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Porter I TB-6 - History

Porter I TB-6 - History



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Porter I

(TB-6: dp. 165; 1. 175'6"; b. 17'9"; dr. 4'8"; s. 29 k.; cpl. 32;
a. 4 1-pdr.; 3 18" tt.; GL Porter)

The first Porter (TB-6) was laid down in February 1896 by Herreshoff Manufacturing Co., Bristol, R.I.: launched 9 September 1896, sponsored by Miss Agnes M. Herreshoff, and commissioned 20 February 1897 at Newport, R.I., Lt. John Charles Fremont in command.

Porter Eailed to Washington, D.C. 27 February 1897 for inspection and was further examined 16 20 March at New York by the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. She operated between New London and Newport; then visited New York

from 15 July to 3 October before getting underway for her winter port, Charleston, S.C. Porter cruised in southern waters until 8 December and then proceeded to Key West where she was stationed 1-22 January 1898.

Porter arrived 26 January at Mobile for a visit but was ordered to return to Key West 6 March because of the tense situation in Cuba. When the United States declared war upon Spain she was already patrolling the waters off Key West and tie Dry Tortugas. Porter returned to Key West 22 March for replenishment.

Porter departed Key West 22 April with the North Atlantic Fleet for the blockade of the north coast of Cuba. She soon made contact with the enemy, capturing two Spanish schooners, Sofia and Matilda, 23-24 April After refueling at KGY West 2-7 May, Porter resumed blockade duty off Cape Haitien, Haiti keeping a watchful eye out for Cervera's squadron. She participated in the three-hour bombardment of San Juan 12-13 May with the 9 ships of Rear Admiral W. T. Sampson's fleet. During the attack Porter maintained a close position under the batteries with Detroit but was not hit

Porter returned 13-14 May to the blockade of the north coast of Hispaniola, cruising off Samana Bay, Santo Domingo and off Porto Plata, Haiti. After a brief interval at Key West and Mobile (18-25 May), she joined Commodore Schley's squadron (1-11 June) off Santiago de Cuba where it had bottled up the elusive Spanish warshiDs. Porter came under heavy fire 7 June while silencing the shore batteries but was undamaged. Later she supported (11-17 June) the Marine beachhead at Guantanamo Bay. Porter took up her station off Santiago 17 June and again 21-22 June when she bombarded the Socapa battery during the landings at Daiquiri. She continued patrolling off Guantanamo until 9 July when she left for New York via Key West.

Upon her arrival at the New York Navy Yard 19 July, Porter was placed in reduced commission and decommissioned 5 November 1898. She recommissioned 10 October 1899 at New York and served as a training ship for firemen at Newport, Norfolk and Annapolis. Porter decommissioned 21 December 1900 at New York. She was put in reserve commission in late 1901 at Norfolk with the Reserve Torpedo Flotilla and continued this duty through 1907.

Porter recommissioned 31 January 1908 at Norfolk, and was ordered to Pensacola 21 February. As flagship of the 3rd Torpedo Flotilla, she engaged in torpedo runs in St. Joseph's Bay, Fla. (4 March 22 April). Porter acted as naval escort to the remains of Governor De Witt Clinton in New York harbor 29 May 1908 before returning 1 July to the Reserve Torpedo Flotilla at Norfolk.

Porter recommissioned 14 May 1909 at Charleston, S.C., Lt. Harold R. Stark in command, and was assigned to the 3rd Division, Atlantic Torpedo Flotilla. She proceeded to Provineetown, Mass. 10 June for fleet exercises that lasted until 5 August. Porter departed 28 August for Hampton Roads and the Southern Drill Grounds, later joining the fleet at New York for the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 1-10 October. She was reassigned 14 November to the Reserve Torpedo Flotilla at Charleston where she remained until October 1911.

Porter sailed 30 October 1911 for New York where she took part in the fleet naval review 2 November for President Theodore Roosevelt. The President had ordered the mobilization "to test the preparedness of the fleet and the efficiencY of our organization on the ships in the yards." Afterwards Porter returned to the Reserve Torpedo Flotilla at Philadelphia. She was mobilized in October 1912 for another review at New York which was inspected by the President 15 October.

Porter was struck from the Navy List 6 November 1912 and was sold to Andrew Olsen 30 December 1912 at New York.


Military

DDG 78 Porter's keel was laid down by Litton - Ingalls, Pascagoula Mississippi on December 2 1996. She was launched in November 1997 and was commissioned March 20, 1999.

Porter is the 28th of 38 Arleigh Burke Class ships authorized by Congress. These multi-mission ships are equipped with the Navy's Aegis combat weapons system, which combines space-age communication, radar and weapons technologies in a single platform for unlimited flexibility while operating "Forward. From the Sea".

The dark blue and gold on the shield of the coat of arms, represent the sea and excellence and are the colors traditionally used by the Navy red is emblematic of sacrifice and courage. The shield is divided in four recalling the previous USS PorterS and highlighting the four cardinal compass points and the US Navy's world-wide mission. The stars commemorate the battle stars earned in World War II by the second and third USS Porter. The Aegis shield symbolizes DDG 78's modern warfare capabilities and is red to reflect courage and action. The torch, from the Statue of Liberty, suggests the ship's motto and symbolizes the principles of freedom upon which our country was founded.

The crossed Naval Officers' swords on the crest honor both David Porter and his son as well as representing the ship's mission to "Train, Fight and Win." The laurel, arm, and trident are adapted from the US Naval Academy coat of arms they highlight David Dixon Porter's tenure as superintendent of the Academy. The trident, the symbol of sea power, alludes to the Aegis vertical launch system its three tines reflect the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Civil War that the Porters served.

David Porter

The USS Porter is named after a Civil War Hero and his father. Commodore David Porter Vice Admiral David Dixon Porter The Father David Porter, born 1 February 1780 in Boston, Mass., served in the Quasi War with France first as midshipman on board Constellation, participating in the capture of L'lnsurgente 9 February 1799 secondly, as 1st lieutenant of Experiment and later in command of Amphitrite. During the Barbary Wars (1801-07) David Porter was 1st lieutenant of Enterprise, New York and Philadelphia and was taken prisoner when Philadelphia ran aground in Tripoli harbor 31 October 1803. After his release 3 June 1805 he remained in the Mediterranean as acting captain of Constitution and later captain of Enterprise. He was in charge of the naval forces at New Orleans 1808-10.

As commander of Essex in the War of 1812, Captain Porter achieved fame by capturing the first British warship of the conflict, Alert, 13 August 1812 as well as several merchantmen. In 1813 he sailed Essex around Cape Horn and cruised in the Pacific warring on British whalers. On 28 March 1814 Porter was forced to surrender off Valpariso after an unequal contest with the frigates HBMS Phoebe and Cherub and only when his ship was too disabled to offer any resistance. From 1815 to 1822 he was a member of the Board of Navy Commissioners but gave up this post to command the expedition for suppressing piracy in the West Indies 1823-25. Commodore Porter resigned his commission in 1826 and became the commander-in-chief of the Mexican Navy 1826-29. He died on 3 March 1843 while U.S. Minister of Turkey.

Vice Admiral David Dixon Porter was born on June 8, 1813, and was a native of Pennsylvania. He was the youngest son of David Porter, who commanded the Essex in the war of 1812-14 with Great Britain. Young Porter entered the service as midshipman in February, 1829, and served in the Mediterranean until 1835, when he was employed for several years in coast survey and river explorations. At the close of 1845 he was placed on special duty at the Washington observatory, resigning in 1846 to take part in the Mexican war. At the outbreak of the late war he was promoted to the rank of commander, and in 1862 the mortar fleet for the bombardment of the forts below New Orleans was placed under his orders.

Vice Admiral David Dixon Porter spent much of 1862-1863 along the Mississippi River and in smaller Mississippi Rivers, including the Yazoo, the Coldwater, the Tallahatchie, and the Yalobusha. He directed campaigns against a long list of Confederate positions in the Mississippi Delta, from he Grand Gulf batteries, to the Chickasaw Bluffs to Miliken's Bend and Port Hudson. After the capture of New Orleans he went up the river with his fleet, and was engaged in the unsuccessful siege of Vicksburg in July, 1862. During the second siege of that place, in the summer of 1863, he bombarded the works and materially assisted Gen. Grant, who commanded the besieging army. For this he made rear admiral. Porter did not leave Mississippi until his successful support of General Grant's siege of Vicksburg was completed with General Pemberton's surrender in July 1863. For his Civil War service, Porter received four letters of thanks from Congress, and was promoted to Vice Admiral in 1866. He was also engaged in the two combined attacks on Forth Fisher, which commands the approaches to Wilmington, North Carolina. The first of these attempts, at the close of 1864, miscarried the second, in January, 1865, was completely successful.

In July, 1866, he was made vice-admiral, and after the death of Farragut, was promoted, October, 1870, to the rank of admiral, which carried with it the command of the entire navy of the United States, subject only to the order of the president. Admiral Porter urged the importance of protecting the coast approaches to all the large cities of the United States, with heavily armored minitors, carrying the heaviest guns. David Dixon Porter was nearly forgotten because his career and accomplishments have often been misinterpreted, when, in fact, he was arguably the foremost naval hero of the Civil War. Though Porter rose faster through the ranks, commanded more men and ships, won more victories, and was awarded more Congressional votes of thanks than any other officer in the U.S. Navy, historians have been influenced by his own postwar accounts, which were flawed by an unquenchable ego, thin skin, and a burning desire to vindicate his equally controversial father. David Dixon Porter was a firebrand hero of New Orleans, Vicksburg, and Fort Fisher.

His unique tactics and techniques rank among the most imaginative and successful in naval history. The crew onboard Porter's flagship encountered daring, brilliant attacks against the punishing batteries at Vicksburg and Fisher and costly failures at Steele's Bayou and Red River. David Dixon Porter held critical strategy meetings with Sherman and Grant, and a thrilling chase up and down the coast of South America after Semmes on the CSS Sumter. David Dixon Porter was a talented fighter and colorful personality with a marvelous sense of humor, earning respect and friendship from the likes of Lincoln, Grant, and Sherman, but drew the ire of political generals like Butler, Banks, and McClernand. He was a potent mix of energy, ambition, courage, and creativity with rash behavior, paranoia, and a taste for intrigue.

The first Porter (TB-6) was laid down in February 1896 by Herreshoff Manufacturing Co., Bristol, R.I.: launched 9 September 1896 sponsored by Miss Agnes M. Herreshoff and commissioned 20 February 1897 at Newport, R.I., Lt. John Charles Fremont in command. Porter sailed to Washington, D.C. 27 February 1897 for inspection and was further examined 16-20 March at New York by the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. She operated between New London and Newport then visited New York from 15 July to 3 October before getting underway for her winter port, Charleston, S.C.

Porter cruised in southern waters until 8 December and then proceeded to Key West where she was stationed 1-22 January 1898. Porter arrived 26 January at Mobile for a visit but was ordered to return to Key West 6 March because of the tense situation in Cuba. When the United States declared war upon Spain she was already patrolling the waters off Key West and the Dry Tortugas. Porter returned to Key West 22 March for replenishment. Porter departed Key West 22 April with the North Atlantic Fleet for the blockade of the north coast of Cuba. She soon made contact with the enemy, capturing two Spanish schooners, Sofia and Matilda, 23-24 April. After refueling at Key West 2-7 May, Porter resumed blockade duty off Cape Haitien, Haiti keeping a watchful eye out for Cervera's squadron. She participated in the three-hour bombardment of San Juan 12-13 May with the 9 ships of Rear Admiral W. T. Sampson's fleet. During the attack Porter maintained a close position under the batteries with Detroit but was not hit. Porter returned 13-14 May to the blockade of the north coast of Hispaniola, cruising off Samana Bay, Santo Domingo and off Porto Plata, Haiti. After a brief interval at Key West and Mobile (18-25 May), she joined Commodore Schley's squadron (1-11 June) off Santiago de Cuba where it had bottled up the elusive Spanish warships. Porter came under heavy fire 7 June while silencing the shore batteries but was undamaged. Later (11-17 June) she supported the Marine beachhead at Guantanamo Bay. Porter took up her station off Santiago 17 June and again 21-22 June when she bombarded the Socapa battery during the landings at Daiquiri. She continued patrolling off Guantanamo until 9 July when she left for New York via Key West.

Upon her arrival at the New York Navy Yard 19 July, Porter was placed in reduced commission and decommissioned 5 November 1898. Porter was recommissioned 10 October 1899 at New York and served as a training ship for firemen at Newport, Norfolk and Annapolis. Porter decommissioned 21 December 1900 at New York.

She was put in reserve commission in late 1901 at Norfolk with the Reserve Torpedo Flotilla and continued this duty through 1907. Porter recommissioned 31 January 1908 at Norfolk, and was ordered to Pensacola 21 February. As flagship of the 3rd Torpedo Flotilla, she engaged in torpedo runs in St. Joseph's Bay, Fla. (4 March-22 April). Porter acted as naval escort to the remains of Governor De Witt Clinton in New York harbor 29 May 1908 before returning 1 July to the Reserve Torpedo Flotilla at Norfolk. Porter recommissioned 14 May 1909 at Charleston, S.C., Lt. Harold R. Stark in command, and was assigned to the 3rd Division, Atlantic Torpedo Flotilla. She proceeded to Provincetown, Mass. 10 June for fleet exercises that lasted until 5 August. Porter departed 28 August for Hampton Roads and the Southern Drill Grounds, later joining the fleet at New York for the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 1-10 October. She was reassigned 14 November to the Reserve Torpedo Flotilla at Charleston where she remained until October 1911. Porter sailed 30 October 1911 for New York where she took part in the fleet naval review on 2 November for President Theodore Roosevelt. The President had ordered the mobilization "to test the preparedness of the fleet and the efficiency of our organization on the ships in the yards."

Afterwards Porter returned to the Reserve Torpedo Flotilla at Philadelphia. She was mobilized in October 1912 for another review at New York which was inspected by the President l5 October. Porter was struck from the Navy List 6 November 1912 and was sold to Andrew Olsen 30 December 1912 at New York.

DD 59 / CG 7

The second Porter (DD-59) was laid down by William Cramp and Sons, Philadelphia, Penn., 24 February 1914 launched 26 August 1915 sponsored by Miss Georgiana Porter Cusachs and commissioned 17 April 1916, Lt. Comdr. Ward K. Wortman in command.

After shakedown in the Caribbean, Porter sailed in convoy 24 April 1917 escorting the first U.S. troops to Europe. She arrived at Queenstown, Ireland, 4 May, where she was based during World War I, meeting and escorting convoys from the U.S. as they entered the war zone. Kept busy as a convoy escort, she severely damaged U-108, 28 April 1918, while the German submarine was steaming to intercept a convoy. Operating from Brest after 14 June, she returned to the United States at the end of the war.

After World War I Porter operated off the East Coast and was decommissioned 23 June 1922. Transferred to the Coast Guard, 7 June 1924, she was returned to the Navy 30 June 1933, and disposed of by scrapping under the terms of the 1930 London Treaty for Limitation of Armament the following year. Her name was struck from the Navy List 5 July 1934 and her materials were sold 22 August 1934.

DD 356

The third Porter(DD-356) was laid down by the New York Shipbuilding Corp, Camden, N.J., 18 December 1933 launched 12 December 1935 sponsored by Miss Carlile Patterson Porter and commissioned at Philadelphia 23 August 1936, Comdr. Forrest B. Royal in command.

After shakedown in waters off northern Europe, Porter visited St. John's, Newfoundland, for coronation ceremonies in honor of George VI in May 1937 and was at the Washington Navy yard during the Boy Scout Jamboree, June- July 1937. Then reassigned to the Pacific Fleet, she transited the Panama Canal and arrived at San Francisco 5 August 1937. She operated continuously with the Pacific Fleet until the outbreak of World War II, homeported at San Diego.

On 5 December 1941, Porter got underway from Pearl Harbor, escaping the Japanese attack by two days. She patrolled with cruisers and destroyers in Hawaiian waters before steaming in convoy 25 March 1942 for the west coast. She operated off the west coast with TF 1 for the next 4 months. Returning to Pearl Harbor in mid-August, she trained in Hawaiian waters until 16 October when she sortied with TF 16 and headed for the Solomon's.

On 26 October 1942, TF 16 exchanged air attacks with strong Japanese forces northeast of Guadalcanal in the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. During the ensuing action, Porter was torpedoed by a submarine and, after the crew had abandoned ship, was sunk by gunfire from Shaw. Her name was struck from the Navy List 2 November 1942. Porter earned one battle star for World War II service.

DD 800

The fourth Porter (DD-800) was laid down by the Todd Pacific Shipyards, Inc., Seattle, Wash., 6 July 1943 launched 13 March 1944 sponsored by Miss Georgiana Porter Cusachs and commissioned 24 June 1944 Comdr. R. R. Prince in command.

After shakedown off San Diego, Porter sailed for duty off Adak, Alaska 16 September 1944. On 21 November 1944, with Task Force 92, she made an offensive sweep against the Kurile Islands and bombarded enemy military installations on matsuwa. She made another offensive sweep against the Japanese naval base at Suribachi Wan, Paramushiru. On 15 May, Porter participated in the first extensive sweep by surface vessels into the Japanese-controlled Sea of Okhotsk, bombarding Suribachi Wan during the retirement. Porter bombarded matsuma again on 10 and 11 June. On 25 June, during another sweep of the Sea of Okhotsk, Porter encountered a small convoy and sank a 2,000-ton Japanese merchantman with gunfire.

When V-J Day came Porter was undergoing overhaul at Portland, Oregon., where she remained until 1 September. After escorting Enterprise from Seattle to San Francisco, Porter underwent refresher training at San Diego, then steamed for the East Coast. On 3 July 1946 Porter was placed out of commission, in reserve attached to the U.S. Atlantic Reserve Fleet, berthed at Charleston.

Decommissioned 9 February 1951, Porter served in Korean waters from 18 June to 14 September 1952 with TF 95. A member of the "Trainbusters Club," she destroyed one North Korean train and damaged 2. She was placed out of commission, in reserve, berthed at Norfolk, Va., 10 August 1953, where she remained into 1970 as a unit if the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. Porter earned one battle star for World War II service and one battle star for Korean War service.


Historical Snapshot

The North American Aviation T-6 Texan two-place advanced trainer was the classroom for most of the Allied pilots who flew in World War II. Called the SNJ by the Navy and the Harvard by the British Royal Air Force, the advanced trainer AT-6 was designed as a transition trainer between basic trainers and first-line tactical aircraft. It was redesignated T-6 in 1948.

In all, the T-6 trained several hundred thousand pilots in 34 different countries over a period of 25 years. A total of 15,495 of the planes were made. Though most famous as a trainer, the T-6 Texan also won honors in World War II and in the early days of the Korean War.

The Texan evolved from the company&rsquos BC-1 basic combat trainer, which was first produced for the U.S. Army Air Corps with fixed landing gear in 1937 under a contract that called for 177 planes. North American designed the NA-49 prototype as a low-cost trainer with many of the characteristics of a high-speed fighter.

Although not as fast as a fighter, it was easy to maintain and repair, had more maneuverability and was easier to handle. A pilot&rsquos airplane, it could roll, Immelmann, loop, spin, snap and vertical roll. It was designed to give the best possible training in all types of tactics, from ground strafing to bombardment and aerial dogfighting. It contained such versatile equipment as bomb racks, blind flying instrumentation, gun and standard cameras, fixed and flexible guns, and just about every other device that military pilots had to operate.


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USS Porter (TB-6)

USS Porter (runkonumero TB-6) oli Yhdysvaltain laivaston vuonna 1896 vesille laskettu Porter-luokan torpedovene.

USS Porter
Aluksen vaiheet
Rakentaja Herreshoff Manufacturing Company, Bristol, Rhode Island
Kölinlasku helmikuu 1896
Laskettu vesille 9. syyskuuta 1896
Palveluskäyttöön 20. helmikuuta 1897
Palveluskäytöstä 1912
Loppuvaihe myyty 30. joulukuuta 1912
Tekniset tiedot
Uppouma 168 t
Pituus 53,49 m
Leveys 5,41 m
Syväys 1,42 m
Koneteho 3 200 ihp
Nopeus 29 solmua
Miehistöä 32
Aseistus 4 × 1 naulan tykkiä
3 × 18" torpedoputkea
Infobox OK


Porters Form First All-Black Union

By the mid-1890s, the American Railway Union had organized most Pullman employees, but refused to include black workers, including porters. Formed in 1925, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) was organized by A. Philip Randolph, the social activist and publisher of the political and literary magazine The Messenger.

Due to strong opposition by the Pullman Company, Randolph and the BSCP had to fight for more than a decade before securing their first collective bargaining agreement𠅊nd the first-ever agreement between a union of black workers and a major U.S. company—in 1937. In addition to a big wage hike for porters, the agreement set a limit of 240 working hours a month.

Randolph and other BSCP figures would go on to play key roles in the civil rights movement, helping to influence public policy in Washington D.C. that ultimately led to passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Edgar D. Nixon, a Pullman porter and leader of the local BSCP chapter in Montgomery, Alabama, was instrumental in starting the bus boycott in that city following Rosa Parks’ arrest in December 1955. Because he was often out of town working as a porter, Nixon enlisted a young minister, Martin Luther King Jr., to organize the boycott in his absence.


Laststandonzombieisland

Here at LSOZI, we are going to take out every Wednesday for a look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1859-1946 time

period and will profile a different ship each week.

Warship Wednesday Jan 15, 2014 A Tale of the Unlucky Porter

Here we see the fine lines of the USS Porter as she steams quietly before WWII. This destroyer, DD-356, looked more like a fast cruiser with her high bridge and four twin turrets. Truly a beautiful ship from that enlighten era where warships could be both easy on the eyes and functional.

The first USS Porter almost sent a torpedo into the cruiser New York in 1898

The name of the USS Porter is something of an albatross with the navy. Drawn from the famed War of 1812 era Commodore David Porter, and his son, Civil War Admiral David Dixon Porter, the first ship with this name, USS Porter (TB-6), a torpedo boat, launched in 1896, was commissioned five years after the passing of the Admiral. This small green torpedo boat almost sank the cruiser USS New York in a nighttime engagement during the Spanish-American War, and would have if the torpedo she fired didn’t miss.

The second USS Porter (DD-59), a Tucker-class destroyer, commissioned in 1916, had to be stricken to comply with the London Naval Treaty.

USS William D. Porter (DD-579), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was a ship of the United States Navy named for Civil War Commodore William D. Porter, son of Commodore David Porter and brother of Admiral David Dixon Porter, continued the curse of the Porter ship name. She almost sank the battleship USS Iowa during the war when she fired a live torpedo at the battlewagon while practicing torpedo runs. The Iowa at the time was carrying President Franklin D. Roosevelt, along with Secretary of State, Cordell Hull and all of the Country’s WWII military brass. When the Iowa saw and evaded the errant fish, she trained all of her guns on the much smaller Porter who’s crew were arrested and made the subject of an FBI probe to make sure the torp was an accident and not an attempted assassination.

She spent the next year on duty in Alaskan waters after everything was cleared up. Then to the Philippines and Okinawa. There, on 10 June 1945 she was attacked by a lone Japanese Val dive bomber who missed the ship but exploded underneath after the craft hit the water. This gave the almost Iowa-killer the dubious distinction of missing a kamikaze but still being sunk by it.

The Fourth Porter (DD-800), a Fletcher-class sister-ship of the William D Porter above, although modern and low mileage, just spent two years on active duty before she was put into reserve. Called back for Korea, she was a member of the little know “Trainbusters Club”of warships that destroyed locomotives with naval gunfire. Decommissioned again 10 August 1953, she was scrapped in 1973, spending only a total of four and a half years of her thirty year life outside of Red Lead Row gathering rust.

The fifth USS Porter, (DDG-78) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, collided with the MV Otowasan, a Japanese oil tanker, near the Strait of Hormuz in 2012, ripping a huge 10吆 foot hole in the billion dollar Aegis warship that led to the replacement of her skipper.

But we are here to speak of the third Porter, DD-356.

Head of her class of large ‘destroyer leaders’ she was over 1800-tons and 381-feet long overall. Capable of making 35+ knots and carrying a battery of eight 5-inch/38 caliber naval guns over eight 21-inch torpedo tubes, she would have been considered a scout cruiser if she was commissioned in 1919 rather than in 1936.

She was one of the fastest and largest of US pre-WWII destroyer classes and her seven younger sisters provided yeomen service during the war. Her seven sisters earned a combined total of more than 30 battlestars during the war, fighting U-boats, protecting carriers, escorting convoys, and downing enemy aircraft.

All seven of her sisters survived the war to be scrapped in the late 1940s and early 1950s.

This was not to be the luck of the Porter.

Commissioned 25 August 1936 at New York Shipbuilding Corporation, she left immediately for the Pacific Fleet. Leaving Pearl Harbor just two days before the day of infamy, she was at sea off Hawaii when the war started. Joining Task Force 16 after convoy duty off the West Coast, she sailed immediately for the waters off Guadalcanal in 1942.


There, she found herself neck-deep in the Japanese onslaught that was the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. This pitted two US carriers, Enterprise and Hornet against three of Yamamoto’s. This battle, fought on 26 October 1942, started off with the Japanese having more planes (199 vs 136) and more surface combatants (40 vs 23).

Halsey’s fleet lost the Hornet, had the Enterprise badly mauled, and had more than 70% of the fleet’s carrier air-wing destroyed. During the fight, with planes ditching left and right around the USS Enterprise, Porter stood by as a plane guard, firing at Japanese aircraft while picking up pilots lost at sea.

To say the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands was chaotic is an understatement.

One armed US Navy TBF Avenger torpedo bomber crashed near Porter and soon after, as the ship maneuvered to rescue the crew, she was struck by a torpedo of unknown origin. During the war the US blamed it on a Japanese submarine, but post-war study of the Combined Fleet’s records, none of the Emperor’s u-boats claimed the kill.

This had left historians to credit the sinking of the USS Porter, DD-356, to friendly fire.

Her crew was rescued by the nearby USS Shaw (DD-373), whose dramatic Pearl Harbor photographs have immortalized that ship.

The Shaw stood by to sink the stricken Porter in deep water with gunfire.

Her name was stricken a week later from the Naval List where it was given to a new Fletcher class destroyer (DD-800) at her launching on 13 March 1944.


Displacement: 1,850 tons
Length: 381 ft (116 m)
Beam: 36 ft 2 in (11.02 m)
Draft: 10 ft 5 in (3.18 m)
Propulsion: 50,000 shp (37,285 kW)
Geared Turbines,
2 screws
Speed: 35 knots (65 km/h)
Range: 6,500 nmi. at 12 knots
(12,000 km at 22 km/h)
Complement: 194
Armament:

As Built:
1 x Mk33 Gun Fire Control System
8 × 5″(127mm)/38cal SP (4×2),
8 × 1.1″(28mm) AA (2ࡪ),
8 x 21″(533mm) torpedo tubes (2ࡪ)
c1942:
1 x Mk33 Gun Fire Control System
8 × 5″(127mm)/38cal SP guns (4×2),
2 X 40mm AA (1ࡨ),
6 x 20mm AA (6ࡧ),
2 x Depth Charge stern racks

If you liked this column, please consider joining the International Naval Research Organization (INRO), Publishers of Warship
International.

They are possibly one of the best sources of naval study, images, and fellowship you can find http://www.warship.org/

The International Naval Research Organization is a non-profit corporation dedicated to the encouragement of the study of naval
vessels and their histories, principally in the era of iron and steel warships (about 1860 to date). Its purpose is to provide information and a means of contact for those interested in warships.

Nearing their 50th Anniversary, Warship International, the written tome of the INRO has published hundreds of articles, most of
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Gregory Porter was born in Sacramento, California, and was raised in Bakersfield, California, where his mother Ruth was a minister. [3] Porter has seven siblings. His mother was a large influence on his life, having encouraged him to sing in church at an early age. His father, Rufus, was largely absent from his life. Says Porter, "Everybody had some issues with their father, even if he was in the house. He may have been emotionally absent. My father was just straight-up absent. I hung out with him just a few days in my life. And it wasn't a long time. He just didn’t seem to be completely interested in being there. Maybe he was, I don't know." [4]

A 1989 graduate of Highland High School, he received a full athletic scholarship as a football lineman to San Diego State University (SDSU Aztecs), but a shoulder injury during his junior year cut short his football career. [5]

Porter's mother died from cancer when he was 21 years old. From her death bed, she entreated him: "Sing, baby, sing!" [3]

Porter moved to the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn in 2004, along with his brother Lloyd. He worked as a chef at Lloyd's restaurant Bread-Stuy (now defunct), where he also performed. Porter performed at other neighborhood venues including Sista's Place and Solomon's Porch, and moved on to Harlem club St. Nick's Pub, where he maintained a weekly residency. Out of this residency evolved what would become Porter's touring band. [4]

Porter released two albums on the Motéma label together with Membran Entertainment Group, 2010's Water and 2012's Be Good, before signing with Blue Note Records (under Universal Music Group) on May 17, 2013. His third album, Liquid Spirit, was released on September 2, 2013, in Europe and on September 17, 2013, in the US. [6] The album was produced by Brian Bacchus. [7] The album won the 2014 Grammy for Best Jazz Vocal Album. [8]

Liquid Spirit enjoyed commercial success rarely achieved by albums in the jazz genre, reaching the top 10 on the UK album charts. It was certified gold by the BPI, selling over 100,000 units in the UK. [9]

In August 2014, Porter released "The 'In' Crowd" as a single. [10] On May 9, 2015, Porter participated in VE Day 70: A Party to Remember, a televised commemorative concert from Horse Guards Parade in London, singing "As Time Goes By". [11]

His fourth album, Take Me to the Alley, was released on May 6, 2016. [12] In UK's The Guardian it was Alexis Petridis's album of the week. [13]

On June 26, 2016, Porter performed on the Pyramid Stage at the Glastonbury Festival 2016. Writing for The Daily Telegraph, Neil McCormick said, "The portly middle-aged jazzer may be the oddest pop star on the planet but he is a refreshing testament to the notion that the most important organ for musical appreciation should always be our ears. And Porter has one of the most easy-on-the-ear voices in popular music, a creamy baritone that flows thick and smooth across a rich gateaux of juicy melody. It's a voice that makes you want to lick your lips and dive right in." [14]

In September 2016, Porter performed at Radio 2 Live in Hyde Park from Hyde Park, London. He would go on to perform in the annual BBC Children in Need show in November, a night dedicated to Sir Terry Wogan, who hosted it in previous years and was a fan of Porter. [15]

In January 2017, Porter performed the song "Holding On" on BBC One's The Graham Norton Show. [16] In September 2017 he performed as part of the Later. with Jools Holland: Later 25 concert at the Royal Albert Hall. [17] In October 2017, he performed the song "Mona Lisa" on BBC One's The Graham Norton Show with Jeff Goldblum on piano. [18]

On August 28, 2020, Porter released his sixth studio album, All Rise.

Since his 2010 debut on the Motéma label, Porter has been well received in the music press.

His debut album, Water, was nominated for Best Jazz Vocal album at the 53rd Annual Grammy Awards. [19] He was also a member of the original Broadway cast of It Ain't Nothin' But the Blues. His second album, Be Good, which contains many of Porter's compositions, garnered critical acclaim for both his distinctive singing and his compositions, such as "Be Good (Lion's Song)", "Real Good Hands", and "On My Way to Harlem". "Real Good Hands" was also nominated for Best Traditional R&B Performance at the 55th Annual Grammy Awards. [20] In his review of Water, Kevin Le Gendre of the BBC wrote that "Gregory Porter has a voice and musicality to be reckoned with." [21]

The New York Times described Porter as "a jazz singer of thrilling presence, a booming baritone with a gift for earthy refinement and soaring uplift" in its review of Liquid Spirit. [22]

Michael G. Nastos of AllMusic wrote a mixed review of Water, stating: "In hard bop trim, Shorter's 'Black Nile' has Porter shouting out a lyric line that was done many years ago by Chicago's Luba Raashiek, but Porter's voice is strained and breaks up. While on every track Porter sings with great conviction, he's more effective on lower-key compositions", but went on to say that "he's right up there with José James as the next big male vocal jazz star." [23]

Porter is married to Victoria and they have a son, Demyan. Their home is in Bakersfield, California.


Understanding Tuberculosis: 6 Facts to Know

Tuberculosis, known at different points in time as “consumption” and the “white plague,” was an epidemic in the U.S. and Europe in the 18 th and 19 th centuries.

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The airborne disease, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually infects the lungs but can sometimes infect other parts of the body such as the spine or brain. It can causes a persistent cough, chest pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, fever and chills.

Thanks to better disease monitoring and treatments, TB infection rates are dramatically lower in this part of the world today. In 2017, 9,105 cases were reported in the U.S. – the lowest annual number ever, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

But it does still remain one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization, affecting millions of new people each year.

Here are a few key things to know about tuberculosis today.

It’s most prevalent in developing countries.

Tuberculosis rates are highest in parts of Asia, Africa and the Western Pacific region. Globally, TB incidence is falling about 2 percent per year, according to the CDC.

Certain people are more at risk.

In the U.S., tuberculosis more commonly occurs in people who were born in other countries, particularly those with high rates of the disease. People with impaired or immature immune systems, such as those infected with HIV, are also more at risk for TB.

It’s not easily spread.

TB isn’t spread by a casual encounter. It usually takes a lot of time spent in close contact with someone who is contagious to get TB.

A person with active TB disease releases bacteria when they cough, sneeze, talk or laugh. For most people who breathe in that bacteria, their immune system is able to fight it and stop it from growing in their body. The infection becomes inactive in these people, where it can remain for any period of time.

But if the immune system is unable to stop the bacteria from growing, it becomes active TB disease. This is when symptoms begin and a person becomes contagious.

Children almost always acquire TB from being in close contact with an adult who has active TB.

Children generally do not transmit TB to other children, says pediatric infectious disease specialist Camille Sabella, MD.

Latent bacteria in the body can become active later.

If the immune system of someone who has inactive tuberculosis in their body becomes weakened, the bacteria can grow and become active TB disease.

It’s detectable and curable.

Early detection and treatment is key to controlling the spread of TB. It can be detected by a blood or skin test, even when it is latent in a person’s body. Both inactive bacteria and most cases of active TB disease can also be treated with antibiotics.

Your physician might consider screening for TB if:

  • You are a resident or employee in a group settings where the risk of spreading an infectious disease is high (i.e. hospitals, shelters, jails).
  • You have been in contact with a person who is known or suspected to have TB disease.
  • Your body’s resistance to illness is low because of a weak immune system.
  • You think you might already have TB disease and are having symptoms.
  • You are from a country or lived in a country where TB disease is prevalent.

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Testing for Tuberculosis (TB)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that is spread through the air from one person to another. When someone who is sick with TB coughs, speaks, laughs, sings, or sneezes, people nearby may breathe TB bacteria into their lungs. TB usually attacks the lungs, but can also attack other parts of the body, such as the brain, spine, or kidneys.

TB bacteria can live in the body without making a person sick. This is called latent TB infection. People with latent TB infection do not feel sick, do not have TB symptoms, and cannot spread TB bacteria to others. Some people with latent TB infection go on to develop TB disease. People with TB disease can spread the bacteria to others, feel sick, and can have symptoms including fever, night sweats, cough, and weight loss.

There are two kinds of tests that are used to determine if a person has been infected with TB bacteria: the tuberculin skin test and TB blood tests.

Tuberculin Skin Test (TST)

What is a TST?

The Mantoux tuberculin skin test is a test to check if a person has been infected with TB bacteria.

How does the TST work?

Using a small needle, a health care provider injects a liquid (called tuberculin) into the skin of the lower part of the arm. When injected, a small, pale bump will appear. This is different from a Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) shot (a TB vaccine that many people living outside of the United States receive).

The person given the TST must return within 2 or 3 days to have a trained health care worker look for a reaction on the arm where the liquid was injected. The health care worker will look for a raised, hard area or swelling, and if present, measure its size using a ruler. Redness by itself is not considered part of the reaction.

What does a positive TST result mean?

The TST result depends on the size of the raised, hard area or swelling. It also depends on the person&rsquos risk of being infected with TB bacteria and the progression to TB disease if infected.

  • Positive TST: This means the person&rsquos body was infected with TB bacteria. Additional tests are needed to determine if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease. A health care worker will then provide treatment as needed.
  • Negative TST: This means the person&rsquos body did not react to the test, and that latent TB infection or TB disease is not likely.

Who can receive a TST?

Almost everyone can receive a TST, including infants, children, pregnant women, people living with HIV, and people who have had a BCG shot. People who had a severe reaction to a previous TST should not receive another TST.

How often can a TST be given?

Usually, there is no problem with repeated TSTs unless a person has had a severe reaction to a previous TST.

Testing for TB in People with a BCG

People who have had a previous BCG shot may receive a TST. In some people, the BCG shot may cause a positive TST when they are not infected with TB bacteria. If a TST is positive, additional tests are needed.

TB Blood Tests

What is an Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA)?

An IGRA is a blood test that can determine if a person has been infected with TB bacteria. An IGRA measures how strong a person&rsquos immune system reacts to TB bacteria by testing the person&rsquos blood in a laboratory. Two IGRAs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are available in the United States:

How does the IGRA work?

Blood is collected into special tubes using a needle. The blood is delivered to a laboratory as directed by the IGRA test instructions. The laboratory runs the test and reports the results to the health care provider.

What does a positive IGRA result mean?

  • Positive IGRA: This means that the person has been infected with TB bacteria. Additional tests are needed to determine if the person has latent TB infection or TB disease. A health care worker will then provide treatment as needed.
  • Negative IGRA: This means that the person&rsquos blood did not react to the test and that latent TB infection or TB disease is not likely.

Who can receive an IGRA?

Anyone can have an IGRA in place of a TST. This can be for any situation where a TST is recommended. In general, a person should have either a TST or an IGRA, but not both. There are rare exceptions when results from both tests may be useful in deciding whether a person has been infected with TB. IGRAs are the preferred method of TB infection testing for the following:

  • People who have received the BCG shot
  • People who have a difficult time returning for a second appointment to look at the TST after the test was given

How often can an IGRA be given?

There is no problem with repeated IGRAs.

Who Should Get Tested for TB?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend testing populations that are at increased risk for TB infection. Certain people should be tested for TB bacteria because they are more likely to get TB disease, including:

  • People who have spent time with someone who has TB disease
  • People with HIV infection or another medical problem that weakens the immune system
  • People who have symptoms of TB disease (fever, night sweats, cough, and weight loss)
  • People from a country where TB disease is common (most countries in Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Russia)
  • People who live or work somewhere in the United States where TB disease is more common (homeless shelters, prison or jails, or some nursing homes)
  • People who use illegal drugs

Choosing a TB Test

Choosing which TB test to use should be done by the person&rsquos health care provider. Factors in selecting which test to use include the reason for testing, test availability, and cost. Generally, it is not recommended to test a person with both a TST and an IGRA.

Diagnosis of Latent TB Infection or TB Disease

If a person is found to be infected with TB bacteria, other tests are needed to see if the person has TB disease. TB disease can be diagnosed by medical history, physical examination, chest x-ray, and other laboratory tests. TB disease is treated by taking several drugs as recommended by a health care provider.

If a person does not have TB disease, but has TB bacteria in the body, then latent TB infection is diagnosed. The decision about taking treatment for latent TB infection will be based on a person&rsquos chances of developing TB disease.


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