day is a traditional celebration in Texas commemorating June 19, 1865 – the day American slaves were finally and officially freed in the state, almost three years after President Lincoln’s famous Emancipation Proclamation. The State of Texas adopted the holiday on January 1, 1980. Evans was excited about the opportunity and said, “It’s like making history twice. I’m doubly excited that they’re giving me this honor.” As the festivities wound down, she said that it was overall a “nice day, a nice turnout, but was long in coming.” The Kilgore celebration evolved more than three decades after Juneteenth was officially adopted as a state holiday. “That’s a little slow,” but she added that “The good thing is that it’s here. You have to make it go, you have to adapt. They did a good job putting this together.”

Evans broke through the invisible color line looming in existence for over three decades. She was chosen for the prestigious Rangerettes at a time when race relations across the nation and especially the South was still in a rocky and at times emotional transition. Miss Davis was never in opposition to the integration of her dance/drill team and said she would “be receptive when a qualified black tried out.” Evans met those qualifications and made history. When asked about her time as a member of the Rangerettes and what it meant to her both at the time and afterward, she stated, “In ’73 things were still changing and her inclusion on the line was life-changing.” “Gussie Nell Davis made me the person I am today,” Evans said, “the Rangerettes just made me a better person. I really thank her for that.”

Watch the video: Today in History for September 2nd (August 2022).