A British island located in the South Atlantic 700 miles northwest of St. Helena. During the exile of Napoleon, the Royal Navy built a station on Ascension. The island is the site of an international cable station; during World War II an airfield was built there for patrol flights and as a refueling stop for transatlantic flights to Africa, southern Europe, and the Middle East. These aviation facilities figured prominently in the war between Great Britain and Argentina in the spring of 1982. The name was borne by a merchant ship of the City of London, which participated in the fight against the Spanish Armada in 1588.
(PF-74: dp. 1,430; 1. 304'0"; b. 37'6"; dr. 12'0" (mean); s. 20 k.; c 1. 120; a. 3 3", 4 40mm., 8 20mm., 2 dct., 4 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.); Tacoma; T. S2-S2-AQ1)
The unnamed frigate PF-74-originally classed as a gunboat, PG-182-was laid down on 30 April 1943 at Providence, R.I., by the Walsh-Kaiser Co., Inc., under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1656); assigned to the United Kingdom under lend lease on 10 June 1943; launched on 6 August 1943; sponsored b Mrs. A. Kirby; and transferred to the Royal Navy on 24 November 1943. First named Hargood, the ship had been renamed Ascension by the time she was accepted by the British and was assigned the "pendant number" K.502.
Following initial trials and "work up" in the waters off Casco Bay, Maine, Ascension conducted her shakedown training out of Bermuda before proceeding on to the British Isles. She reached Ardrossan, on the Firth of Clyde, at the end of March for the installation of British items of equipment. Assigned to the 5th Escort Group --- which operated from Londonderry, Ireland-
Ascension helped to escort three convoys between Londonderry and Gibraltar over the next few months and returned from the third voyage on 17 September 1944.
As ig age to the 17th Escort Group, as the senior officer's ship, Ascension operated in the northwest approaches to the Irish Sea, as well as in the western reaches of the English Channel, until hostilities with Germany ceased in the spring of 1945. On 10 November 1944, Ascension cleared Scapa Flow, in the Orkneys, with four other frigates to sweep waters between the Shetlands and Faroes and to cover the return of a convoy from Russian waters. Late in the patrol, on 25 November, a Norwegian-manned "Sunderland" flying boat picked up a radar contact 120 miles west of the Shetlands. Shortly after the ships of the 17th Group arrived to investigate, Ascension's ASDIC picked up a U-boat.
Ascension, in company with Moorsom, launched "hedgehog" attacks. Projectiles from the two ships proved lethal and sent U-322 to the bottom.
With the defeat of Hitler, Ascension and some of her sister ships were eyed for dispatch to the Far East and were to be extensively refitted to serve as "fighter direction ships," with updated radars and "Squid" antisubmarine mortars. These ships were not well suited for service in the tropics (inadequate ventilation frequently created intolerable living conditions) and the Admiralty decided to retain them in home waters. Laid up in reserve at Dartmouth, England, in mid-June, 1945, Ascension was reactivated in April 1946 for her return to the American Navy.
Departing her old wartime base at Londonderry for the last time on 17 April 1946, Ascension sailed for the United States and arrived at the New York Naval Shipyard on 17 May. Decommissioned and returned to the United States Navy on 31 May, the now-unnamed PF-74 was declared surplus on 8 October. Stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 29 October 1946, the former frigate was sold to the Hudson Valley Shipwrecking Corp., Newburgh, N.Y., on 16 October 1947. Removed from naval custody on 7 November 1947, she was broken up for scrap by December 1948.
History [ edit ]
Early history [ edit ]
Sometime before the Exodus, the Margonites attempted to Ascend under their leader, King Khimaar. Misunderstanding the nature of Ascension, they attempted to build colossal pillars to reach the Six, as did many others. Even many hundreds of years later, these towers stuck out of the ground of the Crystal Desert. Β]
During the reign of Turai Ossa, Ritual Priests Hehmnut, Kahdat and Nahtem cared for the shards of a vision crystal necessary for the trial in Elona Reach. However, mistrusting each other, they kept the shards of the vision crystal in separate camps, causing their colony to crumble due to this strife along with the battles with the Forgotten who they had attacked. Γ]
The Flameseeker Prophecies [ edit ]
In 272 AE, the dragon prophet Glint compiled the Flameseeker Prophecies that foretold a group of Chosen would rise and gain Ascension in the Crystal Desert. Many great human civilizations have traveled to the Crystal Desert to Ascend, seeking the guidance of the gods or believing that the prophesied few were among them, and almost all have failed.
Guild Wars Prophecies [ edit ]
On the advice of Vizier Khilbron, a group of Ascalonians and Shining Blade in 1072 AE were to travel to the Crystal Desert and Ascend to unlock the Gift of True Sight which would allow them to face the Mursaat. In the desert they encountered the Ghostly Hero—the spirit of Turai Ossa, still determined to reach the Hall of Heroes. Under his guidance, the heroes retraced the steps of the Elonians, seizing the Throne of Pellentia, cleansing their spirits at the Rune Circle, and reassembled the Vision Crystal.
Living World Season 2 [ edit ]
The Pact Commander relived the Trials of Ascension.
Path of Fire [ edit ]
Around 1330 AE, a group consisting of various races from all across Tyria and Elona had travelled to the Crystal Desert in search of ascending, calling themselves the Followers of Ascension. The group initally consisted of Kaidenna, their sylvari leader with a Wyld Hunt to discover the secrets of Ascension and the Forgotten, Xunn, Nyala and Dawnwynn with whom they had created the main camp for other followers. Kaidenna’s plan to reach Ascension was to activate the ancient teleporter to the Ascension room and there defeat the now-Branded Josso Essher, the guardian and protector of the place who used to test heroes during the Thirsty River Ascension trial.
Around this time, the Pact Commander arrived in the region, assisting the Followers of Ascension in their quest to Ascend. Dawnwynn noted to the Pact Commander that she believed that defeating Josso Essher would give the Followers of Ascension the ability to Ascend. She also noted that the Flameseeker Verses within Augury Rock would contain information on Ascension.
While traveling around the area assisting the Followers, Kaidenna began to enact her plan to access Augury Rock, protected by Josso Essher with a shield of Branded energy. Aided by the Commander and adventurers, she retrieved Forgotten magic from the corpse of a Branded Forgotten priest in an attempt to activate the teleporters to within Augury Rock. The group successfully activated the teleporter and faced off against Josso Essher. Despite him utilizing Branded earth elementals and summoning doppelgangers, he was slain. The catacombs beneath the Hall of Ascension soon opened up, granting access to several ghosts and additional information on Ascension.
Some time after, the Hall of Ascension was resealed, causing three of Turai's soldiers to appear and unbound magic to begin flowing out into the region. Attempting to stabilize the unbound magic, Kaidenna and her allies eventually caused the doppelganger which manifested as part of the Ascension trials to appear. Taking on the form of an ally of Kaidenna, it attacked the real form of the one it mimicked until it was slain.
Feast of the Ascension – History and Liturgy
On Thursday of the sixth week after Easter ( forty days after Easter Sunday ), the Church celebrates the Feast of the Ascension. According to the Bible, on that day the Lord commissioned His Apostles to preach the Gospel to all nations then, having blessed them, “He was lifted up before their eyes, and a cloud took him out of their sight” ( Acts 1, 9).
ORIGIN • The feast is of very ancient origin. As a mere commemoration of the event it certainly dates from apostolic times, since he Bible expressly mentions the day and its happenings. However, it seems that the Ascension was not celebrated as a separate festival in the liturgy of the Church during the first three centuries, but was included in the Feast of Pentecost.
The first one to mention it as an established and separate feast is Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia (341) At the end of the fourth century it was universally celebrated in the whole Roman Empire. Saint Augustine (430) attributed its origin to the Apostles themselves, probably because by his time it already was of such high traditional standing that it ranked with the greatest liturgical celebrations. He mentions as “solemn anniversaries” of the Lord the “Passion, Resurrection and Ascension, and the coming of the Holy Spirit.”
In the Greek Church, Saint Gregory of Nyssa (394) and Saint John Chrysostom (407) preached sermons on Ascension Day, which proves that at the end of the fourth century the feast was well established in the East, too.
From those early centuries the festival has remained a holyday of obligation up to this day.
CELEBRATION OF THE FEAST • As with the other feasts of the Lord, the early Church celebrated not so much the memory of the historical event of Christ’s ascension, but its theological significance. Saint John Chrysostom expressed it in these words: Through the mystery of the Ascension we, who seemed unworthy of God’s earth, are taken up into Heaven. . . . Our very nature, against which Cherubim guarded the gates of Paradise, is enthroned today high above all Cherubim.”
A similar thought is expressed in the words of the festive Preface in the Mass: “Christ was lifted up to Heaven to make us sharers in His divinity. ”
Perhaps the same theological aspect, in preference to the merely historical one, explains the interesting fact that in Jerusalem the earliest celebration of Ascension Day (in the fourth century) was not held on the Mount of Olives (although Saint Helena had built a splendid basilica there ), but in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, as if the end of Christ’s visible presence on earth would have to be honored in the very place of its beginning.” By the eight century, however, the Ascension feast in Jerusalem was solemnly kept on the Mount of Olives.”
PROCESSION • From the very beginning of its observance as a separate festival, the Ascension had a distinctive feature in the liturgical procession which went outside the city, and usually to the top of a hill, in imitation of Christ’s leading the Apostles “out towards Bethany” (Luke 24, 50).
In Jerusalem it was, of course, the original path that Christ took to the summit of the Mount of Olives. In Constantinople the suburb of Romanesia, where Saint John Chrysostom had preached his sermons on the Ascension, was chosen.
In Rome, the pope was crowned by the cardinals in his chapel after the morning service, and in solemn procession conducted to the church of the Lateran. From there, after the Pontifical Mass, toward noon, the procession went to a shrine or church outside the walls. The Epistle of the Ascension was read and a prayer service held.
This custom of the procession was introduced as a fairly universal rite in the Latin Church during the eighth and ninth centuries, but finally was replaced by the nonliturgical pageants of the High Middle Ages.
The only relic still extant in our present liturgy is the simple but impressive ceremony in every Catholic Church, after the Gospel of the Mass has been sung, of extinguishing the Easter candle.
In some sections of Germany and central Europe, however, semiliturgical processions are still held after the High Mass. Preceded by candles and cross, the faithful walk with prayer and song through fields and pastures, and the priest blesses each lot of ground.
ASCENSION WEEK • The Feast of the Ascension received an octave only in the fifteenth century. Before that time, the Sunday after the Ascension was called in the Roman books “Sunday of the Rose” (Dominica de Rosa).
On that Sunday the popes preached and held the solemn service at the church of Santa Maria Rotonda (the Pantheon), and, in token of the Lord’s promise that He would send the Paraclete soon, a shower of roses was thrown from the central opening of the church immediately after the pope’s sermon.
Even today, the Mass of Sunday is mainly devoted to the thought of the coming Feast of Pentecost. In the Epistle, Saint Peter describes the greatest gift of the Holy Spirit, the virtue of charity (1 Peter 4, 7-11) and, in the Gospel, Christ promises to send the Paraclete (John 15, 26-16, 4).
In the Greek Church this Sunday forms the Feast of the Three Hundred and Eighteen Holy and Godly Fathers of Nicaea. It is a solemn commemoration of the great council of 325 in which the Arian heresy was condemned and Mary’s title as “Mother of God” was unanimously confirmed.
Some hermits and ascetics in the early centuries claimed (against the general practice of the Church) that from Ascension Day on they could and should return to their penitential exercises and fasts, because Christ was with the Apostles for only forty days.
Thus the Octave of the Ascension was turned by them into a period of fasting and penance. The Council of Elvira (about 303) condemned this claim and insisted on the universal practice of keeping the time of joy (without fast and penance) up to Pentecost.
NAMES • All Christian nations have accepted the liturgical term of “Ascension” for the feast (Ascensio in Latin, Analepsis in Greek). The German word Himmelfahrt has the same meaning (Going up to Heaven). The Hungarians have a popular term, “Thursday of the Communicants” (Aldozo esiitortok), because in past centuries Ascension was the last day for receiving the annual Easter Communion in that country.
A second liturgical title is used in the Byzantine Church: “Fulfilled Salvation” (Episozomene in Greek, Spasovo in Slavonic). This term signifies what Saint Gregory of Nyssa expressed in one of his sermons: “The Ascension of Christ is the consummation and fulfillment of all other feasts and the happy conclusion of the earthly sojourn of Jesus Christ.”
FOLKLORE ASCENSION PLAYS • During the tenth century some dramatic details were added to the liturgical procession on Ascension Day in the countries of central and western Europe.
In Germany it became a custom for priests to lift a cross aloft when the words Assumptus est in coelum (He was taken up into Heaven) were sung at the Gospe1.
From the eleventh century on, the procession was gradually dropped in most countries and in its place a pageant was performed in church. These “Ascension plays” have never been accorded official approval or liturgical status by the Roman authorities.
By the thirteenth century it had become a fairly general custom to enact the Ascension by hoisting a statue of the Risen Christ aloft until it disappeared through an opening in the ceiling of the church.
While the image, suspended on a rope, moved slowly upward, the people rose in their pews and stretched out their arms toward the figure of the Savior, acclaiming the Lord in prayer or by hymn singing. Hundreds of reports in old books from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries contain vivid descriptions of this ancient custom.
One of the most charming examples is the Ascension play of the Bavarian monastery in Moosburg, recorded by the priest and poet Johann von Berghausen (1362).
In the center of the church, directly underneath an opening in the ceiling, a platform decorated with colored cloths and flowers was erected. On this platform stood a little tent, open at the top, which represented the Mount of Olivet. Inside the tent was placed a statue of the Risen Christ, holding high the banner of victory.
A strong rope that hung down from the ceiling was fastened to a ring on top of the wooden image. After Vespers (in the afternoon), a solemn procession moved from the sacristy to the platform. It was led by two boys in white dresses. They impersonated angels on their shoulders they wore wings and on their heads little wreaths of flowers.
They were followed by a young cleric who represented the Blessed Virgin, “dressed in the robes of holy and honorable widowhood.” To his right and left walked clerics enacting Saint Peter and Saint John.
Behind them came ten other clerics in Oriental gowns they were barefoot, and on their foreheads they carried diadems inscribed with the names of the Apostles. The altar boys and priests, vested in festive garb, concluded the group.
In front of the platform, the deacon sang the Gospel of Ascension Day, and the choir intoned the antiphon, “I ascend to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God” (John 20, 17).
The priests then venerated the image of Christ with inclinations and incense. Finally, while the choir sang Ascendit Deus in altum, alleluia (God rose on high), the statue was slowly pulled aloft.
As it rose higher and higher, a few figures of angels holding burning candles came down from “Heaven” to meet the Lord and to accompany him on his journey.
From a large metal ring that was suspended below the opening, there hung cloths of silk representing clouds. Between these “clouds” the image of the Savior slowly and solemnly disappeared. A few moments later, a shower of roses, lilies, and other flowers dropped from the opening then followed wafers in the shape of large hosts.
The schoolchildren were allowed to collect these flowers and wafers, to take them home as cherished souvenirs.
Father Berghausen explains this custom as follows: “The little ones collect the flowers which symbolize the various gifts of the Holy Spirit. The wafers indicate the presence of Christ in His Eucharistic Body, which remains with us, under the species of bread, to the end of time.”
While the congregation stood with eyes raised to the ceiling, the two “angels” intoned the final message of Ascension Day, which predicts the triumphant coming of the Lord on the clouds of Heaven, for the great judgment at the end of the world: “Why do you stand looking up to heaven? This Jesus, who has been taken up from you into heaven, shall come in the same way as you have seen him going up to heaven” (Acts 1, 11). The celebration was concluded with solemn Benediction.
OTHER CUSTOMS • It was a widespread custom in many parts of Europe during the Middle Ages to eat a bird on Ascension Day, because Christ “flew” to Heaven. Pigeons, pheasants, partridges, and even crows, graced the dinner tables.
In western Germany bakers and innkeepers gave their customers pieces of pastry made in the shapes of various birds. In England the feast was celebrated with games, dancing, and horse races.
In central Europe, Ascension Day is a traditional day of mountain climbing and picnics on hilltops and high places.
It is difficult for a child to be better than his home environment or for a nation to be superior to the level of its home life. -Fr. Lovasik, The Catholic Family Handbook
Painting by Mark Keathley
What is the typology of the Ascension for us? What is the significance of it and the events leading up to it?
“Why do you stand there looking up toward heaven?” He hasn’t left us. Sermon on the feast of the Ascension with quotes by St Augustine….
Blessed Mother Graceful Religious Pendant Sets….Wire-Wrapped, Handcrafted
This graceful necklace can be worn every day as a reminder of your devotion to the Blessed Mother. Get it blessed and you can use it also as a sacramental.
A wonderful book showing how the angels have visited people innumerable times in the past, how they do so today, and would do even more if we asked them. Also, how they prevent accidents, comfort us, help us, and protect us from the devils. Contains many beautiful stories about St. Michael, St. Raphael and St. Gabriel plus, angel stories from St. Gemma Galgani, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. John Bosco, etc.
A very optimistic book showing how an “ordinary” Catholic can become a great saint without ever doing anything “extraordinary”–just by using the many opportunities for holiness that to most people lie hidden in each day. Written with an assurance of success that is totally convincing and infectious. Many easy but infallible means of reaching great sanctity.
Ascension PF-74 - History
The Jeep® Brand's 4x4 leadership continues in the 70's with the introduction of the first full-time 4x4 system. The sporty two-door full-size Cherokee (SJ) sweeps the 4x4 of the Year awards. Six models help elevate sales to all-time highs.
THE AMC YEARS
In 1969, Kaiser Jeep started a “Jeep® Great Escape” advertising campaign showing the variety of recreational uses of Jeep vehicles. Kaiser Jeep sold the company to American Motors (AMC) in 1970 for approximately $75 million. Four-wheel-drive vehicles were becoming very popular – by 1978, AMC was producing 600 vehicles a day. In 1972, the Quadra-Trac ® 4x4 System was introduced, the first automatic full-time four-wheel-drive system. In 1976, the Jeep Brand introduced the CJ-7.
DARING ADVENTURES BEGIN HERE
DISPATCHER JEEP® (DJ)
JEEP® J-10 PICKUP
JEEP® J-20 PICKUP
JEEP® CJ-5 UNIVERSAL
JEEP® CJ-5 RENEGADE
JEEP® CHEROKEE (SJ)
JEEP® CHEROKEE CHIEF (SJ)
JEEP® GOLDEN EAGLE PKG
JEEP® WAGONEER (SJ)
1970-1984 DISPATCHER JEEP® (DJ)
WALK-IN DELIVERY VAN
The Dispatcher Jeep® (DJ) was a two-wheel version of the popular CJ series. The vehicle resembled the CJ, but was different in many ways it was completely enclosed, rear wheel drive only, included sliding doors, and included a swinging rear door.
1974-1987 JEEP® J-10 PICKUP
HONCHO MEANS “BOSS”
In 1971, the Jeep® Trucks dropped the Gladiator name. Later offerings were called J-10 (119-inch) or J-20 (131-inch). Improvements included front disc brakes, a new front axle, six-stud wheels and heavier frame cross members. The J-10 J-Series pickup truck line included the Honcho, Golden Eagle and 10-4 trim packages.
All trucks shared the same body design as the Jeep® Wagoneer and Cherokee from the cab forward, and were offered with traditional slab-sided or step-side bodies. The 10-4 trim package was produced from 1974-1983. The1978 package consisting mostly of color choices and detailing, the 10-4 package also offered an optional, factory-installed CB radio.
In 1976, the popular Honcho model appeared and added $699 over a standard custom level J-10 shortbed. It was the truck equivalent of the wide-track Cherokee Chief and included two versions: the step-bed Sportside and the Townside.
The Honcho included gold striping on the bedside, fenders and tailgate, wide 8x15-inch spoker wheels and off-road tires, Levi’s denim interior, and sport steering wheel. The Laredo package replaced the Honcho in 1983. Produced in 1977-1983, the 1977 Golden Eagle package included a grille guard, driving lamps, pick-up bed roll bar, eight-inch wheels, Levi’s seats, accent stripes and an eagle hood decal–all for a $749 premium.
1974-1987 JEEP® J-20 PICKUP
NEW AND IMPROVED JEEP® BRAND PICKUP TRUCK
In 1974, the Jeep® Trucks changed names to either the J-10 (119-inch) or J-20 (131-inch) models. Improvements included front disc brakes, a new front axle, six-stud wheels and heavier frame cross members.
J-20/J-30 pickups- the J-30 were the higher GVW (gross vehicle weight) rated trucks in the lineup, ranging in capacity from “heavy” half-ton to over one-ton capacity and even dual rear wheel configuration.
1955-1983 JEEP® CJ-5 UNIVERSAL
NEW AND IMPROVED JEEP® PICKUP TRUCK
Beginning in 1973, all Jeep CJs came equipped with AMC-built 304- or 360-cubic-inch V8 engines. Renegade models typically featured a 304 cubic inch (5L) V8 engine, stouter drivetrain, alloy wheels, and a Trac-Lok® limited slip rear differential.
Many special editions were offered, including the 1964-1967 “luxury” Tuxedo Park, the 1969 Camper, the 1969 “462”, the 1970 Renegade I, the 1971 Renegade II, the 1972-1983 Golden Eagle, and 1973 and 1976 Super Jeep®. A two-wheel drive version DJ-5 was offered through 1974.
A popular and enduring legend, the CJ-5 has probably logged more trail miles than any other Jeep® Brand vehicle. Spanning thirty years, the CJ-5 had the longest production run of any Jeep vehicle.
The CJ-5 / camper was marketed as a new camping concept. It featured a unique industry-first detaching system that made removal of the camper a simple operation.
1972-1983 JEEP® CJ-5 RENEGADE
SPECIAL EDITION 4X4S
Renegade models typically featured a 304-cubic inch (5L) V8 engine, stouter drivetrain, alloy wheels, and a Trac-Lok® limited slip rear differential. For 1976 AMC reintroduced the Super Jeep® (also offered in 1973). This unique CJ-5 featured special striping on the hood and seats, chrome front bumper, roll bar, 258 OHV inline six, black rubber lip extensions on the fenders, and oversize Polyglas white-walled tires.
A special run of 600 Jeep® Renegade II models with 200 each painted Baja Yellow, Mint Green, and Riverside Orange were produced in 1971. Also, 150 were finished in Big Bad Orange early in the run (not shown).
1975-1983 JEEP® CHEROKEE (SJ)
FULL-SIZE JEEP® BRAND 4x4
The new Cherokee was a sporty, two-door version of the Wagoneer and featured bucket seats, a sports steering wheel, and racy detailing designed to appeal to younger, more adventurous drivers.
In February 1974, the Jeep® Cherokee was the 1st vehicle to win Four Wheeler magazine’s Achievement Awardthat we know today as the Four Wheeler of the Year award.
In 1975, the Cherokee was offered in two body styles: the Cherokee wide-track with three-inch wider axles and fender flares, and the Cherokee with normal size axles and no fender flares. A four-door version of the Cherokee was available by 1977.
Besides the base Cherokee, options packages offered over its nine-year run included the Cherokee S, Cherokee Chief, Laredo, and Golden Eagle.
1975-1978 JEEP® CHEROKEE CHIEF (SJ)
AMC brought back the two-door Wagoneer as the youth-oriented Cherokee.
The new Jeep® Cherokee was a sporty, two-door version of the Wagoneer and featured bucket seats, a sports steering wheel, and racy detailing designed to appeal to younger, more adventurous drivers.
In February 1974, the Jeep® Cherokee was the 1st vehicle to win Four Wheeler magazine’s Achievement Awardthat we know today as the Four Wheeler of the Year award.
In January of 1975, the Cherokee Chief was introduced. The Wide-Track option was available with key upgraded interior and exterior features: exterior stripes, larger wheels, three-inch-wider axles, larger front and rear wheel cutouts, Dana 44 front and rear axles, and a nicer interior. The package retailed for $349 more than the “S” model.
Besides the base Cherokee, options packages offered over Cherokee’s nine-year run included the Cherokee S, Cherokee Chief, Laredo, and Golden Eagle.
1976-1986 JEEP® CJ-7
THE LEGEND CONTINUES
In 1976, AMC introduced the CJ-7, the seventh generation of the original vehicle and the first major change in Jeep® Brand design in 20 years.
The CJ-7 had a slightly longer wheelbase than the CJ-5 in order to allow space for an automatic transmission. The CJ-7 featured squared-off door openings vs. the CJ-5’s rounded door openings. A quick way to distinguish the two apart.
In 1978, Mark Smith, who is widely known as the father of modern four-wheeling, took a group of 13 modern explorers from Tierra del Fuego, Chile to Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in their Jeep® CJ-7 4x4s. The 21,000-mile trip took 122 days to complete and included a remarkable crossing through the Darien Gap, a stretch of hostile jungle that had only once before been crossed by the British military in 100 days with the loss of eight men. Smith and his men crossed the Darian Gap in 30 days and lost no one.
For the first time, the CJ-7 offered an optional molded plastic top and steel doors. Both the 93.5-inch wheelbase CJ-7 and 83.5-inch wheelbase CJ-5 models were built until 1983 when demand for the CJ-7 left AMC no choice but to discontinue the CJ-5, after a 30-year production run.
1970s JEEP® GOLDEN EAGLE PKG
TAKE FLIGHT IN A SPECIAL EDITION PACKAGE
The Golden Eagle option package was a $200 premium above the Renegade package. It originally included an eagle decal on the hood, larger tires, Levi’s Soft Top, rear-mounted spare, wheel lip extensions, spare tire lock, Convenience group, Décor group, tachometer carpeting and clock.
Rest In Power: Notable Black Folks We Lost In 2020
W hile death is inevitably a part of life, that truth doesn’t make it any easier to say goodbye to those who have died.
They include a wide range of iconic and pioneering individuals who left indelible marks on the world through their respective careers, such as basketball star Kobe Bryant, Congressman John Lewis, mathematician Katherine Johnson actor Chadwick Boseman, rapper Pop Smoke, civil rights legend Rev. C.T. Vivian and entertainment mogul Andre Harrell.
But there were also a number of notable Black folks who died this year and may not have enjoyed the same household-name status as the aforementioned but are still very deserving of being remembered for their contributions to the world, whether good or bad.
Case and point: 2020 began tragically with the drug overdose death of Nick Gordon, who was most famous for his relationship with Bobby Brown and Whitney Houston’s daughter Bobbi Kristina Brown. He was only 30.
And now the year has ended with the death of Adolfo Quiñones, the hip-hop dancing pioneer better known as Shabba Doo, who died at the age of 65. His fellow choreographer Toni Basil tweeted the unfortunate news on Dec. 30.
But it was only announced on Dec. 31 that legendary veteran rapper MF DOOM died earlier in the year. His wife eulogized him Thursday with a touching tribute on his still-active Instagram account. The masked rapper formerly known as Zev Love X from the 1990s rap group KMD was 49 years old when he died. His cause of death was not reported. Scroll down to learn more about MF DOOM’s death.
The announcement about MF DOOM followed the news that Joe Clark, the no-nonsense principal of a high school in New Jersey who gained notoriety for his bare-knuckles approach to education and was immortalized on the big screen in the Hollywood production, “Lean on Me,” died Dec. 29 at the age of 82 following a long battle with an undisclosed illness.
Charley Pride, who broke racial barriers on his way to becoming a pioneering Black country music singer, died Dec. 12 at the age of 86. The cause of his death was reported as complications from Covid-19.
Actor Tommy “Tiny” Lister died Dec. 10 at the age of 62. Lister was most famously known for his notable role as “Deebo” in “Friday,” where he re-imagined the trope of the neighborhood bully in modern comedies.
Bruce Boynton, an important but often forgotten figure of the civil rights movement died from cancer on Nov. 23 at the age of 83. While enrolled at Howard University during his final year of law school Boynton was arrested in Richmond, Virginia after he refused to exit a “whites-only” section of a bus station restaurant. Boynton, along with his then-attorney, Thurgood Marshall, would go on to spark a series of events that eventually overturned the Jim Crow laws across the country and inspired the Freedom Riders movement.
“There is a sadness. His was a tremendous life well lived. We’re happy he’s no longer in pain but I’m also amazed at his fight and his strength and that he continued to fight and write even after the initial diagnosis of cancer,” his daughter Carver Boynton told AL.com.
David Dinkins made history in 1989 when he was elected the first Black mayor of New York City, beating out running mate Rudy Giuliani. The beloved and respected politician died Nov. 23, at the age of 93, just one month after the death of his wife Joyce. Dinkins’ pivotal election marked the first and last time a Black person held the highest local office in the Big Apple.
Bishop Harry Jackson, an evangelical pastor who advised Donald Trump as a candidate and president, died Nov. 9. His cause of death was not immediately reported and it was unclear what his age was. The Washington Post described the senior pastor at Hope Christian Church in Beltsville, Maryland, in part as “a rare Trump supporter in the majority black, Democratic stronghold of Prince George’s County.”
Jackson joined Trump in April to deliver an Easter blessing that was heavily focused on the coronavirus pandemic. He thanked Trump for his “insightful leadership” before going on to pray for “a mitigation of this plague, this disease. Let medical science come forth.” He closed his prayer by asking God to “give this great man, our President, and give the Vice President wisdom beyond their natural limitations. Give them insights so they can cover us, lead us, and bless us.”
Prior to that, the sports world suffered back-to-back blows when baseball icon Lou Brock died on Sept. 6 just about a week after college basketball coaching legend John Thompson‘s death. Brock was 81 years old. ESPN reminded readers that “Brock retired in 1979 as the single-season and all-time leader in stolen bases” and “was elected into the Hall of Fame in 1985.”
Thompson died Aug. 31 at the age of 78. He first started coaching high school before Georgetown University hired him in 1972, ultimately going on to become the first Black head coach to win an NCAA championship when Georgetown beat the University of Houston in 1985. Read more about his life here.
Days earlier, actor Chadwick Boseman died after a years-long battle with colon cancer. He died on Aug. 28 at the age of 43.
Former Republican presidential candidate Herman Cain has died following a brief battle with the coronavirus. He died on July 30 at the age of 74. Cain, who was also the former chair of the Kansas City Federal Reserve as well as the one-time chief executive of the Godfather’s Pizza chain, was a loyal supporter of President Donald Trump. He may have contracted the coronavirus after attending a heavily attended rally for Trump without wearing a mask.
Source: NICHOLAS KAMM / Getty
Cain’s death occurred on the same day that Georgia Rep. John Lewis, the iconic civil rights pioneer who went on to become one of the most powerful men in Congress, was being buried in Atlanta. Lewis died on July 17 at the age of 80 following a battle with Stage IV pancreatic cancer that he announced late last year. You can read more about his legendary life by clicking here.
Jas Waters, a television writer also known as “JasFly” who penned scripts for hit shows like “This Is Us,” has died, according to reports. She was just 39 years old. Waters’ death was confirmed by the verified Twitter account for “This Is Us,” which tweeted on June 10 that “The entire # ThisIsUs family was devastated to learn of Jas Waters passing. In our time together, Jas left her mark on us and ALL over the show. She was a brilliant storyteller and a force of nature. We send our deepest sympathies to her loved ones. She was one of us. RIP.”
Waters’ cause of death was not announced.
Betty Wright, the award-winning R&B soul singer whose signature song went on to become a sampling standard in hip-hop music, died May 9. She was 66 years old. Wright, whose cause of death was not immediately reported, had a career that spanned decades and evolved from its gospel roots to rhythm and blues to pop, the latter of which won her a pair of Grammy Awards.
As Bossip noted, Wright’s hit song from 1971, “Clean Up Woman,” has been sampled in music by contemporary artists ranging from Mary J Blige to Beyonce and still stands the test of time as a classic song in its own right.
Wright’s death came after several other celebrated members of the Black music community also recently died. Legendary rock n’ roll pioneer Little Richard died May 9 at the age of 87. The reports of his death followed that of iconic hip-hop executive Andre Harrell, who discovered Sean “Diddy” Combs. Harrell was 59 and died May 8.
Katherine Johnson, the pioneering “Hidden Figures” NASA mathematician, died Feb. 24 at 101 years old. “She was an American hero and her pioneering legacy will never be forgotten,” NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine wrote in a tweet when announcing her death.
B. Smith , the restaurateur, lifestyle maven and esteemed businesswoman, died in February, according to her husband, Dan Gasby, who announced the news of his wife’s passing in a Facebook post. “It is with great sadness that my daughter Dana and I announce the passing of my wife, Barbara Elaine Smith,” he wrote. “B. died peacefully Saturday, February 22, 2020, at 10:50 pm, of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease in our home in Long Island, New York. She was 70.”
Actress Ja’Net DuBois, who played the role of Willona Woods on “Good Times,” died Feb. 18 at the age of 74. DuBois reportedly unexpectedly died in her sleep while at her Glendale, California home.
Scroll down and join us as we commemorate some more notable Black folks who died in 2020 and pay homage to their contributions in life that will live on well after their deaths.
1. MF DOOM, rapper, 49
Rapper MF DOOM, born Daniel Dumile, died Oct. 31. His death was announced by his wife on Dec. 31. He was 49 years old.
“MF Doom first came to fame in the early 90’s, then going by Zev Love X, as part of rap group KMD, which also featured his later brother Subroc, who passed away in 1993. Mourning his younger brother’s passing, he would retreat from the scene, but return around 1997 with his face obscured, now going by MF DOOM.
“Dumile would use a number of monikers throughout his career including King Geedorah, Metal Fingers and Viktor Vaughn. But it may be Madvillain, with producer Madlib, and their 2004 project Madvillainy that certified him as a creative for, which real Hip-Hop heads had recognized for years.”
2. Adolfo “Shabba Doo” Quiñones, dancer, 65
Adolfo “Shabba Doo” Quiñones, a hip-hop dance pioneer who influenced several generations, has reportedly died at the age of 65. One of Quiñones’ friends and fellow choreographer, Toni Basil, tweeted the news on Dec. 30 and described his death as being “unexpected.”
3. Joe Clark, 82
Known for using extreme methods of communication in his prized Eastside High School in Paterson, New Jersey, Joe Clark would routinely roam the hallways brandishing a bullhorn or baseball bat in an effort to both discipline and sow the seeds of learning into his student body — one that went from being ridden with truancy, drugs and crime to a group of straitlaced overachievers in the classroom.
Read more about his life here.
Pictured: Eastside High School Principal Joe Clark poses for a photo in his office in February of 1988 in Paterson, New Jersey.
4. Ty Jordan, 19
Ty Jordan, a star freshman running back for the University of Utah’s football team, died after shooting himself on Christmas Day. He was just 19 years old.
The Associated Press reported that Jordan “accidentally shot himself in the hip.” However, it was not clear how or why he shot himself.
Days before he died, Jordan was named the Pac-12 Freshman of the Year.
5. John “Ecstasy” Fletcher, 56
John Fletcher, the rapper better known as “Ecstasy” from the hip-hop group Whodini, has reportedly died. His cause of death is unknown. Whodini helped forge rap into the mainstream in the 80’s and were known as pioneers in the formation of the New Jack Swing sound. Fletcher’s death was announced by The Roots’ Questlove on Instagram.
6. Alfred Thomas Farrar, 99
Alfred Thomas Farrar, a former Tuskegee Airman died Dec. 17. He was 99. Farrar left his home in Lynchburg, Virginia, to join the service after high school and began training in 1941. After leaving the military in 1943, he studied to be an aerospace engineer and worked as an engineer with the Federal Aviation Administration for 40 years. He will be honored at a “troop rally” on Christmas and several planes are scheduled to fly over his memorial service scheduled on his birthday, Dec. 26.
7. Arnie Robinson, 72
Olympic gold medalist Arnie Robinson Jr., died at home on Dec. 2 in San Diego, according to The New York Times. He was 72. His son confirmed with the outlet that his death was the result of the coronavirus. He was described as “one of the greatest long jumpers in history.”
8. Rev. James L. Netters, 93
The news of civil rights activists and noted Memphis pastor James L. Netters was shared on Dec. 13. Netters was one of the activists who helped lead the sanitation workers strike with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., as well as sit-ins, marches and protests. His cause of death was not immediately known. Netters was 93 years old and served for over 60 years as the pastor of Mount Vernon Baptist Church.
9. Carol Sutton, actress, 76
Actress Carol Sutton, whose performances in the TV series “Queen Sugar” and the movie “Steel Magnolias” earned her high praise, has died. Sutton was 76 years old. Her cause of death on Dec. 10 was reported as Covid-19.
New Orleans Mayor LaToya Cantrell remembered Sutton as “the Queen of New Orleans theater” in a moving statement issued Dec. 13, when the death was officially announced.
10. Marcus Garvey Jr., 90
Marcus Garvey Jr., the namesake son of the famed pan-Africanist who started the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the Back To Africa movement, has died. He was 90 years old.
“The departure of Marcus Jr., whom I had been married to for over 30 years, will leave a void that cannot be filled, and he will be greatly missed by numerous family, friends, and colleagues from all over the world, in many places where he had left indelible footprints,” his widow, Jean Garvey, said in a statement.
11. Charley Pride, pioneering country music singer, 86
Charley Pride went from growing up picking cotton in Mississippi to playing professional baseball in the Negro League to getting drafted in the Army to going back to baseball to finally signing a recording contract in Nashville on his way to becoming the first major country music star who is Black. It was a remarkable rise to fame that ended Dec. 12 after he succumbed to the deadly coronavirus. Pride was 86 years old.
Pride’s signature hit song, “Kiss an Angel Good Mornin,'” released in 1971, officially secured his place among the country music greats and helped him earn the title of the Country Music Association’s entertainer of the year.
Despite being exposed to racism — or, perhaps, because of it — throughout the early part of his career when he was trying to get signed, Pride never sang what the Washington Post described as songs that were “controversial.” Instead, Pride gravitated toward music that he intended to unite listeners.
“I was a novelty, but I never allowed myself to feel out of place. Unless someone else brought it up — that I was different — I tried not to think about it much,” he wrote in his autobiography, “Pride,” published in 1994.
Pride is survived by his wife, three children, five grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.
12. Tommy “Tiny” Lister, actor, 62
“Friday” actor Tommy Lister was pronounced dead after police were called to his California home with reports of an unconscious male. Known for his large size and deep voice, Lister, 62, also used his physicality to his advantage to bring a comedic element to the role of “Deebo.” Lister went on to star in other culture classics like “The Fifth Element,” “The Dark Knight” and voiced the character Finnick in “Zootopia.”
Aside from acting Lister also was a professional wrestler and starred alongside Hulk Hogan in the 1989 film, “No Holds Barred.
13. Natalie Desselle-Reid, actress, 53
Natalie Desselle-Reid, 53, died on Nov. 7 after a private battle with cancer, according to TMZ. The beloved actress starred in a variety of Black films and television shows including “How To Be A Player,” “Eve,” and “Madea’s Big Happy Family.”
But it was her role as “Mickey” in “B.A.P.S.,” that made her a Black cultural icon.
14. Bruce Boynton, 83
Bruce Carver Boynton, a respected civil rights activist and Alabama-based lawyer, died of cancer on Nov. 23 at the age of 83. In 1958 while he was a law student at Howard University, Boynton stopped in bus stop restaurant in Richmond, Virginia, where refused to exit a “whites-only” area after attempting to purchase a sandwich.
Boynton hired Thurgood Marshall as his attorney, who would later go on to be the first Black Supreme Court Justice in U.S. history. In Boynton v. Virginia, the Supreme Court ruled against them, inciting a series of “Freedom Rides” across the Jim Crow south. The movement garnered national attention which was used as a foundation for civil rights leaders to help pass the Civil Rights Act of 1965.
Boynton comes from a strong line of civil rights leaders. One being his mother Amelia Boynton, who invited Martin Luther King Jr. to Selma, Alabama, later sustaining injuries from the Bloody Sunday March in 1965 and co-founding the National Voting Rights Museum and annual Bridge Crossing Jubilee in Selma.
15. David Dinkins, 93
David Dinkins, a respected and beloved political leader in New York City died of natural causes on Nov. 23 at the age of 93. In 1989 Dinkins made history when he was elected the city’s first Black mayor after securing victory against Republican challenger Rudy Giuliani. His ascension in New York City’s politics began in the New York State Assembly, where he was eventually elected Manhattan borough president in 1985.
Prior to a life in politics, Dinkins studied at Howard University where he graduated with a degree in mathematics, and later obtained his law degree from Brooklyn Law School. He became part of an influential group of Black politicians including Denny Farrell, Percy Sutton, Basil Paterson, and Charles Rangel the later three along with Dinkins dubbing themselves the “Gang of Four.”
Saddled with an ever-changing economic landscape, Dinkins was able to make vast improvements to the city’s bottom line, decreasing crime over his last three years in office. However, Giuliani waged a long-scale battle against Dinkins who eventually lost his seat to his GOP opponent in the 1993 mayoral race.
Dinkins died just one month after his wife Joyce in October. You can read more about Dinkins’ legacy here.
16. Bobby Brown Jr., 28
Tragedy has hit Bobby Brown‘s family once again after the singer’s second-oldest son has died.
Bobby Brown Jr., a budding singer himself, was found dead in his Los Angeles home on Nov. 18. He was just 28 years old. No cause of death has been announced and officials said there was n reason to suspect foul play was involved.
17. Ben Watkins, “Masterchef Junior” contestant, 14
Ben Watkins, who captured America’s heart as a contestant on “Masterchef Junior,” a reality-based cooking contest TV show, died Nov. 16. He was just 14 years old.
Watkins suffered from a rare form of cancer called Angiomatoid Fibrous Histiocytoma that results in soft tissue tumors. He was diagnosed last year.
His family released a statement on their GoFundMe page raising money for Watkins’ funeral and memorial and noted that his parents were killed in a domestic violence dispute a few years ago.
“After losing both his parents in September 2017, we have marveled at Ben’s strength, courage and love for life. He never, ever complained. Ben was and will always be the strongest person we know,” the statement said in part before continuing later:
“When Ben’s rare illness was shared with the world, he was so heartened by the outpouring of love he received from every corner of the globe — especially here in his hometown of Gary, Indiana. We cannot thank this community enough for holding out family up in prayer and for all that you’ve done.
“Ben suffered more than his share in his fourteen years on this Earth but we take solace in that his suffering is finally over and in that, in the end, Ben knew he was loved by so many.”
18. Drew Days III, pioneering legal scholar, 79
Drew Days III, a legal scholar who broke barriers during his career as a lawyer and college professor over the course of more than four decades, died Nov. 15. He was 79 years old.
The Alfred M. Rankin Professor of Law at Yale Law School was the first Black assistant attorney general for civil rights under President Jimmy Carter’s administration and later served as the first Black U.S. solicitor general, serving under President Bill Clinton.
Days began working at Yale in 1981 and remained on staff until his death.
19. Lucille Bridges, mother of activist Ruby Bridges, 86
Lucille Bridges, the mother of Ruby Bridges, who first made headlines as a Black first-grade student following court-ordered integration in 1960 New Orleans before going on to become a civil rights activist, died Nov. 10. She was 86 years old.
Ruby Bridges eulogized her mother in an Instagram post:
“Today our country lost a hero. Brave, progressive, a champion for change. She helped alter the course of so many lives by setting me out on my path as a six year old little girl. Our nation lost a Mother of the Civil Rights Movement today. And I lost my mom. I love you and am grateful for you. May you Rest In Peace.”
20. Bishop Harry Jackson, pastor who advised Trump
Bishop Harry Jackson, a senior pastor at Hope Christian Church in Beltsville, Maryland, died Nov. 9. His cause of death was not immediately reported but it cannot be overlooked that he had recently attended an event at the White House that resulted in multiple people contracting the coronavirus.
According to his bio on Hope Christian Church’s website, Jackson was “a leading researcher on the black church” and co-author of “High Impact African American Churches,” a book nominated in 2005 by the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association’s Gold Medallion award.
21. Johnny Nash, chart-topping singer, 80
Johnny Nash, whose smash hit song, “I Can See Clearly Now,” went on to become a worldwide anthem, died from natural causes Oct. 6 at the age of 80.
The Associated Press reported that the 1972 song was “written by Nash while recovering from cataract surgery.” The song was performed by everybody from Ray Charles to Jimmy Cliff.
His relationship with Bob Marley was well documented.
“Nash brought Marley to London in the early 1970s when Nash was the bigger star internationally and with Marley gave an impromptu concert at a local boys school. Nash’s covers of ‘Stir It Up’ and ‘Guava Jelly’ helped expose Marley’s writing to a general audience. The two also collaborated on the ballad ‘You Poured Sugar On Me,’ which appeared on the ‘I Can See Clearly Now’ album,” the AP wrote in its obituary.
22. Gale Sayers, former Chicago Bears star and football legend, 77
Legendary NFL running back Gale Sayers has died at the age of 77 after battling dementia since being diagnosed in 2013. He played for the Chicago Bears from 1965-71 after setting records at the University of Kansas and earning the nickname, the “Kansas Comet.”
In September 2013, Sayers sued the NFL, claiming the league negligently handled his repeated head injuries during his career. The case was withdrawn after Sayers claimed it was filed without his permission, but he filed a new lawsuit in January 2014 along with six other former players.
23. Pamela Hutchinson, singer, 61
Pamela Hutchinson, a singer in the R&B trio The Emotions, died on Sept.18 at the age of 61. TV One reported that she died following “health challenges she’d been battling for several years.”
Read more about Pamela Hutchinson’s life by clicking here.
Picturd: The Emotions, from left: Pamela Hutchinson, Wanda Hutchinson and Sheila Hutchinson.
24. Steve Carter, playwright, 90
“Steve Carter, an award-winning playwright who explored the African-American and Caribbean-American experiences with incisiveness, humor and a willingness to wrestle with difficult themes, including hatred, revenge and forgiveness, died on Tuesday in Tomball, Texas. He was 90.”
25. Roy Hammond, singer, 81
“Roy Hammond, a soul singer, songwriter and producer with an impressive catalog in the 1960s and ’70s who produced a song that became one of hip-hop’s foundational samples, died on Wednesday at his home in Allendale, S.C. He was 81.”
26. Toots Hibbert, reggae singer, 77
Toots Hibbert, a reggae icon who was the lead singer of the Maytals, died Sept. 11 in Jamaica following hospitalization with symptoms consistent with the coronavirus. However, there was no cause of death immediately reported.
Hibbert’s family made the announcement Sept. 11 on the Facebook page for Toots & the Maytals:
“It is with the heaviest of hearts to announce that Frederick Nathaniel “Toots” Hibbert passed away peacefully tonight, surrounded by his family at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica.
Ascension PF-74 - History
History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications
from the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network
Cableships Iris (3) and Monarch (5)
by Bill Glover
CS IRIS (3) and CS MONARCH (5)
Keel laid 1973 by Robb Caledon Shipbuilders Ltd.
Sister ships, built to the same design. Commissioned: CS Monarch 1975, CS Iris 1976.
Length 97.245m. Breadth 15.029m. Depth 5.5m Gross tonnage 3873
Both ships were built for the Post Office Corporation (formerly the GPO) for cable repair work around the British Isles and as far as Cape St Vincent, the Atlantic continental shelf and the Skaggerak and were based at Southampton.
In 1982 CS Iris saw active service in the Falklands during the war with Argentina (see below).
The ships were transferred to BT International in 1983, when the POC telecommunications service was privatised. Later the name was changed to BT (Marine) Ltd. In 1994 both ships were sold to Midland Montague Leasing and chartered to Cable & Wireless (Marine) Ltd. When the Cable & Wireless fleet was sold to Global Marine Systems Ltd in 1999 the charter was taken over and their base was moved to Portland Harbour, Dorset.
CS Monarch (5) as launched (1975)
CS Iris (3) as launched (1976)
Lower two photographs © 2006 T. F. Watson, UK
Commemorative plaque for CS Iris (3)
Image courtesy of Mark Bridger
CS IRIS (3) IN THE FALKLANDS WAR
After being fitted with a larger helicopter deck, CS Iris left Devonport for Ascension to transport stores from there to the Falkland Islands. During seven months of active service CS Iris steamed over 45,000 miles and was involved in over 800 helicopter operations in a period of 74 days.
CS Iris (3) arriving back at Southampton on the 30th November 1982
A short film on this voyage, &ldquoCS Iris to the Falklands and Back&rdquo, was released in 1983. The film was produced on videotape by the British Telecom photographic unit and narrated by Jim Hodgson, managing director of BT International at the time. It can be viewed on line at the BT Archives.
Last revised: 12 February, 2016
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Patrol frigate file
USS Tacoma PF-3 -- USS Sausalito PF-4 -- USS Hoquiam PF-5 -- USS Pasco-PF-6 -- USS Albuquerque PF-7
USS Everett PF-8 -- USS Pocatello PF-( -- USS Brownsville PF-10 -- USS Grand Forks PF-11 -- USS Casper PF-12
USS Pueblo PF13 -- USS Grand Island PF-14 -- USS Annapolis PF-15 -- USS Bangor PF-16 -- USS Key West PF-17
USS Alexandria PF-18 -- USS Huron PF-19 --USS Gulfport PF-20 -- USS Bayonne PF-21 -- USS Gloucester PF-22
USS Shreveport PF-23 -- USS Muskegon PF-24 -- USS Charlotteville PF-25 -- USS Poughkeepsie PF-26
USS Newport PF-27 -- USS Emporia PF-28 -- USS Groton PF-29 -- USS Hingham PF-30 -- USS Grand Rapids PF-31
USS Woonsocket PF-32 -- USS Dearborn PF-33 -- USS Long Beach PF-34 -- USS Belfast PF-35 -- USS Glendale PF-36
USS San Pedro PF-37 -- USS Coronado PF-38 -- USS Ogden PF-39 -- USS Eugene PF-40 -- USS El Paso PF-41
USS Van Buren PF-42 -- USS Orange PF-43 -- USS Corpus Christo PF-44 -- USS Hutchinson PF-45 -- USS Bisbee PF-46
USS Gallup PF-47 -- USS Rockford PF-48 -- USS Muskogee PF-49 -- USS Carson City PF-50 -- USS Burlington PF-51
USS Allentown PF-52 -- USSMachias PF-53 -- USS Sandusky PF-54 -- USS Bath PF-55 -- USS Covington PF-56
USS Sheboygan PF-57 -- USS Abilene PF-58 -- USS Beaufort PF-59 -- USS Charlotte PF-60 -- USS Manitowac PF-61
USS Gladwyne PF-62 -- USS Moberly PF-63 -- USS Knoxville PF-64 -- USS Uniontown PF-65 -- USS Reading PF-66
USS Peoria PF-67 -- USS Brunswick PF-68 -- USS Davenport PF-69 -- USS Evansville PF-70 -- USS New Bedford PF-71
USS Lorain PF-93 -- USS Milledgeville PF-99 -- USS Racine PF-100 -- USS Greensboro PF-101 -- USS Forsyth PF-102
The consequences of an errant shell(story only thread)
Well, well, well, slightly more than three holes n the ground, or sea in this case. They had hit the jackpot, the raider was less than 60 miles distant, thought Rear Admiral John Godfrey, R.N and it was only early morning on a relatively clear day. The only negative point was the fact that his accompany cruiser/carrier, the Admiral Vitgeft, had already catapulted four of her 12 dive bombers and so the strike the Russians were preparing now would only consist of eight dive bombers and six lightly armed fighters. However, the raider was reported to have already taken some damage from the three armed merchant cruisers she had sunk.
The Russian ships was a queer beast, to be sure and her captain seemed eager to put her in harm's way, with her forward mounted six 8 inch guns. As for HMS Black Prince, this is what the 9.2 inch gunned heavy cruiser had been built for. Whilst the carrier readied it's strike, both ships turned and accelerated to 29 knots in pursuit.
7 May 1941, 700 nautical miles West-northwest of Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean
Berhard Rogge's Blucher had watched the approach of the 15 aircraft with some trepidation. They had arrived all too quickly after the initial sighting and these to bore the Blue circle with white interior of the Russian Navy.
The ship was attacked first by seven cannon firing aircraft that killed a number of men by straffing but did not serious damage to the stoutly armoured pocket battleship, however, one knocked out most of the crew of a 4.1 inch dual AA mount. It was the eight dive bombers that caused the most damage. With little distance to fly, the Vindicators had carried a load out of 500kg bombs and the flight leader, Vassily Glimov had placed one bomb squarely astern of the aft turret, where it exploded in the engine room, puncturing one boiler and slowing the pocket battleship. A second hit was to follow, penetrating the deck to port and going through three decks before exploding and tearing a hole near the waterline. Blucher, already somewhat slowed by minor damage and the fouling caused by three months at sea, was left only capable of 16 knots when the aircraft departed and Bernhard Rogge quickly had his crew working on repairs.
7 May 1941, 750 nautical miles West-northwest of Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean
It was late in the day when both allied ships caught up to the Blucher, now restored to 21 knots. Despite the German ship being larger and better armoured, it was an unequal fight. Both allied ships hung off the port quarter, where both of the German ships 5.9 inch secondary batteries had already been disabled. With only six 11 inch guns to respond to six 8 inch and nine 9.2 inch the Blucher was at an immediate disadvantage and the British ship's shells proved themselves well able to penetrate the decks of the German raider.
Black Prince was to take six hits, with 23 killed and 54 wounded, whilst the Russian Admiral Vitgeft took two more, one of which penetrated her deck, starting a hanger fire that caused extensive damage amidships, going some way towards questioning the cruiser/carrier concept. Vitgeft suffered 26 killed and 70 wounded
However, by this stage the Blucher was completely aflame, with only her aft turret under local control. Rogge ordered her abandoned soon after and was duly picked up himself by the curious Russian ship. For the moment, the Atlantic was seemingly clear of German surface raiders.
9 May 1941, Winter Palace, St Petersburg, Russian Empire
It was the traditional public holiday for Labour Day and the commencement of Spring. In peacetime it would mark a large debutante ball at the Winter Palace and an open air performance in Palace Square of the State Symphony Orchestra.
It would normally have been cancelled, however, Olga had insisted they both go ahead as a morale boost for the city as a whole and had arranged for free entry via lottery and free food via her own purse. There had even been a limited 100 couple debutante ball, where she had let her oldest nieces, 21 year old Olga and 17 year old Anastasia, both tall girls with a mass of auburn hair similar to their mother, wear her ruby and diamond necklace that formerly belonged to her Grandmother and a sapphire and diamond Faberge necklace, respectively.
It was largely political theater, brought on by the presence of Anthony Eden, the British Foreign Minister, who she intended to ask for a direct increase in aid, mainly materials such as tanks and aircraft. Hence the huge response when "Rule Britannia", "Jerusalem" and "Land of Hope and Glory" were played.
The night also served as a convenient distraction to slip away afterwards and meet with Evgeni Gegechkori, who was the leader of the Georgian Federalist Party. Not wanting to put herself in a situation where it was perceived that she was favouring one party over another, when he was shown in there were only three people in the room, Vladimir Nabokov, leader of the Kadets, Alexander Kerensky, leader of the Russian Social Democratic Union and Leon Trotsky, leader of the Mensheviks.
By that stage, the situation had surprisingly already worked itself out. In exchange for a series of post war land reforms and a jump in the tax applied to yearly incomes exceeding one million rubles, as well as two cabinet seats, Trotsky had remarkably thrown his support behind the Kadets, catapulting them back into power and again confirming Nabokov as Prime Minister.
11 May 1941, Fleet Base, Trincomalee, Ceylon
Cunningham had withdrawn the bulk of his fleet back to Ceylon, keeping only enough cruisers and destroyers at Singapore to make a night landing or any West Coast operation impossible.
He was expecting reinforcements in the next one to two months, not only two fleet carriers but also three Russian cruiser/carriers. When added to his current force of three small carriers, he was hopeful of being able to switch back onto the offensive by September when the wet season had broken. His battle line was more than sufficient, with four R.N, one R.A.N and three Russian battleships/battlecruisers, with another Russian ship on the way.
In the meantime, the Japanese offensive in Malaya had stalled and was unlikely to regain any momentum with the monsoon season clearly having commenced early. It had thankfully ended the Japanese advance in Burma, where they had come within 20 miles of the Indian border.
By September he hoped to have two Ark Royal Class carriers, the older and smaller Vindictive, the two small R.A.N carriers Hermes and Albatross, as well as the three Russian hybrids. In addition, he would have fully nine battleships, two Nelson Class, two Hood Class, HMAS Australia, the Russian Barclay de Tolly and two of their light battlecruisers. In addition, another Russian ship was due, the new battleship Roissiya. It would be a formidable force.
12 May 1941, Brooklyn Navy Yard, United States of America
The two ships nosed their way into the yard, the large R.N cruiser and the Russian hybrid both showing signs of damage. They passed the dry docked form of the former USS Langley, now the the IRN Morskoi Orel. When both ships had their battle damage repaired, they would sail in conjunction with the carrier for the U.K.
13 May 1941, Kure Naval Base, Empire of Japan
Nagumo's Kido Butai had finally been withdrawn from offensive operations after their efforts in support of the Japanese invasion of Sakhalin. His carriers had effectively been on operations for almost six months without a break. They badly needed to regroup and rebuild their air groups. In addition the carrier Soryu would require three months of repair after taking a torpedo hit from a Russian submarine.
In addition to his five remaining fleet carriers and the damaged Soryu, the liner conversion Junyo had been commissioned, and he had the newly commissioned Shoho to join her repaired sister Zuiho. By August he would have the Soryu back, plus the Hiyo, Junyo's sister, as well as up to three escort carriers and the additional light carrier Ryuho.
The problem would not be decks, but aircrew and aircraft to fill them, in particular the new A6M. These forces would require from 650 to 700 aircraft to equip eight fleet carriers, three light carriers and three escort carriers, including at least 240 A6M's. It was a tall order and would require his carrier force to become inactive for sometime if they were to be required to give a knock out blow to the American Pacific Fleet as had been mooted.
14 May 1941, Putilov Tank Works, Kazan, Imperial Russia
The T-36 with it's powerful 88mm gun and strong armour had dominated the 1940 Russian battlefield where it had appeared, only showing some vulnerability against the 75mm Pak 40, a rare weapon until late in the year, and the 88mm AA gun used in the AT role.
In an effort to keep abreast of likely German developments, the T-36 itself had been redesigned and at Kazan, the largest tank factory in Russia, the new T-36A had started coming off the production lines in late February.
Changes included a new, cast turret that was for the first time sloped, plus an improved engine. There was less applique armour used, particularly on the turret and a standard split cupola, much like a German tank. Due to the production of hulls exceeding that of the new turrets, 120 excess hulls had been skimmed off and 90 had been converted to assault guns by fitting the M1938 divisional artillery 122mm howitzer. The remaining 30 had received the M1939 107mm gun(the long range companion to the M1939) and were classed as tank destroyers.
15 May 1941, Rastenburg, East Prussia, German Reich
Hitler walked the compound alone aside from Blondi, his new dog. It was a gamble, a large gamble, but St Petersburg was the capital of the Russian Empire, the center of it's aero industry and the base for it's still large Baltic fleet. It's capture would destroy the Russian's will to resist and probably bring that bitch to the negotiating table.
Tomorrow morning at 0525 the 1941 campaign would kick off. He had decided to eliminate the British as a factor by going static on the Southern Front, with Army Group South now reduced to 51 divisions, including seven Romanian, a Slovakian and 10 Hungarian, as well as three Luftwaffe field. It contained only three Panzer and four motorized divisions.
It was von Kluge's Army Group North who were the most well equipped. 13 Panzer, nine motorized, 49 Infantry, three Mountain and four Security divisions, for 78 divisions in total. They would be supported on their right flank by Army Group Center's 67 divisions, including eight Panzer.
196 of Germany and her allies approximately 270 divisions were on the Eastern Front, almost 70% of men and 85% of their combat power. It was a gamble in every sense of the word, but one that must succeed for National Socialism to triumph. As it was, even before the campaign, there was a shortage of tanks to equip the Panzer divisions, with the older Panzer I and II still in use to bring numbers up to requirements. Germany had even purchased 150 of the French Somua S-35 to bridge the shortage of tanks.
15 May 1941, Pskov Krom, Pskov, Russian Empire
Summer had arrived again and with it a renewed threat from the Germans. Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky had looked at all the latest intelligence information, including photographs obtained by aerial reconnaissance and it was clear that the main threat would be in the North, where the Germans had heavily reinforced.
With the agreement of Shapashnikov, he had eschewed a large winter counteroffensive with a view to bringing what in the Great War had been known as the "Russian steamroller" into effect. With a country as vast as Russia, full mobilization was a lengthy task and so it had proven. Fully equipping, training and fielding formations activated by the mobilization order in May 1940 had taken until April this year, however, the Imperial army now stood at it's largest extent ever, fully 486 rifle or mountain divisions, with some 364 in the West. These included 56 armoured division, of which fully 44 were in the West, supported by 58 cavalry divisions, with 26 in the West. In all, including the six Imperial Guard Divisions and two new Rocket Divisions, there were 442 divisions in the West, exclusive of allied divisions. Adding six Polish Divisions, one Finnish and one Armenian, along with the BEF's 18 divisions, it brought the total to an impressive 468 divisions to oppose the Germans.
It was a monumental force, even taking into account the reduction in Russian division size to 12,100 men. Yet Tukhachevsky's basic plan was still a war of attrition. He planned to spend most of 1941 fighting these battles to exhaust the German army and keep them away from the vital cities of St Petersburg and Moscow. If he could spend 1941 exhausting the German armies in the North and Center, then he could bide his time in the South, building up resources and then launching a large counter offensive there later in the year. If he could threaten Romania it may bring Bulgaria into the war, which again may trigger Italy and Slavonia and wrap up the Southern flank of the enemy, much as had been achieved in 1916 and 1917.
To that end, with the help of civilian workers, large numbers of set piece fortifications had been built to the East of Minsk and to the North near the Riga front line, some 620,000 anti tank and 690,000 anti personal mines being laid.
He had cut his army groups down to three, roughly matching the German's own delineation. To the NorthMikhail Drozdovsky was still senior officer, in the center Blucher had been dispatched to the Far East and had been replaced by the new rising star, Zhukov. In the SouthAlexander Yegorev still held the command. Gort had been replaced by Alexander as the head of the BEF, who promised to be an easier commander to work with.
The British had also supplied 360 of the new Wolfe tanks, as well as 168 old Mk VI light tanks and over 1,000 Hawker Hurricanes. The German attack would be soon, he was sure, but when it fell his forces would be ready.
COPE, Sir Anthony (1550-1614), of Hanwell, Oxon.
b. 19 Mar. 1550,1 2nd s. of Edward Cope (d. 22 June 1557)2 of Hanwell and Elizabeth, da. and h. of Walter Mohun of Overstone, Northants. bro. of Sir Walter Cope*.3 educ. G. Inn, entered 1606.4 m. (1) Frances (d.1599),5 da. of Rowland Lytton of Knebworth, Herts., 7s. 3da.6 (2) 7 Apr. 1600,7 Anne (d.1637), da. of Sir William Paston of Oxnead, Norf., wid. of Sir Nicholas L’Estrange of Hunstanton, Norf. and Sir George Chaworth of Wiverton, Notts., s.p.8 suc. bro. 15669 kntd. c.159110 cr. bt. 29 June 1611.11 d. 7 July 1614.12
Steward, manor of Wollaston, Northants. 157613 sheriff, Oxon. 1582-3, 1591-2, 1603-414 j.p. Oxon. c.1584-1607, by 1614-d., Banbury, Oxon. 160815 commr. levies, Oxon. 1586,16 subsidy, 1589, 1595, 1600, 160817 constable (jt.) Banbury castle c.158918 dep. lt. Oxon. 1593-at least 160819 commr. oyer and terminer, Oxf. circ. by 1602-d.,20 sewers, Oxon. and Berks. 1604-12,21 aid, Oxf. Univ. 160922 collector of aid for Prince Henry, Oxon. 1609, for Princess Elizabeth 1613.23
Cope came from a cadet branch of a Northamptonshire family which first represented that county in 1397. His great-grandfather acquired the Oxfordshire manor of Hanwell in 1498.25 Cope himself inherited this property, and was visited there in August 1605 by James I.26 Remarkably, Cope sat in every parliament but one between his coming of age and his death. His main contribution to James’s parliaments was his insistence that religion be kept at the forefront of the political agenda. However, having been imprisoned in 1587 for proposing the programme of religious reforms that became known as ‘Cope’s bill and book’,27 he had become wary of controversy, though he remained a lifelong friend and associate of the puritan Peter Wentworth&dagger.28
Cope was sheriff of Oxfordshire at the general election of 1604, and therefore ineligible to sit in Parliament. He yielded his former seat at Banbury to his eldest son, Sir William Cope*, and presumably supported the return of his brother-in-law John Doyley* as knight of the shire. Following the end of his shrievalty he managed to secure a seat for himself, being returned for the county at a by-election to replace (Sir) Lawrence Tanfield*, who had been appointed a judge on 13 Jan. 1606. He took up his seat by 12 Feb., when he was added to the committee for a conference on supply.29 He was one of three Members whose names were noted by the clerk on 15 Feb. in connection with the ministry and the establishment of true religion. However, it is not clear whether this signifies that they were being added to the committee named in January to consider the best means to provide for a learned ministry and counter non-residence.30 Cope was also placed on committees to consider bills to improve ecclesiastical government (25 Feb.), prevent pluralism and non-residence (to which he was the first named member, 5 Mar.) and restore deprived ministers (7 March).31 His predominant interest in religious measures is reflected by the ‘Parliament Fart’ satire, in which he ‘prayed to God’, that the fart was ‘no bull for the pope’.32
In a supply debate on 14 Mar. Cope declared that ‘because many good bills are in the House, and more will come’, grievances should be redressed before there was any grant of subsidy.33 On the following day several grievances were presented, and Cope was one of those who spoke forcefully on the first of them, the deprivation of those ministers who had refused to conform to the 1604 Canons.34 On 27 Mar. he moved that those grievances which were ready should be ‘put into form and thereupon a conference to be desired with the Lords, and to proceed with petition to His Majesty’.35 His other committees included those on bills for the better execution of penal statutes (27 Mar.), the regulation of ‘tippling houses’ (3 Apr.), the abolition of patronage at parliamentary elections (3 Apr.), and the punishment of non-communicants (7 April).36 He opposed the reading of the subsidy bill on 9 May ‘until the grievances were read’, and three days later complained that conferences had grown ‘so long and wearisome’ that it was needful to allow Members to be seated, ‘for we stay long before their lordships come and if we depart before the conference be ended, we offend’ he added ‘many of us that are old cannot stand so long but we shall fall down’.37 He was among those ordered to prepare and present to the king a petition on ecclesiastical grievances on 14 May.38
The main business of the third session was the king’s project for the Union with Scotland. On 24 Nov. 1606 Cope moved that the Instrument of the Union should be returned to the Lords, whereupon he was ordered to attend a conference on the following day.39 With his brother Sir Walter he was named to the committee to consider the bill ‘for the better continuance of the fame and memory of noble and worthy persons deceased’ (26 November).40 He was a member of the committee for a bill to control the ecclesiastical courts, and spoke for this measure at its third reading on 6 December.41 He was also named to committees for bills against unlicensed alehouses (3 Dec.) and for the reformation of abuses in the Marshalsea court (10 December).42 On 5 Mar. 1607, at the third reading of another ecclesiastical measure, the bill in restraint of canons, he pointed out that Queen Elizabeth had ‘stayed her hand from giving life to any of the canons during her time, lest it might stir or grieve her people’s hearts’.43 He helped manage a conference on the Union on 7 Mar., taking responsibility with Sir George More* for expounding a problem detected in the wording of the Instrument involving sheriffs and magistrates.44 Shortly afterwards he was named to a sub-committee to consider the inconvenience of ‘the long and painful standing’ at conferences.45
When Speaker Phelips fell ill late in March 1607, Cope was one of those appointed to consider precedents for procedure during his absence.46 On 28 Mar. he successfully moved postponement of a conference on the Union until after the Easter recess, ‘the House being so small and empty’.47 He opposed a bill introduced by Sir Robert Wingfield* on 30 Apr. and drafted before the Easter recess by the lawyers on the committee for the reform of the Marshalsea court.48 On 2 May, during the third reading debate on an explanatory bill concerning the ministry, he spoke of John Dod, rector of Hanwell, identified in the Journal as ‘Sir Anthony Cope’s preacher’, who had recently been deprived.49 Cope was among those instructed to draft a petition against Catholics and in favour of a preaching and resident ministry (18 May), and to consider a bill to abolish the Court of High Commission (26 June).50 He was also named to the committee to consider a bill for the better attendance of Members (28 May).51 On 5 June he spoke on the clause relating to witnesses in the bill to annul laws hostile to the Scots, although his position only became clear four weeks later, after he had helped to prepare a conference on the bill.52 He argued on 29 June that it was wrong ‘to refuse every lewd fellow, for most of them can say more than any other man. To refuse such, a notable wrong in the jury. The jury unfit, of all other, to choose the testimony’.53 He was appointed on 19 June to search the Journal for questions of privilege raised during the Parliament,54 and on 23 June acted as a teller against a private bill concerning the legacy of the 5th earl of Derby.55
Outside Parliament, in June 1607, Cope joined with his brother and others in what Chamberlain later called ‘a great bargain with the king’ for the purchase of chantry lands and parsonages to the value of £32,000.56 It may perhaps be taken as a sign of hypocrisy that despite Cope’s frequent exhortations against non-residence and pluralism he was eager to profit from the sale of rectories, albeit as a partner in a syndicate organized by his more- worldly sibling.57 Dudley Carleton* observed in August 1607 that many of the ‘puritan Parliament men’ had been put out of the commission of the peace, ‘and if Sir Anthony Cope hold in he hath good luck, for he was the foreman in my lord chancellor’s list to be put out’.58 If Cope was indeed removed from the Oxfordshire bench, it might explain why he briefly became a magistrate for the borough of Banbury (which had power to appoint its own justices) in 1608.
When the fourth session met in 1610, Cope was named to a committee to consider two bills against pluralism and non-residence (19 Feb. 1610).59 In debate on Dr. Cowell’s Interpreter, a book that had outraged many Members by stressing the absolute powers of the king, Cope argued darkly on 24 Feb. that Cowell had confederates, ‘whether from beyond sea or here’.60 On 20 June he spoke in favour of legislation against swearing, and on 3 July he was among those appointed to draft the petition against impositions.61 Three days later he was involved in interrogating an informer, William Udall, who had offered information concerning the whereabouts of priests in hiding.62 After twice urging the House to clarify its position on the Great Contract, he helped to prepare for a conference on the subject on 19 July.63 He is not mentioned in the records of the fifth session.
In 1610 Cope received a lease of woods in Whittlewood forest and a grant of the manor of Bruern, Oxfordshire.64 He was already an investor in the Virginia Company, and in 1611 he bought lands in Ulster, though it was later reported that the house he had built in Omagh fell down and his acres in Cloghor remained uncultivated.65 He probably entertained the king at Hanwell again in August 1612, and in October he prepared Banbury castle for the reception of Lady Stonor and other Catholic prisoners.66
Cope was returned to his final Parliament in 1614, when he served as senior knight of the shire for Oxfordshire. At the age of 74, he was one of the oldest Members in the House. On 5 May he opposed putting supply to the question, saying that although ‘the king’s part might carry it by voices, yet it would not be so honourable for the king to have one negative voice’.67 Two days later he recommended that the judges should set an example by observing the Sabbath while on circuit.68 On 9 May he was named to the committee to consider the bill for confirmation of Thomas Sutton’s charitable foundation, the Charterhouse.69 When his brother Sir Walter’s election for Stockbridge was questioned that same day, Cope demanded that the patron of the borough, Sir Thomas Parry*, chancellor of the Duchy and the only Member in the House older than Cope himself, should be heard in his own defence.70 On 12 May he made ‘a long and good speech’ on yet another bill against non-residence and pluralism, which practices he likened to ‘Hydra’s heads’, as ‘they have the more increased’. Drawing upon his experience of over 40 years in the Commons, he claimed that there were ‘as many non-residents now as in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth’s time’, and declared that ‘a soul-murthering non-resident [is] as dangerous to the soul as a murtherer of the body to it’. He ended by imploring the House to petition the king to take action and not to dissolve the Parliament until he had done so, for ‘the Parliament [is] the only fit time’.71 He was the first Member named to the committee to consider the bill.72 On 23 May he objected to the petition against baronets, which he termed ‘a libel’, saying that ‘it would but stir up combustions among the gentlemen in this time of many important businesses’.73 Sir Jerome Horsey* mockingly retorted that he ‘speaketh for his penny’, since Cope had been one of the first to buy the title of baronet himself in 1611, and his brother had been involved in handling the sales.74 When a committee was named, Cope complained that all the Members who were baronets had been excluded.75 He was twice appointed to committees to consider what should be done about Bishop Neile’s charges of sedition against the Commons (25 May, 1 June), and to the committee to consider a bill against the ex officio oath (31 May).76 With several of his fellow puritans he spoke in favour of the unsuccessful proposal that the House should sit on Ascension Day.77
On 9 June, two days after the dissolution of the Addled Parliament, Cope made his will, ‘being sick in body’. Although he made generous provision for his three younger sons, he reportedly left debts of over £20,000, some of which were incurred on behalf of his brother.78 John Dod was to have ‘the house that he dwells in if he be driven out of his ministry’. Cope died on 7 July 1614 at his brother’s Kensington residence, and was buried at Hanwell under an alabaster monument.79 Robert Harris preached the funeral sermon, in which he praised Cope as ‘a chaste husband, a tender father, a religious magistrate, a kind neighbour, a good churchman, a good statesman’.80 He was succeeded by his eldest son and heir, Sir William Cope.
H - The North Transept
In the North Transept, there are two chapels on the east side. The northern chapel is dedicated to St George and is the chapel of the Cambridgeshire Regiment. Panels on the walls commemorate the men who died in the two world wars of the last century. The other chapel is dedicated to St Edmund, King of East Anglia in the mid-ninth century. He was well loved by his subjects for his care of the poor and his suppression of wrongdoing. When the Vikings invaded he refused to deny his faith and was killed by being tied to a tree and shot through with arrows. His martyrdom is depicted in the painting on the north wall, which is the Cathedral's best-preserved medieval wall painting. In 915 his body was buried at Bedricsworth in Suffolk, which was renamed Bury St Edmunds. Edmund was once a candidate to be the patron saint of England.
AFK ARENA ascension guide
There are 3 different tiers of heroes in AFK arena as seen in the heroes portrait section in game: common, legendary and ascended. Each tier has a maximum level cap.
Common tier heroes can be leveled up to level 100.
Legendary tier heroes can be leveled up to level 160.
Ascended tier heroes can be leveled up to level 240.
However, to get a legendary tier hero to level 160 or ascended tier hero to level 240 these heroes must undergo ascension in the Temple of Ascension. This guide is about explaining the ascension process.
Common tier heroes are best left to be retired in the Rickety Cart in exchange for Hero coins and dust. You can turn on the automatically retire new common heroes function in the Rickety Cart.
You get legendary tier heroes at Rare rarity (sometimes at Elite rarity) and ascended tier heroes at Elite rarity. They need to be ascended to higher rarity to level up past their respective level caps.
The requirements of ascension are given in the following table:
same faction at Rare+ rarity
The legendary tier heroes are basically fodder to ascend the ascended tier heroes, although you may use them at different stages of the game according to their usefulness. After level 240 the leveling system changes. The level cap in the Resonating Crystal increases by 5 levels for each Ascended heroes you have currently. For example having 5 Ascended heroes would increase the level cap by 5 X 5 = 25 levels up to (240+25 = 265) level 265.
So to ascend an ascended tier hero from Elite rarity to Ascended rarity you would need 8 Elite copies of the ascended tier hero and 180 Rare copies of fodder! And 2 more Elite copies of the ascended tier hero for every star up to 5 stars ( 2 X 5 = 10). In total 8 + 10 = 18 copies (Ascended 5 stars).
The math for the fodder heroes is as follows (taking into consideration you start all fodder heroes at rare rarity, it is possible to get elite copy of fodder heroes) :
|Rarity||Number of Rare heroes needed|
It is not necessary to only ascend heroes which you use in battle but rather the ones you can ascend. Ascending multiple heroes of the same faction can easily put you in scarcity of fodder heroes making the progression of the game slower. The heroes you get depend mostly on rng but you can purchase some heroes from different stores and event to make the ascension process much easier. Don’t get too upset about not getting enough ascended tier heroes from pulls, you are guaranteed to get one every three 10 pulls and you are going to need the fodder. There are currently 43 ascended tier heroes from the 4 major factions and you would need (43 X 180 ) 7740. Rare heroes to ascend all of them. It is not recommended to use ascended tier heroes as fodder (at least until you have acquired 8 copies of said hero) because you are going to need them in the long run to increase the level cap. Pay special attention while ascending fodder heroes so you don’t mistakenly ascend the wrong hero, keep in mind the rarity you need to ascend it to and plan accordingly.
This type of ascension process is applicable for the 4 major factions: Lightbearers, Maulers, Wilders and Graveborns.
Celestial and Hypogean faction heroes follow a different ascension process requiring no fodder heroes.
|Elite → Elite+||1 copy of the same hero at Elite rarity|
|Elite+ → Legendary||1 copy of same hero at Elite+ rarity|
|Legendary → Legendary+||1 copy of the same hero at Elite+ rarity|
|Legendary+ → Mythic||1 copy of the same hero at Elite+ rarity|
|Mythic → Mythic+||1 copy of the same hero at Elite+ rarity|
|Mythic+ → Ascended||2 copies of the same hero at Elite+ rarity|
|Ascended → Ascended (star)||1 copy of the same hero at Elite+ rarity for each star|
So to ascend an ascended tier Celestial/Hypogean hero from Elite rarity to Ascended rarity you would need 14 Elite copies of the ascended tier Celestial/Hypogean hero. And 2 more Elite copies of the ascended tier Celestial/Hypogean hero for every star up to 5 stars ( 2 X 5 = 10). In total 14 + 10 = 24 copies (Ascended 5 stars).
Dimensional heroes follow a different rule. They acquire the level and rarity of the hero they are currently fused to. You can acquire dimensional heroes at Elite rarity.List of site sources >>>