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2 June 1943
War at Sea
German submarine U-202 sunk off Cape Farewell
German submarine U-105 sunk with all hands off Dakar
German submarine U-521 sunk off Baltimore
Luftwaffe bombs Kursk
Soviet air force bombs Kiev and Roslavl
War in the Air
The Pope appeals for the combatants to observe the "laws of humanity" in the air war
Zoot Suit Riots
The Zoot Suit Riots were several days of racial conflict in the Los Angeles area in June 1943, predominantly between white U.S. servicemen and Mexican American youths. “Zoot suit” refers to a suit with a long jacket and tapered pants, popular among young Latinos at the time.
Beaumont Race Riot, 1943
The Beaumont Race Riot of 1943 was sparked by racial tensions that arose in this Texas shipbuilding center during World War II. The sudden influx of African American workers in industrial jobs in the Beaumont shipyard and the subsequent job competition with white workers forced race relations to a boiling point.
The riot itself exploded on June 15, 1943 with most of the violence ending a day later. White workers at the Pennsylvania Shipyard located in Beaumont, Texas confronted black workers after hearing that a local white woman had accused a black man of raping her. The woman who made the accusation was later unable to identify her attacker from the number of black inmates held at the city jail.
Nonetheless, on the evening of June 15, about 2,000 shipyard workers and an additional 1,000 bystanders marched on City Hall when they learned that a suspect had been jailed. The number of people eventually reached 4,000 as the mob approached City Hall. Once there, the mob splintered into smaller groups and began to break into stores and destroy property located in the black neighborhoods near downtown Beaumont. Black citizens were assaulted while whites looted and burned black stores and restaurants. More than 100 homes of black Beaumont residents were ransacked.
Mayor George Gary called in the Texas National Guard late on the night of June 15, and acting governor A.M. Aiken Jr. declared Beaumont to be under martial law. About 1,800 guardsmen entered Beaumont along with 100 state police and 75 Texas Rangers at that time. Upon their arrival an 8:30 p.m. curfew was established.
The Texas Highway Patrol placed roadblocks around the city to seal it off against rural whites who threatened to join the mob. The Army and Navy also made the town off-limits to nearby military personnel. Within the town, all activity came to a halt. Local bus lines were ordered to stop running, and buses scheduled to stop inside of Beaumont were rerouted to go around the city. Mayor Gary closed all liquor stores, parks, and playgrounds to prevent the gathering of large crowds. Black workers were barred from going to work. The curfew was lifted the next day on June 16, and the guardsmen left the town.
The declaration of martial law was lifted on June 20. During the five day period 21 people were killed. Also 206 people were arrested and tried in court on June 20. Of those arrested, only 29 were actually charged with specific crimes, mostly assault and battery, unlawful assembly, and arson. The rest of those arrested were released. No one was specifically held responsible for the deaths during the riot. Although black and white workers returned to the Pennsylvania Shipyard, war production in the area was slowed for months.
Photos: The L.A. Zoot Suit Riots of 1943 were a targeted attack on Mexican and nonwhite youths
T he Zoot Suit Riots of 1943 weren’t a riot in the usual sense of the word. More like a witch hunt. A twisted expression of misguided vigilante justice. A xenophobic release valve for the stresses of war. That year, Los Angeles was already simmering with racial tension. With many Japanese shipped off to forced internment, popular ire had turned to the entrenched Mexican American communities of East L.A., where media-induced panic over crime and immigration was colliding with the heightened nationalism of a country at war. When a group of sailors from the newly opened Naval Reserve Armory in Chavez Ravine clashed with a group of local youth that summer, things only got worse.
Young Angelenos in the early forties were already being profiled as gang members for wearing baggy clothes and off-kilter hats. The zoot suit, a swaggering subversion of middle-class conservatism first popularized by black jazz musicians, had been adopted by L.A.’s homegrown pachuco subculture, where it quickly became enmeshed in public perceptions of immigrant communities and crime. But in the wake of wartime fabric rationing, sporting a zoot suit also defied patriotic expectations. In June of that year, these tensions boiled over in a bloody melee that pitted hundreds of U.S. servicemen against local youth, thrusting the zoot suit into the national spotlight.Zoot suit and pachuca fashions in L.A. in the 1940s. (Los Angeles Public Library)
It happened on the night of June 3, 1943, when a group of sailors from the Chavez Ravine Armory got into a scuffle with a handful of local pachucos. Word spread quickly through the barracks, and servicemen were soon roaming the streets of downtown Los Angeles, armed with makeshift weapons and targeting anyone wearing a zoot suit. In the days that followed, hundreds of white servicemen — most hailing from Middle America and trained in a still segregated armed forces — fanned out across the city, wreaking more havoc on similar targets. As one journalist witness to the chaos wrote, “Pushing its way into the important motion picture theaters, the mob ordered the management to turn on the house lights and then ran up and down the aisles dragging Mexicans out of their seats. Streetcars were halted while Mexicans, and some Filipinos and Negroes, were jerked from their seats, pushed into the streets and beaten with a sadistic frenzy.”
Today in History: Born on June 21
William Sydney Smith, British seaman during the Napoleonic Wars.
Henry Ossawa Tanner, African-American painter.
Arnold Lucius Gesell, psychologist and pediatrician.
Rockwell Kent, artist, book illustrator.
Reinhold Niebuhr, Protestant theologian.
Jean-Paul Sartre, French philosopher and existentialist.
Albert Hirschfeld, illustrator.
Mary McCarthy, American novelist (Memories of Catholic Girlhood, The Group).
Carl Stokes, the first black mayor of Cleveland, Ohio.
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
History of Women in the U.S. Congress
Please note: Data for Congresses prior to the current one reflect the number of women serving at the conclusion of that Congress, including women who may have been sworn in after the election for the following Congress.
|Congress||Dates||Women in the Senate||Women in the House||Total Women|
|65th||1917-1919||0||(OD, 0R)||1||(OD, 1R)||1||(0D, 1R)|
|66th||1919-1921||0||(0D, 0R)||0||(0D, OR)||0||(0D, 0R)|
|67th||1921-1923||1||(1D, 0R)||3||(0D, 3R)||4||(1D, 3R)|
|68th||1923-1925||0||(0D, 0R)||1||(OD, 1R)||1||(0D, 1R)|
|69th||1925-1927||0||(0D, 0R)||3||(1D, 2R)||3||(1D, 2R)|
|70th||1927-1929||0||(0D, 0R)||5||(2D, 3R)||5||(2D, 3R)|
|71st||1929-1931||0||(0D, 0R)||9||(5D, 4R)||9||(5D, 4R)|
|72nd||1931-1933||1||(1D, 0R)||7||(5D, 2R)||8||(6D, 2R)|
|73rd||1933-1935||1||(1D, 0R)||7||(4D, 3R)||8||(5D, 3R)|
|74th||1935-1937||2||(2D, 0R)||6||(4D, 2R)||8||(6D, 2R)|
|75th||1937-1939||2||(1D, 1R) 1||6||(5D, 1R)||8||(6D, 2R)|
|76th||1939-1941||1||(1D, OR)||8||(4D, 4R)||9||(5D, 4R)|
|77th||1941-1943||1||(1D, OR)||9||(4D, 5R)||10||(5D, 5R)|
|78th||1943-1945||1||(1D, 0R)||8||(2D, 6R)||9||(3D, 6R)|
|79th||1945-1947||0||(0D, 0R)||11||(6D, 5R)||11||(6D, 5R)|
|80th||1947-1949||1||(0D, 1R)||7||(3D, 4R)||8||(3D, 5R)|
|81st||1949-1951||1||(0D, 1R)||9||(5D, 4R)||10||(5D, 5R)|
|82nd||1951-1953||1||(0D, 1R)||10||(4D, 6R)||11||(4D, 7R)|
|83rd||1953-1955||2||(0D, 2R)||11||(5D, 6R) 2||13||(5D, 8R) 2|
|84th||1955-1957||1||(OD, 1R)||16||(10D, 6R) 2||17||(10D, 7R) 2|
|85th||1957-1959||1||(0D, 1R)||15||(9D, 6R)||16||(9D, 7R)|
|86th||1959-1961||2||(1D, 1R)||17||(9D, 8R)||19||(10D, 9R)|
|87th||1961-1963||2||(1D, 1R)||18||(11D, 7R)||20||(12D, 8R)|
|88th||1963-1965||2||(1D, 1R)||12||(6D, 6R)||14||(7D, 7R)|
|89th||1965-1967||2||(1D, 1R)||11||(7D, 4R)||13||(8D, 5R)|
|90th||1967-1969||1||(0D, 1R)||11||(6D, 5R)||12||(6D, 6R)|
|91st||1969-1971||1||(0D, 1R)||10||(6D, 4R)||11||(6D, 5R)|
|92nd||1971-1973||2||(1D, 1R)||13||(10D, 3R)||15||(11D, 4R)|
|93rd||1973-1975||0||(0D, 0R)||16||(14D, 2R)||16||(14D, 2R)|
|94th||1975-1977||0||(0D, 0R)||19||(14D, 5R)||19||(14D, 5R)|
|95th||1977-1979||2||(2D, 0R)||18||(13D, 5R)||20||(15D, 5R)|
|96th||1979-1981||1||(OD, 1R)||16||(11D, 5R)||17||(11D, 6R)|
|97th||1981-1983||2||(0D, 2R)||21||(11D, 10R)||23||(11D, 12R)|
|98th||1983-1985||2||(0D, 2R)||22||(13D, 9R)||24||(13D, 11R)|
|99th||1985-1987||2||(0D, 2R)||23||(12D, 11R)||25||(12D, 13R)|
|100th||1987-1989||2||(1D, 1R)||23||(12D, 11R)||25||(13D, 12R)|
|101st||1989-1991||2||(1D, 1R)||29||(16D, 13R)||31||(17D, 14R)|
|102nd||1991-1993||4||(3D, 1R) 3||28||(19D, 9R) 4||32||(22D, 10R) 4|
|103rd||1993-1995||7||(5D, 2R) 5||47||(35D, 12R) 4||54||(40D, 14R) 4|
|104th||1995-1997||9||(5D, 4R) 6||48||(31D, 17R) 4||57||(36D, 21R) 4|
|105th||1997-1999||9||(6D, 3R)||54||(37D, 17R) 7||63||(43D, 20R) 7|
|106th||1999-2001||9||(6D, 3R)||56||(39D, 17R) 8||65||(45D, 20R) 8|
|107th||2001-2003||13||(9D, 4R) 9||59||(41D, 18R) 9||72||(50D, 22R) 9|
|108th||2003-2005||14||(9D, 5R)||60||(39D, 21R) 10||74||(48D, 26R) 10|
|109th||2005-2007||14||(9D, 5R)||68||(43D, 25R) 11||82||(52D, 30R) 11|
|110th||2007-2009||16||(11D, 5R)||72||(52D, 20R) 12||88||(63D, 25R) 12|
|111th||2009-2011||17||(13D, 4R) 13||73||(56D, 17R) 13||90||(69D, 21R) 13|
|112th||2011-2013||17||(12D, 5R)||73||(49D, 24R) 14||90||(61D, 29R) 14|
|113th||2013-2015||20||(16D, 4R)||80||(61D, 19R) 15||100||(77D, 23R) 15|
|114th||2015-2017||20||(14D, 6R)||85||(63D, 22R)||105||(77D, 28R) 18|
|115th||2017-2019||23||(17D, 6R)||87||(64D, 23R) 16||110||(81D, 29R) 16|
|116th||2019-2021||25||(17D, 8R) 17||101||(88D, 13R) 19||126||(105D, 21R)|
|117th||2021-2022||24||(16D, 8R) 20||119 20||(88D, 31R)||143||(104D, 39R)|
|1||A total of three (2D, 1R) women served in the Senate in the 75th Congress, but no more than two served together at any one time. Part of the time two Democrats served together, and part of the time one Democrat and one Republican served together.|
|2||Does not include a Republican Delegate to the House from pre-statehood Hawaii.|
|3||On election day in 1992, three women served in the Senate two were elected and one was appointed. On November 3rd, Dianne Feinstein won a special election to complete two years of a term she was sworn in on November 10, 1992.|
|4||Does not include a Democratic Delegate to the House from Washington, DC.|
|5||Includes Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX), who won a special election on June 5, 1993 to serve out the remaining year and one half of a term.|
|6||Includes Sheila Frahm (R-KS), who was appointed on June 11, 1996 to fill a vacancy caused by resignation. She was defeated in her primary race to complete the full term.|
|7||Does not include two Democratic Delegates from the Virgin Islands and Washington, DC. Also does not include Susan Molinari (R-NY) who resigned 8/1/97. Includes 4 women (2 Democrats and 2 Republicans) who won special elections in March, April, and June 1998.|
|8||Does not include two Democratic Delegates from the Virgin Islands and Washington, DC.|
|9||House figure does not include two Democratic Delegates from the Virgin Islands and Washington, DC Patsy Takemoto Mink (D-HI), who died on September 19, 2002. Senate figure does not include Jean Carnahan (D-MO) who stepped down on November 23, 2002. Does include Lisa Murkowski (R-AK), who was appointed to fill a Senate vacancy on December 20, 2002.|
|10||Does not include three Democratic Delegates from Guam, the Virgin Islands and Washington, DC. Does include Stephanie Herseth (D-SD), who won a special election June 1, 2004 to fill a vacancy.|
|11||Does not include three Democratic Delegates from Guam, the Virgin Islands and Washington, DC. Does include Juanita Millender-McDonald (D-CA), who died on April 22, 2007.|
|12||Includes all current women House members does not include three Democratic Delegates from Guam, the Virgin Islands and Washington, DC. Does not include Stephanie Tubbs Jones who passed away, but does include Marcia Fudge who won a special election to replace her.|
|13||Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY) moved from the House to the Senate when she was appointed on January 26, 2009 to fill a vacancy. Does not include Hillary Rodham Clinton, who was sworn in but resigned 1/16/09 Hilda Solis, who was sworn in but resigned on 2/17/09 and Ellen Tauscher, who resigned 6/26/09. Does include Judy Chu, who won a special election 7/14/09. Does not include three Democratic Delegates from Guam, the Virgin Islands and Washington, DC.|
|14||Includes Kathy Hochul (D-NY) who won a special election. Does not include Jane Harman who resigned on 2/28/11 includes Janice Hahn (D-CA) who won a special election to replace her. Does not include Gabrielle Giffords who resigned on 1/24/12. Does include Suzanne Bonamici (D-OR) who won a special election. Does not include three Democratic Delegates from Guam, the Virgin Islands and Washington, DC.|
|15||Does not include JoAnn Emerson (R-MO) who resigned on January 22, 2013. Includes Robin Kelly (D-IL) who won a special election. Includes Katherine Clark (D-MA) who won a special election 12/10/13 to fill a vacancy. Includes Alma Adams (D-NC) who won a special election 11/4/14.|
|16||Includes Karen Handel (R-GA), who won a special election on June 20, 2017 to serve out the remaining year and one half of a term. Includes Tina Smith (D-MN) who was appointed to fill a vacancy on January 3, 2018. Includes Cindy Hyde-Smith (R-MS) who was appointed to fill a vacancy on April 9, 2018. Includes Debbie Lesko (R-AZ), who won a special election on April 25, 2018. Includes Brenda Jones (D-MI), Mary Gay Scanlon (D-PA), and Susan Wild (D-PA), who won a special elections on November 6, 2018. House numbers do not include Louise Slaughter (D-NY) who died on March 16, 2018. Does not include three Democratic Delegates from Guam, the Virgin Islands and Washington, DC and two Republican Delegates from American Samoa and Puerto Rico.|
|17||Includes Kelly Loeffler (R-GA) who was appointed to fill a vacancy on 1/6/2020. Does not include Martha McSally (R-AZ) who was appointed to fill a vacancy on January 3rd, 2019 and left office on December 2nd 2020.|
|18||Includes Colleen Hanabusa (D-HI) who won a special election to fill out an unexpired term in November 2016.|
|19||Does not include Katie Hill (D-CA) who resigned on 11/1/2019.|
|20||Numbers include Representative Mariannette Miller-Meeks (R-IA02), who is being seated provisionally in the U.S. House while the results from her contest against Rita Hart (D) are under House review. Numbers do not include Kamala Harris (D-CA) who left office on 1/18/21 to become Vice President, Kelly Loeffler (R-GA) who left office on 1/20/21, Marcia Fudge who resigned on 3/10/21, or Debra Haaland who left office on 3/16 to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Includes Claudia Tenney (R-NY) who was certified as the winner of the general election but did not take office until 2/11/21 due to legal challenges. Julia Letlow (R-LA) who was sworn in on 4/14/21 after winning a special election to fill the vacancy left by the death of her husband who never officially took office and Melanie Stansbury (D-NM) who won a special election to succeed Debra Haaland.|
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File #610: "Operations Directive No. 13D June 2 1943.pdf"
IENT SCHEDULES FOR CAP COASTAL PATROLS
(This Operations Directive No. 13-D supersedes Operations Directive No. 13-C of
AUgust 26, 1942, which is hereby resclnded as of midnight, April 30, 1943 and
which will be removed from ﬁles. This Directive is hereby classiﬁed as "Restricted". Its distribution will be limited to Civil Air Patrol Cortland and Staff
Ofﬁcers for use in the perfor
nce of ofﬁcial duties. It will not be quoted,
published, posted or otherwise made available to anyone unauthorized to receive it
or to the public. )
_a. Reimbursement Schedules setting forth the Per Diem Allowances for
personnel on duty with Clvil Air Patrol Coastal Patrols and the Hourly Rates and
Stand-by Allowances paid for the use of aircraft assigned to the Coastal Patrols,
together with the Insurance Requirements for Coastal Patrol operations are presented in this directive. Those schedules apply to all operations of CAP Coastal
Patrols but do not apply to Border Patrol, Forest Patrol, Pipe Line Patrol,
Courier Service, or Miscellaneous Services.
b. Said Per Diem allowances for personnel and said Hourly Rates and
Stand-by Allowances for the use of aircraft are the only allowances made by the
Government to cover living expenses and personal services of personnel and ex
both tangible and intangible, incident to the operation, inspection, maintenance,
o v e r h a u l , r e p a i r, d e p r e c i a t i o n , r e p l a c e m e n t a n d i n s u r a n c e o f a i r c r a f t o n d u t y w i t h
CAP Coastal Patrols.
c . A l l P e r D i e m a n d A i r p l a n e Vo u c h e r s
v i l l b e s u b m & t t e d t o N a t i o n a l
Headquarters as of the ﬁfteenth and last day of each month. Stand-by Allowance
Invoices will be submitted to National Headquarters as of the last day of each
month. No vouchers calllng for payments in excess of the rates scheduled heroin
will be approved, nor
will payments be approved for personnel or airplanes exceeding the authorized strength.
d. All n
ssions of whatsoever nature performed by Coastal Patrols will
be covered by ofﬁcial 0pcratlons Orders in accordance with the provisions of
Operations Directive No. 15-A, Administrative Procedure for CAP Coastal Patrols.
g. Daily operations reports on forms which will be furnished by
Na%ional Headquarters v
ill be submitted to National Headquarters in
Such reports hill bc signed by the Coastal Patrol Commanders and
t h e r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e a c h d a y o f o p e r a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h e N C n m
I b e r,
place an (A) to indicate that the plane is equipped with bomb racks, if such J"
the case. In the column headed "Pilot", there will be included not only the
of the Pilot but also the name of the Observer taking part in the ﬂight.
ng Per Diem Schedule will apply to all personnel on
duty at Coastal Patrol Bases until further notice:
mmnding Ofﬁcer .
Operations Ofﬁcer .
ngineering Ofﬁcer .
Intelligence Ofﬁcer .
Assistant Operations Ofﬁcer .
Pilots (Including pilot-observers).
Observers (non-pilot) .
Assistant Engineering Ofﬁcer .
a s s i s t a n t I n t e l l i g e n c e O f ﬁ c e r . . . . . ..
Airdrome Ofﬁcer .
Flight Surgeon .
Radio Operators .
Radio Mechanics .
Administrative Section 1
Plotting Beard Operators. .
Clerk Typists .
_b. The Per Diem Allovlances set forth in the foregoing schedule will
apply for each day personnel are on duty at Coastal Patrol Bases. In cases of
personnel on duty for periods of thirty or more consecutive days, said Per Diem
& l l o % Ta n c e s w i l l a l s o a p p l y f o r o n e r e s t d a y p e r
t e e k d u r i n g s u c h p e r i o d . R
_a. Until further notice, the follo
s wzll be paid for
the use at Coastal Patrol Bases of aircraft which are assigned to Coastal Patrol
Duty and which ar__
e not equipped with bomb racks:
Crash, Accident &
R E S T R I C T E D
0porations Directive No. 13-D
b. Until further notice, the foll
ill be paid for
the use at Coastal Patrol Bases of aircraft
:hich are assigned to Coastal Patrol
Duty and which ar__
o equipped lith bomb racks. (These rates apply regerdloss of
o actually carried on a particular trip since the insurance
ore determined with the understanding that planes equipped with bomb
racks would not in every instance carry bombs):
H . P.
M a i n t e n a n c e
Crash, Accident &
c. Until further notice, the following Hourly Prates
ill be paid for
the use a t C o a s t a l ' P a t r o l B a s e s o f a i r c r a f t
, T h i c h a r e a s s i g e e d t o A u x i l i a r y
S e r v i c e Duty"
H . P.
*Crash, Accident &
*in case the pilot carries with him any passengers,
o f t h e a r m e d s e r v i c e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o n a c t i v e d u t y, a d d $ 0 . 0 9 t o t h e
h o u r l y i n s u r a n c e p r s r, d u m c h a r g n f o r e a c h s u c h p a s s e n g e r a n d m a k e a c o r r e s p o n d i n g
increase In the total hourly rate.
. Except for the routine services rendered by mechanics and other
service personnel assigned to duty at CAP Coastal Patrol Bases
all expenses, both
tangible and intangible, incident to the operation, Inspection, maintenance, overh a u l , r e p a i r, d e p r e c i a t i o n , r e p l a c e m e n t a n d i n s u r a n c e o f a i r c r a f t o n d u t y a t s a i d
Coastal Patrol Bases will be paid out of the payments made by the United States
Government on the basis of the Hourly
tos herein set forth in paragraphs 3
or on the basis of the Stand-byAll
lances herein set forth in paragraph 4, as no other payments
do by the Government for the use of said
R E S T h I C T E D
Operations Directive No. 13-D
_e. The amounts heroin above specif&od for operation and maintenance
ill be set aside and placed in a general pool to bc used for th
mintaining the aircraft on duty at each Coastal Patrol Base as
as the Base itself. The amounts herein speciﬁed for insurance
Till be used for
that purpose. The amounts herein speciﬁed for depreciation
ners of the aircraft. There will be no departure from this procedure.
a. Until further notice, the follo
iing stand-by allovlances ':ﬁll be
paid each day for the use oF aircraft on duty at Coastal Patrol Bases or dispatched
therefrom on missions else,here:
Allovances for airplanes
Allowances for airplanes
with bomb racks
*All airplanes assigned to Coastal Patrol Duty are required to bc of
t h e t h r e e - p l a c e t y p a o r l a r g e r a n d o f n o t l e s s t h a n n i n e t y h o r s e p o w e r ( 9 0 H . P. ) .
_b. The stand-by allovance for the use of each airplane will be paid
each day (including the day the plans takes Off from its homo station Under orders
to report for duty at a Coastal Patrol Base until the plane returns to its homo
station at conclusion of service) regnrdless of vlhether the aircraft is enguged
in ﬂight and will compensate the
vner for the premium1 for Cyound Insurance
required under paragraph 6 b hereof.
H o u r l y R a t e s a n a t h e S t a n d - b y A l l
a n c e s t o b e p a i d
for the use of airplanes assigned to Coastal Batrol
(maximum, except take-off) r
corded by the Civil Aeronautics A
each such airplane will be used. The use of higher octanelulls, . .h
propeller pitch and such other methods of "souping up': an cn
-n the Hourly Bates or Stand-by Allowances.
6. hoquircd Insurance
T h e f o l l o i Ti n g i n s u r a n c e i s r e q u i r e d o n a l l o p e r a t i o n s c o v e r e d b y t h e s e
Operations Directive No. 13-D
schedules and no aircraft will be put in service on said operations until such
insurance has been Secured by the completion of an approprlate application form. I
Even though no application form has boon completed, all typos of insurance arc in!
effect from the time a plane loaves its home station under orders to report to a
Coastal Patrol Basu hut in each instance the appropriate applicction form should
he executed by each aircraft o
nor or his agent and by all ﬂying porsonnol
immediately upon arrival at the Coastal Patrol Base. The details of the various
typos Of insurance and the procedures to he followed in connection therewith arc
set forth in General
. Crash, Accident and Liability Insurance: The premium for all throe
types of insuro
ncc will be paid from the aircraft allowcncos heroin sot forth in
the schedules presented in paragraphs 3
. The hourly promlum
charge for those throe types of insurance issued in connection with the operation
of azrcraft of the various horsop
ll he as listed in said schedules.
&umfor Ground Insurance on each aircraft on duty at Coastal Patrol Bases or dispatched therefrom on missions elsewhore (including the day the plane takes off from its homo station under orders
to report for duty at a Coastal Patrol Base until the pl
ne returns to its home
station at conclusionof service) will be paid fro
the Stand-by Allowances heroin
sot forth in the schedule presented in paragraph
vhich is exactly sufﬁcient
to cover such premium)
uostions Regarding Schedules
Any questions regarding schedules or other requirements set forth
horoin will be referred to National Headquarters for a decision before any
itments arc made hy Coastal Patrol CommLandors.
By direction of National Com
2 June 1943 - History
Over 2.5 million African-American men registered for the draft, and black women also volunteered in large numbers. While serving in the Army, Army Air Forces, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, they experienced discrimination and segregation but met the challenge and persevered. They served their country with distinction, made valuable contributions to the war effort, and earned high praises and commendations for their struggles and sacrifices.
Left - Howard P. Perry, the first African-American to enlist in the U.S. Marines. Breaking a 167-year-old barrier, the U.S. Marine Corps started enlisting African-Americans on June 1, 1942. The first class of 1,200 volunteers began their training three months later as members of the 51st Composite Defense Battalion at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Mid - Swearing-in of William Baldwin, the first African-American Navy recruit for General Service. June 2, 1942. Right - Reginald Brandon, the first African-American graduate of the Radio Training School of the Maritime Commission. Upon assignment he had the rank of ensign.
Left - A trio of recruits run the rugged obstacle course at Camp Lejeune while training to become fighting Leathernecks in the U.S. Marine Corps. Their excellence resulted in an expanded Navy recruitment program. April 1943. Mid - An officer returns the salute as he passes cadet fighter pilots lined up during review at Tuskegee Field, Alabama. Tuskegee Airmen flew 1,500 missions over Europe and never lost any of the bomber pilots they were assigned to protect. Right - Two Marine recruits in a light tank during training in mechanized warfare at Camp Lejeune. April 1943.
The War in Europe
Left - Brig. Gen. Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., the first African-American general in the U.S. Army, watches a Signal Corps crew erecting poles, somewhere in France. August 8, 1944. His son, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., graduated from West Point and commanded the Tuskegee Airmen. Mid - A bazooka-man cuts loose at a German machine-gun nest some 300 yards distant. This African-American combat patrol advanced three miles north of Lucca, Italy (furthermost point occupied by American troops) to make the attack. September 7, 1944. Right - Members of an African-American mortar company of the 92nd Division pass the ammunition and fire non-stop at the Germans near Massa, Italy. This company was credited with knocking out several machine-gun nests. November 1944.
Left - The 'target for today' in Germany is revealed to an African-American P-51 Mustang fighter-bomber group during a pre-flight briefing at an air base in Italy. The men are members of the 15th U.S. Army Air Force whose planes fly as part of the Mediterranean Allied Air Force. September 1944. Mid - The P-51 pilots listen intently during their briefing. Right - Staff Sgt. Alfred D. Norris, crew chief of the fighter group, closes the canopy of a P-51 Mustang for his pilot, Capt. William T. Mattison, operations officer of the squadron.
Left - On Easter morning, William E. Thomas and Joseph Jackson will roll specially prepared 'eggs' on Hitler's lawn. March 10, 1945. Mid - Crews of U.S. light tanks stand-by awaiting the call to clean out scattered Nazi machine-gun nests in Coburg, Germany. April 25, 1945. Right - A captured Nazi, wearing civilian clothes, sits in a jeep at south gate of the walled city of Lucca, Italy, awaiting removal to a rear area. September 1944.
The Pacific War
Left - Aboard a Coast Guard-manned transport somewhere in the Pacific, these African-American Marines prepare to face the fire of Japanese gunners. February 1944. Mid - On Bougainville, African-American troops of the 24th Infantry Division wait to advance behind a tank assault on the Japanese along Empress Augusta Bay. 1944. Right - A patrol cautiously advances through the jungle in Japanese-held territory off the Numa-Numa Trail on Bougainville. These members of the 93rd Infantry Division were among the first African-American foot soldiers to go into combat in the South Pacific. May 1, 1944.
Left - 1st Sergeant Rance Richardson, a veteran of two World Wars, takes a break along the Numa-Numa Trail. April 4, 1944. Mid - On call to general quarters, five steward's mates stand at their battle stations, manning a 20mm anti-aircraft gun aboard a Coast Guard frigate in the southwest Pacific. Right - U.S. Army trucks wind along the side of the mountain over the Ledo supply road from India into Burma.
Honors and Awards
Left - Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, U.S. Third Army commander, pins the Silver Star on Private Ernest A. Jenkins of New York City for his conspicuous gallantry in the liberation of Chateaudun, France. October 13, 1944. Mid - Brig. Gen. Robert N. Young, Commanding General of the Military District of Washington, assists Melba Rose, aged 2, daughter of Mrs. Rosie L. Madison, in viewing the Silver Star posthumously awarded to her father, 1st Lt. John W. Madison, of the 92nd Infantry Division, who was killed in action in Italy. Right - Admiral Chester W. Nimitz pins the Navy Cross on Doris Miller at a ceremony on board a warship in Pearl Harbor. May 27, 1942.
Left - Staff Sgt. Timerlate Kirven (on left) and Cpl. Samuel J. Love, Sr., the first African-American Marines decorated by the famed Second Marine Division. They received Purple Hearts for wounds received in the Battle of Saipan. Mid - A gun crew of six African-Americans who were given the Navy Cross for standing by their gun when their ship was damaged during an enemy attack off the Philippines. Right - Pfc. Luther Woodward, a member of the Fourth Ammunition Company, admires the Bronze Star awarded to him for "his bravery, initiative and battle-cunning." April 17, 1945. The award was later upgraded to the Silver Star.
Left - The oath is administered to five new Navy nurses commissioned in New York. Phyllis Mae Dailey, the Navy's first African-American nurse, is second from the right. March 8, 1945. Mid - Lt.(jg.) Harriet Ida Pickens and Ens. Frances Wills, the first African-American Waves to be commissioned. December 21, 1944. Right - Lt. Florie E. Gant tends a young patient at a prisoner-of-war hospital somewhere in England. October 7, 1944.
Left - Juanita E. Gray, a former domestic worker, learns to operate a lathe at the War Production and Training Center in Washington, D.C. She was one of hundreds of African-American women trained at the center. Mid - Welders Alivia Scott, Hattie Carpenter, and Flossie Burtos are about to weld their first piece of steel on the ship SS George Washington Carver at Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, California. 1943. Right - Auxiliaries Ruth Wade (on left) and Lucille Mayo demonstrate their ability to service trucks at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. December 8, 1942.
Postnote - On July 26, 1948, President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981 ending segregation in the United States Armed Forces.
Read more at the Truman Library Web site
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The Battle of Bamber Bridge
There were many stories about black American troops in Britain. I remember hearing allegations of the sexual promiscuity of British girls with black American troops, in particular, at Bristol and Nottingham but I daresay there were similar stories of their supposed activity in other towns and cities. But one also heard of the discrimination within the American army, of the fact of segregated units and of actual conflicts, off-duty, between white and black troops.
There was a brief reference to one such incident in the autobiography of the writer Anthony Burgess. He published a great deal, most notoriously the book which was later filmed, A Clockwork Orange. The autobiography is called Little Wilson and Big God, Being the First Part of the Confessions of Anthony Burgess. Just after the war he got a job as a lecturer at a college near Preston in Lancashire, at Bamber Bridge, one of the post-war teacher training institutions which provided accelerated training for ex-service people. The college was in a place which had housed American troops during the war. I was interested in this and I wondered whether this was the same location where I had attended an army course at the end of the war to enable me to became a Local/Paid Sergeant for the post-war educational scheme in the army. (See my ‘VE-Day in Preston’ A2100637).
I thought I would try and find if the American camp was the same as the place of my course and of Burgess’s college. I tried the Internet inserting “Bamber Bridge” and among the various entries I was surprised to find one website called ‘Bamber Bridge, Lancashire Swingers. The Leading UK Swingers Club’ (no apostrophe in ‘Swingers’). A pity I had no knowledge of that in 1945 and I was disappointed that I was unable to get the answer to my question about the site of my army college..
Burgess wrote this: ‘In 1943 there had been the Battle of Bamber Bridge, well remembered, though it never got into the official chronicles of the war. Black soldiers had barricaded the camp against the whites and trained machine guns on them. The Brigg [the local name for Bamber Bridge] was totally black in sentiment. When the US military authorities had demanded that the pubs impose a colour bar, the landlords had responded with “Black Troops Only”.’
This brief reference is intriguing but does not tell us much. Fortunately there is a full account in a magazine called After the Battle, a journal which is devoted to research into WWII although with the special feature that comparisons are made with the places looked at the time of doing the research, thus explaining the ‘Then and Now‘ characteristics of the magazine. It has been published quarterly since the early 1970s and the article on Bamber Bridge was in Number 22, 1978.
The article’s title, ’The Mutiny at Bamber Bridge’, is prefaced by a heading ’Crime in WWII’. It is by Dr Ken Werrell, then a Professor of History at Radford College, Virginia, but more recently a military defence analyst at the Airpower Research Institute in the USA. As expected of an academic the research is meticulous, involving his looking at contemporary reports and the records of the two subsequent trails about the incident. There were also interviews with survivors including British witnesses and he also went to Bamber Bridge with his son to traverse the relevant streets and to photograph the various locations, thus living up to the magazine’s ‘then and now’ approach, the ‘now’ being the early 1970s. The piece was published originally in 1975 in the Aerospace Historian magazine and had been updated by the editor of After The Battle.
The ’mutiny’ took place on 23 and 24 June 1943 and involved some of the black American troops who were stationed at Adams Hall in Bamber Bridge, essentially a collection of army huts. This was the location of US Eighth Army Air Force Station 569 which consisted of a number of Quartermaster Truck Companies. As might be expected the trouble began in what was otherwise a trivial matter. Two white Military Policemen (henceforth MPs), having been advised that there was trouble at the Old Hob Inn, went to investigate. It was just after 10 pm, closing time, and the barmaid had just refused a drink to the several black soldiers in the pub, who were there along with a number of British soldiers and civilians. The MPs tried to arrest one of the black soldiers who was improperly dressed and had no pass, the soldier refused and a crowd surrounded the two policemen. Some of the Britons in the crowd verbally supported the black troops and the whole thing escalated. As far as the MPs were concerned the black troops looked threatening and aggressive and probably were. One of the MPs drew his gun when a soldier advanced on him with a bottle in his hand. The MPs left and a bottle was thrown hitting the windscreen of their jeep.
The soldiers then began walking to Adams Hall, followed by three ATS girls. The MPs having got reinforcements returned to the walking soldiers, there was a confrontation ending with a fight, bottles and cobble-stones being thrown. A policeman fired a shot to stop one of them throwing a cobble-stone, another shot was fired hitting one of the blacks in the neck. Another policeman also fired. The crowd dispersed. The blacks went to Adams Hall and the MPs went for reinforcements. Rumours then spread at Adams Hall that blacks had been shot in the back and that the MPs were gunning for blacks. Up to 200 men then formed a crowd in the area of Adams Hall and some blacks, carrying rifles, tried to get back into Bamber Bridge but the situation was calmed by the unit’s sole black officer, a 2Lt, who convinced the men that the (white) senior officers would listen to their grievances.
But about midnight about a dozen police arrived in ‘a makeshift armoured vehicle’, complete with a machine gun. This convinced some or possibly many of the black soldiers that the police were going to kill them and they armed themselves with rifles. Werrell describes the scene as two-thirds of the rifles in the stores were seized by the black soldiers some stayed in the camp others believed they were defending the camp another group ‘took more direct action, and, as the MPs moved off, someone fired at them.
British residents testified that there was firing that night in Bamber Bridge and it became known that shots were fired at the MPs who returned fire. Four soldiers were wounded and one black soldier was killed. One British resident said that the firing went on until 3 am. One black soldier had bruises, and two MPS had, respectively, a broken nose and a broken jaw.
There were two trials. The first was at another American Army base at Chorley, south of Bamber Bridge. Four of those involved in the initial brawl were charged with various offences and were found guilty. Three were sentenced to 3-4 years’ hard labour and dishonourable discharges the fourth to two and a half year’s hard labour. On review the sentence on the fourth was overturned.
The second trial took place at Eighth Army Air Force Headquarters at Bushy Park, Tedidngton. One of the men convicted at the first trial along with the man who was acquitted were among the 35 accused of mutiny, seizing arms, rioting, firing upon officers and MPs, ignoring orders and failing to disperse. Seven were found not guilty, and the remainder received prison sentences from 3 months to fifteen years. Seven men received sentences of twelve years or more. But the President of the court martial made an immediate plea for clemency, arguing that there had been an appalling lack of discipline at the camp and poor leadership with officers failing to perform their duties properly. His views were accepted by higher authority and all sentences were reduced. A year later 15 of the men were restored to duty, and six others had their sentences reduced to one year. The longest period served was 13 months. Opinions on the fairness of the trial varied. Some thought it a kangaroo court with the defence being poorly prepared and performed others thought that the board bent over backwards to be fair. It could be argued that the sentences were very light considering they had been charged with mutiny in wartime.
There were some positive outcomes of the whole affair. All field officers (majors, Lt-Colonels and colonels) of black units were replaced and many junior officers were weeded out. There were also improvements in such matters as leave arrangements and for the provision of racially mixed MP patrols. But, the author notes, there was still trouble in various parts of England. In September 1943 some blacks wounded two MPs in Cornwall in October 1943 some black troops faced a court martial for mutines and attempted murder at Paignton, Devon in February 1944 there was serious fighting between black and white troops at Leicester and on October 5 1944, the wife of a licensee was killed in the cross-fire between black and white troops near Newbury, Berkshire.
But the article by Werrell does not throw any light on Burgess’s statement that the publicans in Bamber Bridge (there were three pubs) issued a ‘Black troops only’ notice and he was wrong to say that the black troops had armed themselves with machine guns.
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2 June 1943 - History
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