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Combat of the Col de Tende, 6 or 7 May 1800

Combat of the Col de Tende, 6 or 7 May 1800

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Combat of the Col de Tende, 6 or 7 May 1800

The combat of the Col de Tende (6 or 7 May 1800) was an Austrian victory that forced the French to abandon a defensive position in the pass that marks the border between the Maritime and Ligurian Alps and retreat back towards Nice.

The Col de Tende (Colle di Tenda in Italian) links Nice and Tende to Cuneo, and since the French disasters of 1799 had been part of the frontline between the Austrians and French armies. In May 1800 it was defended by a detachment under General Lesuire, part of the left wing of the Army of Italy of General Massena. In early April the Austrians had cut Massena's army in half, and the left wing, under Suchet, was now operating independently.

At the start of May the Austrians under Melas forced Suchet to retreat along the coast from Borghetto to Oneglia. During this attack Lesuire was left alone, but this was a short respite. On either 6 or 7 May (sources disagree) three Austrian columns under General Knesvich attacked Lesuire and forced him to pull out of the pass.

On the following day Melas and Esnitz attacked at Oneglia, and Suchet was forced to retreat to the Var River, where he joined up with Lesuire. News then began to reach Melas that the French might be about to cross the Alps into Piedmont. Leaving a defensive force on the River Roja (just inside modern Italy), Melas sent Knesvich back over the pass to Cuneo.

Napoleonic Home Page | Books on the Napoleonic Wars | Subject Index: Napoleonic Wars

Records of United States Regular Army Mobile Units, 1821-1942

Finding Aids: Sarah Powell and Randall Roots, comps., "Preliminary Inventory of the Records of United States Regular Army Mobile Units, 1821-1942," NM 93 (1970) supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records: Records of U.S. Army Commands, 1784-1821, RG 98.
Records of the Chiefs of Arms, RG 177.
Records of U.S. Army Coast Artillery Districts and Defenses, 1901-1942, RG 392. Records of U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920, RG 393.

1,607 lin. ft.

391.2.1 Records of the 1st-7th Artillery Regiments

History: Four artillery regiments were formed out of the existing Corps of Artillery and Regiment of Light Artillery, June 1821, in accordance with the act reducing the size of the army (3 Stat. 615), March 2, 1821. Fifth regiment organized, May 4, 1861, and confirmed by an act of July 29, 1861 (12 Stat. 279). Two additional regiments of artillery (6th and 7th) organized under an act of March 8, 1898 (30 Stat. 261). Artillery Corps, consisting of field and coast artillery branches, established by General Order 9, War Department, February 6, 1901, pursuant to the Army Reorganization Act (31 Stat. 748), February 2, 1901, which provided an authorized strength of 30 field artillery batteries and 130 coast artillery companies. The existing regiments were divided into 82 coast artillery companies and 16 field artillery batteries by General Order 15, War Department, February 13, 1901.

Textual Records: Regimental and battery records, including letters sent and received, issuances, muster rolls, returns, and descriptive books, of the 1st-4th Artillery Regiments, 1821-1901 5th Artillery Regiment, 1830-1901 6th Artillery Regiment, 1898- 1901 and 7th Artillery Regiment, 1898-1901. Letters received and orders issued by the Astor Battery, 1898.

391.2.2 Records of field artillery units

History: Fourteen field artillery batteries created from 1st-7th Artillery Regiments by General Order 15, War Department, February 13, 1901. A total of 16 additional batteries were organized by General Orders 78 and 116, War Department, June 6 and September 3, 1901. Batteries organized into 13 battalions by General Order 152, War Department, September 15, 1904. Reorganized into six regiments, effective July 1, 1908, by General Order 24, War Department, February 2, 1907, implementing the act of January 25, 1907 (34 Stat. 861), establishing a separate Coast Artillery Corps (CAC).

Textual Records: Records, including letters sent, registers of letters received, general correspondence, issuances, muster rolls, returns, rosters, descriptive books, and histories, of the 6th, 7th, 9th, and 10th Field Artillery Battalions, 1901-7 the Provisional Battalion, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1904-5 the 3d, 4th, 8th, 13th, 26th, and 28th Field Artillery Batteries, 1901-7 and the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 5th Field Artillery Regiments, 1907-16. Muster rolls of the 4th Field Artillery Regiment, 1911.

391.2.3 Records of coast artillery companies

History: Eighty-two coast artillery companies created from 1st- 7th Artillery Regiments by General Order 15, War Department, February 13, 1901. A total of 44 additional companies were organized by General Orders 25, 78, 101, 108, and 131, War Department, February 28, June 6, August 2, August 14, and October 7, 1901. CAC, consisting of 1st-170th Coast Artillery Companies, established as a separate combat arm, effective July 1, 1908, by General Order 24, War Department, February 2, 1907, implementing an act of January 25, 1907 (34 Stat. 861). Companies were redesignated in separate numerical sequences for each coast artillery fort by General Order 31, War Department, July 24, 1916.

Textual Records: Correspondence, issuances, returns, muster rolls, and descriptive lists of the 6th, 10th, 13th, 15th, 19th, 20th, 23d, 25th, 26th, 30th-35th, 37th, 42d, 44th, 47th, 55th- 57th, 61st, 62d, 69th, 70th, 74th, 76th, 78th, 79th, 81st, 88th, 90th, 93d, 96th, 100th, 104th, 106th, 111th, 112th, 114th, 115th, 127th, 137th, 149th, 152d, 154th, 160th, 161st, and 166th Coast Artillery Companies, 1901-16. Correspondence and issuances of the 1st Provisional Regiment, composed of coast artillery companies in the Department of the East, March-June 1911.

391.2.4 Records of field artillery regiments (1916-43)

Textual Records: Records of the 1st-351st Field Artillery Regiments, 1916-21 (886 ft.). Records of the 1st, 5th-14th, 17th- 19th, 21st, 25th, 36th, 68th, 70th, 71st, 76th, 77th, 79th, 80th, 83d, 306th, 331st, and 349th Field Artillery Regiments, 1921-43. Returns and rosters of the 1st-83d Field Artillery Regiments, 1917-21.

391.2.5 Records of coast artillery units (1916-39)

History: Coast artillery companies renumbered separately for each Coast Defense Command by General Order 98, War Department, July 26, 1917. Additional coast artillery companies organized, by General Order 21, War Department, May 18, 1922, from the residual elements of composite artillery regiments (cavalry, infantry, and coast artillery) that had been established by General Order 115, War Department, August 29, 1917, and substantially demobilized by 1919. By General Order 8, War Department, February 27, 1924, companies redesignated batteries and organized into 1st-16th and 65th CAC Regiments, to which were added the 41st, 60th, and 61st- 63d CAC Regiments, formed by redesignation of artillery battalions bearing the same numbers.

Textual Records: Records of Coast Defense Command coast artillery companies, 1916-21 (105 ft.). Records of the 1st-75th Coast Artillery Corps Regiments, 1916-34 (237 ft.). Records of the 1st, 5th, 6th, 8th-11th, 13th, 15th, 16th, 51st, 53d, 61st-65th, 68th, 69th, 206th, and 895th Coast Artillery Regiments, 1922-39. Records of Coast Artillery Corps regimental bands, 1907-21. Records of the 1st and 18th Sound Ranging Batteries, 1924-31.

391.2.6 Records of U.S. Army mine planters

History: Army Mine Planter Service established in Coast Artillery Corps by War Department Bulletin 43, July 22, 1918, from mine companies and mine planters, which had been part of the Coast Artillery Corps since 1908.

Textual Records: General correspondence and logbooks of U.S. Army Mine Planters Colonel Albert Todd, 1920-21 Cyrus W. Field, 1908- 20 Brig. Gen. Edmund Kirby, 1920-21 Colonel Garland N. Whistler, 1920-21 General Samuel M. Mills, 1914-22 Major Samuel Ringgold, 1919-22 John P. Story, 1920-21 and General Wallace F. Randolph, 1920-21.

259 lin. ft.

391.3.1 Records of the 1st Cavalry Division

Textual Records: Correspondence and other records, 1921-39.

391.3.2 Records of 1st-6th Cavalry Regiments

History: Regiment of dragoons organized, March 1833 designated 1st Regiment of Dragoons, 1836, when the 2d Dragoons (designated the Regiment of Riflemen, March 1843-April 1844) was raised. Regiment of Mounted Riflemen organized, May 1846. Two additional regiments, designated 1st and 2d Cavalry, organized, March 1855. Sixth regiment, designated 3d Cavalry, raised, May 1861, and confirmed by an act of July 29, 1861 (12 Stat. 279). By an act of August 3, 1861 (12 Stat. 289), the 1st and 2d Dragoons, the Mounted Riflemen, and the 1st and 2d Cavalry were redesignated 1st-5th Cavalry Regiments, respectively and the old 3d Cavalry became the new 6th Cavalry.

Textual Records: Regimental, battalion, squadron, troop (company), and detachment records, including letters sent and received, correspondence, issuances, rosters, descriptive books and lists, muster rolls and returns, morning reports, and histories, of the 1st Cavalry Regiment (and 1st Dragoons), 1833- 1916 2d Cavalry Regiment (and 2d Dragoons and Riflemen), 1837, 1907 3d Cavalry Regiment (and Mounted Riflemen), 1846-1918 4th Cavalry Regiment (and 1st Cavalry), 1855-1919 5th Cavalry Regiment (and 2d Cavalry), 1855-1920 and 6th Cavalry Regiment (and 3d Cavalry), 1861-1915. Records of the 4th Cavalry include records of the Powder River Expedition, 1876. Records of the 6th Cavalry include reports and correspondence relating to operations in Tientsin, China, during the Boxer Rebellion, 1900.

391.3.3 Records of the 3d Regiment of Dragoons

History: Raised for service in the Mexican War, February 1847. Disbanded, July 1848.

Textual Records: Letters sent, April 1847-June 1848. Regimental descriptive book, 1847-48. Company descriptive books, 1847.

391.3.4 Records of the 7th-10th Cavalry Regiments

History: Organized under an act of July 28, 1866 (14 Stat. 332), with 10th Cavalry reserved for black enlisted men.

Textual Records: Regimental, battalion, troop (company), and detachment records, including letters sent and received, issuances, muster rolls, descriptive books, and histories, of the 7th Cavalry Regiment, 1866-1917 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1866-1918 9th Cavalry Regiment, 1867-1919 and 10th Cavalry Regiment, 1866- 1918. Records of the 7th Cavalry include records of a detachment on the Yellowstone Expedition, 1873. Records of the 10th Cavalry include a unit diary documenting participation in the Punitive Expedition to Mexico, 1916.

391.3.5 Records of the 11th-15th Cavalry Regiments

History: Organized pursuant to the Army Reorganization Act (31 Stat. 748), February 2, 1901.

Textual Records: Regimental, squadron, and troop (company) records, including letters sent, registers of letters received, issuances, descriptive books, muster rolls and returns, and scrapbooks, of the 11th Cavalry Regiment, 1901-15 12th Cavalry Regiment, 1901-11 13th Cavalry Regiment, 1901-18 14th Cavalry Regiment, 1901-18 and 15th Cavalry Regiment, 1901-12.

391.3.6 Records of cavalry regiments (1916-41)

Textual Records: Records of the 1st-17th, 301st, and 306th Cavalry Regiments, 1916-21 (60 ft.). Records of the 3d-8th, 10th- 12th, 14th, and 121st Cavalry Regiments, 1920-41.

1,076 lin. ft.

History: Company of sappers, miners, and pontoniers authorized under an act of May 15, 1846 (9 Stat. 12), as part of the Corps of Engineers, to which were added three additional companies by an act of August 3, 1861 (12 Stat. 287), and a fifth company, by an act of July 28, 1866 (14 Stat. 332). Organized into Battalion of Engineers by General Order 56, War Department, August 1, 1866. Transferred to line of the army by General Order 36, War Department, March 4, 1899. Increased to three battalions by General Order 22, War Department, February 26, 1901, pursuant to the Army Reorganization Act (31 Stat. 748), February 2, 1901, and organized into three regiments and one company of a mounted battalion by General Order 22, War Department, June 30, 1916.

Textual Records: Battalion and company records, including letters sent and received, correspondence, issuances, descriptive lists, histories, muster rolls, and monthly and field returns, of the 1st Battalion, 1846-1918 2d Battalion, 1901-17 and 3d Battalion, 1901-19. Records of engineer regiments and battalions, 1912-21 (1,000 ft.). Records of the 1st, 3d-7th, 9th-11th, 21st, 27th, 29th, and 70th Engineer Regiments, 1919-39.

2,286 lin. ft.

History: Army organized into seven infantry regiments, 1815, with 8th Infantry Regiment added, 1838. Mexican War expansion added eight regiments (designated 9th-16th Infantry), 1847, but these were discontinued, 1848. Two new regiments (9th and 10th) were added, 1855, and nine additional regiments were constituted, May 1861 (11th-19th), and confirmed by an act of July 29, 1861 (14 Stat. 279). In a major expansion under General Order 92, War Department, November 23, 1866, pursuant to an act of July 28, 1866 (14 Stat. 332), 2d and 3d battalions of the existing 11th- 19th Infantry Regiments were designated 20th-37th Infantry Regiments, with four new regiments (38th-41st) to be composed of black enlisted men, and new 42d-45th Infantry Regiments for wounded veterans of the Civil War. Reduced by consolidation to 25 regiments, under General Order 17, War Department, March 15, 1869, with the 24th and 25th constituting the black enlisted force. Expanded to 30 regiments by the Army Reorganization Act (31 Stat. 748), February 2, 1901.

391.5.1 Records of infantry divisions and brigades

Textual Records: General correspondence, record cards, and court- martial records of the 2d Provisional Infantry Division, 1917. General and field orders issued by the 12th Provisional Infantry Division, 1916-17. Records of the 1st-3d, 5th, 7th, 88th, and 103d Infantry Divisions, 1923-40. Records of the 1st, 5th, 6th, 16th, and 21st Infantry Brigades, 1923-39.

391.5.2 Records of infantry regiments raised prior to the Civil
War, except regiments raised exclusively for Mexican War service

Textual Records: Regimental, battalion, company, and detachment records, including letters sent and received, correspondence, general and special orders, descriptive books, returns, and histories, of the 1st Infantry Regiment, 1827-1918 2d Infantry Regiment, 1815-1920 3d Infantry Regiment, 1822-1919 4th Infantry Regiment, 1821-1917 5th Infantry Regiment, 1821-1917 6th Infantry Regiment, 1817-1909 7th Infantry Regiment, 1842- 1914 8th Infantry Regiment, 1838-1917 9th Infantry Regiment, 1862-1904 and 10th Infantry Regiment, 1855-1916.

391.5.3 Records of infantry regiments raised for the Mexican War

Textual Records: Records of the 9th-16th Infantry Regiments, 1847-48, including letters sent, and regimental and company descriptive books.

391.5.4 Records of infantry regiments raised in May 1861

Textual Records: Regimental, battalion, company, and detachment records, including letters sent and received, correspondence, issuances, rosters, casualty and descriptive lists, descriptive books, and histories, of the 11th Infantry Regiment, 1861-69 12th Infantry Regiment, 1861-1912 13th Infantry Regiment, 1861- 1915 14th Infantry Regiment, 1861-1913 15th Infantry Regiment, 1861-1910 16th Infantry Regiment, 1861-69 17th Infantry Regiment, 1861-1913 18th Infantry Regiment, 1861-1917 and 19th Infantry Regiment, 1861-1919.

391.5.5 Records of infantry regiments organized in the army
expansion of 1866

Textual Records: Regimental, battalion, company, and detachment records, including letters sent and received, correspondence, issuances, muster rolls and returns, descriptive books and lists, histories, and morning reports, of the 20th Infantry Regiment, 1866-1915 21st Infantry Regiment, 1861-1915 22d Infantry Regiment, 1865-1915 23d Infantry Regiment, 1861-1918 24th Infantry Regiment, 1861-69 25th Infantry Regiment, 1862-69 26th Infantry Regiment, 1862-69 27th Infantry Regiment, 1861-69 28th Infantry Regiment, 1864-69 29th Infantry Regiment, 1861-69 30th and 31st Infantry Regiments, 1865-69 32d Infantry Regiment, 1865-67 33d Infantry Regiment, 1862-69 34th Infantry Regiment, 1864-69 35th and 36th Infantry Regiments, 1865-69 37th Infantry Regiment, 1862-69 and 38th-45th Infantry Regiments, 1866-69.

391.5.6 Records of infantry regiments organized by consolidation
of existing regiments in 1869

Textual Records: Regimental, battalion, and company records, including letters sent and received, correspondence, issuances, histories, muster rolls and returns, and descriptive books, of the 11th Infantry Regiment, 1869-1910 16th Infantry Regiment, 1869-1919 24th Infantry Regiment, 1869-1916 and 25th Infantry Regiment, 1869-1917.

391.5.7 Records of infantry regiments organized in 1901

Textual Records: Regimental, battalion, and company records, including letters sent, correspondence registers, issuances, and descriptive books and lists, of the 26th Infantry Regiment, 1901- 2, 1914 27th Infantry Regiment, 1901-18 28th Infantry Regiment, 1901-11 29th Infantry Regiment, 1901-14 and 30th Infantry Regiment, 1901-7.

391.5.8 Records of infantry regiments (1916-42)

Textual Records: Records of the 1st-3d Provisional Regiments, 1918-19. Records of the 1st-338th and 559th Infantry Regiments, 1916-21 (1,800 ft.). Records of the 1st, 2d, 5th-8th, 10th-22d, 24th-30th, 33d-35th, 38th, 47th, 65th, 67th, and 341st Infantry Regiments, 1921-42.

1847-48, 1867-1941
607 lin. ft.

391.6.1 Records of units organized before World War I

Textual Records: Company descriptive books of the Regiment of U.S. Voltigeurs and Foot Riflemen, 1847-48. Records, including letters sent and received, issuances, and descriptive lists, of Signal Corps companies and detachments, 1867-75, 1902-10. Records, including letters sent and received, muster rolls, descriptive books and lists, and morning reports, of companies and detachments of Indian Scouts, 1872-99. Records, including letters sent and received, general correspondence, issuances, muster rolls, and returns, of the 1st-7th and 12th Philippine Scout Battalions, 1901-14 and 4th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th, 32d, 42d, and 51st Philippine Scout Companies, 1901-17. Records of the 1st-5th, 7th-12th, 44th, 101st, 102d, 112th, 301st-379th, 381st- 410th, 412th-417th, 420th, 421st, and 423d Bakery Companies, 1913-22.

391.6.2 Records of units (World War I)

Textual Records: Records of the 301st, 302d, 307th, 308th, 310th, 312th, 313th, 315th-323d, 325th, 326th, 329th-331st, 336th, 340th-342d, and 344th-347th Fire Truck and Hose Companies, 1917- 19. Records of the 301st-343d Guard and Fire Companies, 1918-19. Records of the 1st-3d, 6th, 301st, 303d, 305th-307th, 309th- 315th, 317th-323d, 325th-334th, 349th-354th, 356th, 504th, 510th, 512th, 514th, 529th, and 530th Mobile Laundry Companies, 1918-24. Records of Medical Supply Unit No. 2 and miscellaneous medical and field medical supply depot companies, 1917-18. Records of the 1st, 6th-10th, 12th, 13th, 15th-17th, 19th-25th, 28th-31st, 33d, 34th, 40th, 41st, 43d, 44th, 56th, and 58th-61st Motor Commands, 1918-21. Records of the 301st-313th, 320th-322d, and 327th-329th Motor Repair Units, 1918-20. Records of motor transport companies, 1917-23. Records of the 1st-3d, 6th, 7th, 11th, 18th, 36th, 51st, 55th, 56th, 60th, 63d, 87th, 102d, 103d, 105th, 110th, 118th, 119th, 201st, 398th, 399th, 402d, 411th, 413th- 416th, 418th-421st, 431st-433d, 435th, 442d, 445th-448th, 451st- 456th, 458th, 462d-474th, 495th-497th, 499th-506th, 509th-512th, 533d-548th, 550th, and 571st-576th Motor Truck Companies, 1916- 22. Records of the 13th-145th Ordnance Depot Companies, 1918-19. Records of the 108th Ordnance Depot Company, Camp Sherman, OH, 1918-22. Records of 8th-43d Provisional Ordnance Depot Companies, 1918-19. Records of the 1st-59th Ordnance Guard Companies, 1918- 19. Miscellaneous records of the 1st-4th Ordnance Reinforcement Detachment Companies, 1918. Records of the 301st-304th, 306th, 308th-313th, 315th-318th, 320th, 324th, 325th, 327th, 328th, 330th, 331st, and 333d Auxiliary Remount Depots, 1917-21. Records of the 401st-435th, 437th-439th, 441st-449th, and 551st Reserve Service (Labor) Battalions, 1918-39. Records of the 1st-7th, 10th-14th, 16th, and 21st Salvage Companies, 1918-24. Records of the 1st-21st, 25th, 27th-30th, 32d-37th, 39th-44th, 46th-48th, and 54th-57th (Signal) Service Companies, 1917-33. Records of the 1st-43d and 45th-48th U.S. Guard Battalions, 1917-19.

391.6.3 Records of units (post-World War I)

Textual Records: Records of the 1st and 2d Chemical Regiments, 1934-39. Records of the 1st-7th Clothing and Bath Units, 1920-24. Records of the 1st, 11th, 16th, and 323d Medical Regiments, 1938- 39. Records of the 1st, 3d, 5th, 6th, 8th, and 10th Motorcycle Companies and the 1st and 2d Provisional Motorcycle Companies, 1920-30. Records of the 1st, 2d, 9th, 10th, 72d, and 73d Ordnance Companies, 1925-39. Records of the 19th, 80th, 82d, 84th, 87th, 89th, 92d, 93d, and 97th-100th Motor Repair Sections, 1919-23. Records of the 10th Ordnance Service Company, 1937-39. Records of the 1st-28th Ordnance Supply Companies, 1918-19. Records of the 3d, 54th, 55th, and 71st Quartermaster Regiments, 1923-39. Records of the 1st, 3d, 7th, 18th, and 51st Signal Companies, 1924-39. Records of the 3d Signal Service Company, Boston, MA, 1929-41. Records of Special Troops, Hawaiian Division, 1922-23. Records of the 2d, 17th, and 18th Tank Battalions, 1921-31 6th Tank Company, 1919-30 11th Tank Company, 1921-22 and 7th and 8th Tank Platoons, 1921-27. Records of the 5th, 20th, 25th, and 26th Wagon Companies, 1920-35.

76 items

Maps: Road marches, routes between military reservations, and maneuver areas mostly in the western states, made during training exercises by a number of corps and divisions, and infantry, cavalry, and field artillery regiments, 1869-1941.

1,605 images

Photographic Prints (1,604 images): Fort Wingate, NM, and views of the southwest, including pueblos and Indians, 1866-80, some by J.K. Hillers, 1879 (FW, JKH 48 images). Philippine Islands and insurgent leaders, 1896-1906 (PI, 60 images). Officers and enlisted men of the 4th, 10th, 15th, 17th, and 19th Infantry Regiments, and the 1st, 2d, 4th-6th, 9th, and 10th Cavalry Regiments, 1850-1950 (IN, CA 1,494 images). Battery C, 144th Field Artillery, California National Guard, 1939 (AR, 1 image). Ben Johnson League baseball team, Junction City, KS, 1939 (M, 1 image).

Paintings (1 image): Watercolor of Alexander Hamilton as a Revolutionary War soldier, Provincial Company, New York Artillery, ca. 1776, by D.W.C. Falls, 1923 (AR).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.

The world's most famous hairpinned roads

Some of the world’s most scenic roads have series of hairpin turns climbing up and down the mountainside. A hairpin turn is a bend with a very acute inner angle, making it necessary for an oncoming vehicle to turn almost 180° to continue on the road.

Roads going up mountains are formed into hairpin turns, a sharp bend in a road on a steep incline. These turns, also known as switchbacks, are named hairpin turn because its resemblance to a hairpin/bobby pin. They are often built when a route climbs up or down a steep slope.
A quick search in Internet shows some of the most usual roads, the ones that everybody knows: Alpe d'Huez in the French Alps, famous for its 21 hairpin bends Lysevegen, famous for its 27 hairpin bends the Trollstigen road, famous for its 11 characteristic bends. But there are roads with more. Much more. Some roads follow a collection of never ending turns. And they are not showed in Internet pages. Here’s the list of some of the most famous hairpinned roads:

The most spectacular and important pass between Chile and Argentina is Paso de los Libertadores, also known as the Paso del Cristo Redentor, in particular, the stretch that locals call it, rightly, Los Caracoles (Snails Pass). It's one of the most scenic drives in the world . The pass reaches an elevation of 3,200 m (10,499 ft) above the sea level. The Argentina side turns out to be a gentle ascent, up relaxed through rugged mountain scenery of the area until the hole in the tunnel entrance.

The Stelvio Pass (in German Stilfser Joch) is a high mountain pass at an elevation of 2.757 m (9,045 feet) above the sea level, located in the Ortler Alps in Italy between Stilfs in South Tyrol and Bormio in the province of Sondrio. It's one of the highest mountain roads of Europe. The road itself is a marvel of engineering skill the exhilarating serpentine sections ask to be driven by experienced drivers for their own sakes. The road over the pass s particularly challenging to drive due to the presence of 48 hairpin bends, with the road becoming exceedingly narrow at some points, and some very steep inclines. Featuring hair-raising 180-degree corners, just one wrong move and you could find yourself going over the low concrete barrier and down the side of the Alps.

Col du Chaussy is a high mountain pass, at an elevation of 1,533m above the sea level, in the D77B road, located in the Savoie department in the Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. The Lacets de Montvernier – or Hairpins of Montvernier – are an astonishing piece of mountain road engineering. It climbs sharply via 17 hairpins tightly stacked one on top of another in just 3km. It's an improbable road clinging to the edge of the cliff. It's one of the most scenic drives in the world.

Jacob’s Ladder is the name of the sharply winding and precipitous ascent in a a steep and narrow zig-zag road in Ben Lomond Ranges, Tasmania. The road climbs up to Ben Lomond Mountain, at an elevation of 1.570 meters (5,150 ft) above the sea level. The road is unsealed and the final climb up Jacob’s Ladder to the plateau is steep. The turn off to Ben Lomond is 42 kilometres from Launceston via St Leonards on the Blessington Road. 14 kilometres along a well made gravel road, Jacobs Ladder is reached under towering dolerite cliffs. A spectacular drive then ascends Jacobs Ladder. And it’s in these kinds of environments that your vehicle is susceptible to all kinds of damage and sometimes, the simplest protection against these elements is a car cover Australia dust or Europe moisture standing no chance against it. With a simple car cover, you can protect your vehicle even on the roughest terrain. Visit here for more information on the type of car cover you need or click here to see all the different varieties that are available

Dangerous curvy mountainous road which rarely permit speeds over 30km/h., located in Montenegro, with a total length of 38km, between the cities of Cetinje and Kotor. The road fis mostly a narrow one-lane road offering stunning views of Kotor from above. The most famous part of the road is a stretch of 8.3km long, pretty steep, with 16 hairpin turns. Along this section, the road starts at an elevation of 458m above the sea level, and ends at 881m. Over this distance, the elevation gain is 423 meters. The average percentage is 5,09%.

Passo San Boldo is a mountain pass located between the cities of Trichiana and Tovena (Cison di Valmarino) in Veneto, Italy, at an elevation of 706 m (2,316 ft) that lies in the northern reaches of the Italian Alps. The most famous part of the climb is a short stretch of 700m including 7 hairpin turns.

SC-438 is the name of the sharply winding and precipitous ascent in a a steep and narrow zig-zag road in Serra do Rio do Rastro, a mountain range located in Lauro Müller, in the southeast of the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. The road has remarkable landscapes and deep crags. It's a ludicrously zigzagged route that tumbles past waterfalls, through canyons and past spectacular scenery from start to finish. The road climbs up at an elevation of 1,460 metres (4,790 feet) above the sea level. In the highest areas of this place, the Atlantic Ocean, located about 100 km (62 mi) away, can be spotted on clear days.

Col de Braus is a mountain pass at an elevation of 1.002m (3,287ft) above the sea level, located in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France. The wide road to reach the summit, called D2204, has a good surface, plenty of hairpins and 180 degrees turns and includes some beautifully engineered stacked hairpins with some amazing views.This col is the main gate to Col de Turini, the famous stage of the Monte Carlo Rally. The road is famous because there are several walled switch backs neatly stacked up on one another, and held in place by walls that could double as medieval fortifications.

Sani Pass is a high mountain pass at an elevation of 2,876m (9,400ft) above the sea level, located in the western end of Kwa Zulu-Natal province of South Africa on the road between Underberg and Mokhotlong, Lesotho. It is a notoriously dangerous road, which requires the use of a 4x4 vehicle. It’s a series of winding twists, hairpins, plunging drops and mind-blowing scenery. Sani Pass pass was built in 1950’s and remains a challenging drive in 4x4 vehicles with all the drama, scenery, bad weather and treacherous conditions expected of a pass with this altitude

Forcella Lavardet is a high mountain pass in the Dolomites-Alps range, at an elevation of 1.542m (5,000 ft) above the sea level, located on the municipality of Vigo di Cadore (Italy). The road has 14 sharp turns that seem to lie on one another, gradually climbing up to the top of the pass. The road, with some unpaved and gravel sections, and connecting Canale di Gorto and Campolongo, is closed to vehicles after some streams and detachments, but is passable by bike, and includes some of the most incredible hairpins in the Carnic Alps. It's called Strada statale 465 della Forcella Lavardet e di Valle San Canciano 465 and it was an old military road.

Serra da Leba pass is a high mountain pass at an elevation of 1.845m (6,053ft) above the sea level, located in the province of Huíla, in Angola. The road to the top is asphalted and pretty steep. The most famous part of the climb is a short section of 1.7km, with 7 hairpin turns. The surface of the road is asphalted, and chains or snow tyres can be required throughout the year- Located near the city of Lubango , Serra da Leba is famous for its altitude, for its beauty and also for the road over the pass.

The Portachuelo Llanganuco Pass, at an elevation of 4.767m (15.639') above the sea level, is perhaps the most significant gateway of the Huascaran National Park, Peru. The most famous section of the road up to the pass is a 8.5km long section. Over this distance, the road includes 28 hairpin turns and the elevation gain is 527 meters. The average percentage is 6.2%.

The Burr Trail is a dirt track located in Utah, USA, with a length of 68-mile (109 km), winding through dramatic portions of the Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument, Capitol Reef National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Although in dry weather it's easily accessible to passenger cars, wet weather may make the road impassable even for 4WD vehicles.

Sangetsar Lake

The Sangetsar Lake is a high mountain lake at an elevation of 3.708m above the sea level located in the Tawang district, in the northwestern part of Arunachal Pradesh in India. It’s one of the remotest high altitude lakes in India. Often known as Madhuri lake, the road is terrible. Only 4x4. Expect a narrow gravel road, unprotected by guardrails. One requires a special permit from the District Commissioner's (DC) office located at Tawang to visit this lake. Only Indian nationals are allowed here. This lake was formed during the earthquake of 1973. Starting in Zemithang, the road has 52 hairpin turns.

With a length of 1,7km and a gradient of 20%, Stalheimskleiva is one of the steepest roads in Northern Europe. Located in Norway, this one-lane road has 13 hairpin bends and was built by manual labour between 1842 and 1846. The Stalheimskleiva road runs up a ridge between two cascading waterfalls that can both be seen from the road. It’s open except from winter-season. It’s incredibly narrow, so speeds are often reduced as cars make the hairpin turns.

The Tsugaru Iwaki Skyline is one of the most challenging drives on Earth. Located in Japan, this road with 66 hairpin turns will make you carsick just looking at it. This scenic toll road goes from the foot of Mt. Iwaki up to the eighth station, at 1,247 meters (4,091 feet) above the sea level. The zig-zagging road is open from Mid April to late October and not recommended if your passengers are prone to car sickness. The gate is open from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (Road closed from 5:00 p.m.). Bicycles aren’t allowed access even when the road is open. The average gradient is 8.66% with sections up to 10%.

Nestled in the Western Himalayas in the Ladakh region of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, Gata Loops roller coaster ride is a series of 22 hairpin bends that takes you to the top of Nakeela La. These loops are said to be haunted by the ghost of a dead trucker. The loops are 10.3 km and each loop is between 300-600 meters. The longest loops are the last two ones being 800 meters and a kilometer and a half respectively. The angularly elevated roads facilitate passage by loaded trucks. There are shortcuts across the loops but only small vehicles can pass through them.

Located in Peru, the road is gravel and pretty narrow. The most challenging part of the road is a collection of 52 hairpin turns in just 10.4km, climbing from 3.075m to 3.894m above the sea level. The average gradient is 7.87%, with some parts up to 15%.

Babusar Pass is a high mountain pass at an elevation of 4.173 m (13,691 ft) above the sea level. The pass is the highest point in the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. The pass connects the Kaghan Valley via the Thak Nala with Chilas on the Karakoram Highway (KKH). From the middle of July up to the end of September the road beyond Naran is open right up to Babusar Pass. However, movement is restricted during the monsoon and winter seasons, but it can be closed anytime when the access is not cleared of snow.

The road between Kallikratis and Kapsodasos is a sharply winding and precipitous ascent in a a steep and narrow zig-zag road in southwest Crete, Greece. The road includes a famous section (2.1km) with 7 hairpin turns and pretty steep (8.95%). This curvy mountainous road which rarely permits speeds over 30km/h, is 11km long and the expected time to drive the whole route is around 24 minutes, with 27 hairpin turns that will take you from the sea level to 800 meter high.

Moldo-Ashuu is a high mountain pass at an elevation of 3,346 m above the sea leve, located in the Tian Shan mountains of Naryn province, in Kyrgyzstan. It’s said to be one of the most beautiful passes in the country. The road to the summit is gravel. Only 4wd cars. The road runs along the Kurtka river canyon. It’s usually closed from November to March.

Curvas de Huanchaca is a collection of 24 hairpin turns in the graveled Route 3SF, in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. This stretch of road, with a length of 9.8km, starts at 2.261m above the sea level, and climbs up to 2.900m. The Curvas de Huanchaca ascent is 9.8 km long. Over this distance, the elevation gain is 639 meters. The average percentage is 6.5 %. The surface of the road is gravel and sand.

Lowari Pass is a high mountain pass at an elevation of 3.118 m (10,230 ft) above the sea level, located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The road over the pass is called N45 and links Dir and Chitral, and winds its way through the tribal regions bordering Afghanistan. The road is known among locals as Hell's Road. It was built by the British and is a road where even the slightest error can be fatal. The pass is closed by snow from late November to late May every year.

N6 is a paved road located in central Yemen, with a length of 52,1km. The road (also called R4234) climbs up the Lawdar Mountain Pass, at an elevation of 2,267m above the sea level. The road has 34 switchbacks. This asphalted road starts in Lawdar, a town and seat of Lawdar District in south-western Yemen, at an elevation of 983m above the sea level.

Three Level Zigzag roads is probably the most dizzying road in the world. Located in the Sikkim Indian state, in the Himalayan mountains, the road includes more than 100 hairpins in just 30km. It's one of the most scenic drives in the world. This spiral road is located near Zuluk or Dzuluk, a small village located in the historic Old Silk Route from Tibet to India, on the rugged terrain of the lower Himalayas in East Sikkim. There are sheer drops virtually along the entire route and enough hairpins to make a whirling dervish dizzy.

Col de Tende (or Colle di Tenda) is a high mountain pass at an elevation of 1.870m (6,135ft) above the sea level, located in the Alps, on the border between France and Italy. In 7km this terrific road includes more than 48 hairpin turns. There are forts along the ridge line in both directions. It's one of the highest mountain roads of the Alps. The first part of the road is asphalted, but then turns into gravel and sand in a bumpy section full of hairpins half-way up. The pass separates the Maritime Alps from the Ligurian Alps. It connects Nice and Tende in Alpes-Maritimes with Cuneo in Piedmont. At the wheel of your hire car, this route will see you negotiate a quite thrilling route through a series of tunnels and cuttings across the Maritime Alps and into France.

The 24-Zig Road is one of the most spectacular roads in China. This winding mountain road is located near Qinglong town in Guizhou Province, in the southwest of the country. The road is gravel. It was built during WW-II, and played an important role in the supply of China during the war to help resist the Japanese invasion. At present the road is no longer in active use but is still used as a shortcut by motorbikes and three-wheelers.

The Hana Highway is one of the most scenic drives in the world . Located in Maui, the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands, the road is 52 miles (84 km) long. You will pass 617 white-knuckle switchbacks, 56 one-lane bridges, and tons of waterfalls as you travel away from civilization. This snake-like hairpin bends on a warped narrow road links Kahulu i with the town of Hāna. This serpentine coastal route offers a perfect antidote to the vagaries of mainland winters—and a complete escape from daily life. You’ll have to navigate through and around 600 hairpin turns, 54 one-lane bridges, steep cliff drops, falling rocks, and even some confusing mile markers that reset. Plus it rains often. Winding its way past waterfalls, beaches, bridges and spectacular ocean views, the 600 hairpin turns and 54 bridges make it one of the most demanding.

Aristi - Papingo road is a very scenic drive in the Ioannina regional unit, Epirus, Greece, going through the Pindos Mountains. On the drive down you are rewarded with views of a mountainous landscape blanketed in forest as far as the eye can see. The road links the towns of Aristi and Papingo. It is a steep and winding road that takes you slowly past the Voidomatis river. The road encompasses miles of stunning views through twisty hair pin corners, high elevations and steep grades. It’s asphalted and includes 23 hairpin turns. The views are breathtaking, but these subtle hints on every turn remind you to keep your eyes on the road.

Road 663 is one of the scariest roads in the world. Located near the Llata town, in Huanuco region of Peru, the road is only wide enough for one vehicle, and in many places bordered by a drop of 300 meters unprotected by guardrails. The road is 12.3km long. It’s gravel. Words can’t describe the road and pictures don’t do it justice. Carretera 663 follows the Marañon river. The road is in dreadful condition and requires strong nerves to negotiate it.

The Passo dello Spluga is an international igh mountain pass, at an elevation of 2.115 m (6,939 ft) above the sea level, on the border between Switzerland and Italy. It's one of the highest mountain roads of the Alps. A series of hairpins and great views make this one to see and drive. The pass links the Swiss Hinterrhein valley and Splügen in the canton of Graubünden with the Valle Spluga and Chiavenna in the Italian province of Sondrio. The road traversing the pass, the SS36, continues to Lake Como. Near the top, some incredible views of the distant snow covered peaks and valleys become visible. The pass was already in use in the Roman era. This pass has a high regard among cyclists, mostly because of the difficult and exciting south side. There are water and restaurants on the south side, if you need to stop.

The popular tourist road Lysevegen in Forsand in Ryfylke (FV500) is a curvy mountainous road going from Lysebotn innermost in the Lysefjord to Sirdal, with a length of 29 km (18 mi.) This is an impressive road in the high mountains of Rogaland and Vest Agder some of it single carriageway with passing places - with impressive scenery and weather. This road, located in Rogaland county in the southwest of Norway, has its highest point in the Andersvatn lake, at an elevation of 932 m (3057 ft.) above the sea level. At the top of the turns is Øygardstølen that has a parking lot, service building for trips to Kjerag, and food services.

The Saint Gotthard Pass is a high mountain pass located in central Switzerland, at an elevation of 2.091m (6,860 feet) above the sea level. The first road over the pass was opened in 1830 and connects Airolo in the canton of Ticino, and Göschenen in the canton of Uri. A quick glance at the map, at its sheer drops and serpentine twists and turns, confirms that this is no hype. As the road flattens out at the top of the pass, signs will direct you to the National Gotthard Museum , which will teach you the history of the pass and the efforts to make it more easily passable over the years. The old hospice beside the road now houses the engaging Museo Nazionale del San Gottardo (May–Oct daily 9am–6pm Fr.8 SMP), which outlines the history of the pass with models, reliefs, paintings and audiovisual slide-shows.

The Old Kunyi Road is one of the most challenging drives in China. It has 26 hairpin turns in just over 2.1 km long. Located in the Yunnan Province, this gravel road is really awesome. There is a sharp turn every few meters. It’s one of most crooked roads in the country. Many locals even do not know it. The road is pretty steep. It’s 2.1km long and the elevation gain is 139m. The average gradient is 6.6%.

Located in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France, the D80 road is 10.3km long and links the towns of Villargondran, at 700m above the sea level and Albiez-le-Jeune, at 1.367 masl on a 38 hairpin turns section. It’s pretty narrow and steep, with an average gradient of 7%, with several ramps over the 10%.

54th Massachusetts Regiment

Photograph of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw

The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment is best known for its service leading the failed Union assault on Battery Wagner, a Confederate earthwork fortification on Morris Island, on July 18, 1863. This was one of the first major actions in which African American soldiers fought for the Union in the American Civil War. The courage of the soldiers in the 54th convinced many politicians and Army officers of their value, prompting the further enlistment of black soldiers.

Recruiting the 54th Massachusetts

Governor John A. Andrew of Massachusetts, an abolitionist, eagerly organized the creation of the regiment following the Emancipation Proclamation. Recruiting offices were opened throughout the United States and even in Canada as Massachusetts did not have a sufficiently large free black population to fill the regiment. Recruitment met with such success that enough men were raised to form not only the 54th Regiment but also a second black infantry regiment, the 55th Massachusetts.

Governor Andrew also sought out white officers with similar anti-slavery views to lead the regiment, including Captain Robert Gould Shaw of the 2nd Massachusetts Infantry Regiment. Shaw, a Harvard graduate, had already seen combat and been wounded at the Battle of Antietam. Shaw and other officers trained the men of the 54th from March until late May 1863. On May 28, 1863 the 54th received its colors, marching through Boston, and loaded onto the transport Demolay for their voyage south. An estimated twenty thousand people came out to see their march, abolitionists promiment among them. As the 54th marched over the spot of the Boston Massacre of 1770 where Crispus Attucks had fallen, they broke into song, singing "John Brown's Body."

"The 54th Massachusetts regiment, under the leadership of Colonel Shaw in the attack on Fort Wagner, Morris Island, South Carolina, in 1863," mural at the Recorder of Deeds building, Washington DC

The Fight for Wagner

Initially tasked with manual labor details, the 54th did not see real action until a skirmish with Confederate troops on James Island on July 16, 1863. The Battle of Grimball's Landing served as a diversion for the later attack on Battery Wagner and also provided the men of the 54th with combat experience.

Five thousand US Army soldiers began marching in the darkness toward Battery Wagner on the evening of July 18, which stood eerily quiet in the distance. The Union high command anticipated a victory as Union artillery from shore batteries and aboard Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren's fleet had pounded the Confederate garrison in preparation for the assault. Defending Morris Island, Brigadier General William Taliaferro of Virginia commanded about 1,800 Confederates, representing units from South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia, all of whom were determined to repulse the expected Union attack. Leading the Union attack were the men of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment under the command of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw. Though many northern states were represented on the field, the 54th stood out as one of the first African American regiments to see major combat during the war. Ready to demonstrate their bravery and military bearing, they pushed on until coming within one hundred yards of the Confederate line, at which point the order was given to charge. Almost immediately, Southern guns opened fire, tearing through the Union ranks with devastating effect. Temporarily halted by the intense fire, Shaw gathered his men and led them through the moat and up the slope.

Upon reaching the top, Confederate soldiers engaged them in hand-to-hand combat. At this climatic moment, Shaw was killed by a Confederate volley, moments after shouting to his men "Forward Fifty-Fourth!" the men of the 54th continued the fight even amid heavy casualties. The 54th suffered roughly 42% casualties in a horrific battle against a strongly defended position. Of 600 men, over 280 men were killed, wounded, captured, and/or missing and presumed dead. Behind them, units from New York, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maine, and Pennsylvania pressed forward in an attempt to capitalize on the assault of the 54th. Severe fighting continued for several hours. Union troops were able to briefly penetrate into Wagner itself but not could exploit their breakthrough due to determined Confederate counterattacks and sweeping artillery fire. Finally in the early hours of July 19, Union troops withdrew, and the fierce battle came to an end.


Because of the valor shown by the men of the 54th, the US Army increased the number of black enlistments so that by 1865 almost two hundred thousand African Americans had served from 1863-1865, comprising roughly ten percent of the American soldiers who served in the US Army during the Civil War. The 54th Massachusetts Regiment not only fought the Confederates in the field, they also took up the call for equal pay and fought against discrimination from the US government.

Photograph of William Carney with Medal of Honor

Sergeant William H. Carney

Sergeant William H. Carney, born enslaved in Virginia, settled in New Bedford, Massachusetts after escaping bondage via the Underground Railroad. While serving with the 54th, he was severely injured in the assault on Wagner and saved the national colors after the color bearer fell. "As quick as a thought," recounted Carney years later, "I threw away my gun, seized the colors, and made my way to the head of the column." Carney proclaimed to fellow survivors of the 54th: "Boys, I did but my duty the dear old flag never touched the ground." On May 23, 1900 President Theodore Roosevelt awarded Carney the Congressional Medal of Honor for his valor 37 years earlier, becoming the first African American to receive the honor.

The 54th Massachusetts After Battery Wagner

The 54th continued to serve on the southeast coast for the remainder of the war. Although most of its service took place in Charleston Harbor, the regiment also saw service in a significant campaign in Florida in 1864 where they repulsed attacking Confederates, guarding the Union retreat in the aftermath of the Union defeat at the Battle of Olustee in Florida. They also fought at Honey Hill and Boykin's Mill, South Carolina in the waning months of the war. The regiment mustered out of service in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina on August 20, 1865.

Photograph of Augustus St. Gauden's Shaw Memorial

Remembering the 54th Massachusetts

Augustus Saint-Gauden’s high-relief bronze monument on Boston Common in downtown Boston immortalized Colonel Shaw and the men of the 54th Massachusetts. The bas-relief was unveiled in 1897 and is now part of Boston African American National Historic Site.

Commissioned by a group of private citizens, Saint-Gaudens first envisioned a lone equestrian statue of Colonel Shaw. Shaw's family encouraged Saint-Gaudens to take a different approach, and the resulting work commemorated not only the regiment's famed colonel but also the soldiers he commanded, a revolutionary concept for the time period.

The New England Colonies

The first English emigrants to what would become the New England colonies were a small group of Puritan separatists, later called the Pilgrims, who arrived in Plymouth in 1620 to found Plymouth Colony. Ten years later, a wealthy syndicate known as the Massachusetts Bay Company sent a much larger (and more liberal) group of Puritans to establish another Massachusetts settlement. With the help of local natives, the colonists soon got the hang of farming, fishing and hunting, and Massachusetts prospered. 

As the Massachusetts settlements expanded, they generated new colonies in New England. Puritans who thought that Massachusetts was not pious enough formed the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven (the two combined in 1665). Meanwhile, Puritans who thought that Massachusetts was too restrictive formed the colony of Rhode Island, where everyone–including Jewish people𠄾njoyed complete “liberty in religious concernments.” To the north of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a handful of adventurous settlers formed the colony of New Hampshire.

Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps

Some find it stiff and lifeless, proof of David’s ineptness at capturing movement. Some see it not as art, but propaganda, pure and simple. Some snigger at its overblown, action-packed, cliff-hanging momentousness, with shades of “Hi ho Silver, away!” Some have it down as a sort of beginning of the end moment in David’s career, before he officially became Napoleon’s artist-lackey. Whatever one might say, though (and a lot has been said about Napoleon Crossing the Alps), it is still arguably the most successful portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte that was ever made. Personally, I love it.


Completed in four months, from October 1800 to January 1801, it signals the dawning of a new century. After a decade of terror and uncertainty following the Revolution, France was emerging as a great power once more. At the heart of this revival, of course, was General Napoleon Bonaparte who, in 1799, had staged an uprising against the revolutionary government (a coup d’état), installed himself as First Consul, and effectively become the most powerful man in France (a few years later he will declare himself emperor).

In May 1800 he led his troops across the Alps in a military campaign against the Austrians which ended in their defeat in June at the Battle of Marengo. It is this achievement the painting commemorates. The portrait was commissioned by Charles IV, then King of Spain, to be hung in a gallery of paintings of other great military leaders housed in the Royal Palace in Madrid.

Napoleon and the portrait

Famously, Napoleon offered David little support in executing the painting. Refusing to sit for it, he argued that: “Nobody knows if the portraits of the great men resemble them, it is enough that their genius lives there.” All David had to work from was an earlier portrait and the uniform Napoleon had worn at Marengo. One of David’s sons stood in for him, dressed up in the uniform and perched on top of a ladder. This probably accounts for the youthful physique of the figure.

Napoleon, however, was not entirely divorced from the process. He was the one who settled on the idea of an equestrian portrait: “calme sur un cheval fougueux” (calm on a fiery horse), were his instructions to the artist. And David duly obliged. What better way, after all, to demonstrate Napoleon’s ability to wield power with sound judgment and composure. The fact that Napoleon did not actually lead his troops over the Alps but followed a couple of days after them, traveling on a narrow path on the back of a mule is not the point!


Like many equestrian portraits, a genre favored by royalty, Napoleon Crossing the Alps is a portrait of authority. Napoleon is pictured astride a rearing Arabian stallion. Before him to his left we see a mountain, while in the background, largely obscured by rocks, French troops haul along a large canon and further down the line fly the tricolore (the national flag of France) .

Napoleon (detail), Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps or Bonaparte at the St Bernard Pass, 1800-1, oil on canvas, 261 x 221 cm (Chateau de Malmaison, Rueil-Malmaison)

Bonaparte’s gloveless right hand points up towards the invisible summit, more for us to follow, one feels, than the soldiers in the distance. Raised arms are often found in David’s work, though this one is physically connected with the setting, echoing the slope of the mountain ridge. Together with the line of his cloak, these create a series of diagonals that are counterbalanced by the clouds to the right. The overall effect is to stabilize the figure of Napoleon.

The landscape is treated as a setting for the hero, not as a subject in itself. On the rock to the bottom left (below), for instance, the name of Napoleon is carved beside the names of Hannibal and Charlemagne—two other notable figures who led their troops over the Alps. David uses the landscape then to reinforce what he wishes to convey about his subject. In terms of scale alone, Napoleon and his horse dominate the pictorial plane. Taking the point further, if with that outstretched arm and billowing cloak, his body seems to echo the landscape, the reverse might equally hold true, that it is the landscape that echoes him, and is ultimately mastered by his will. David seems to suggest that this man, whose achievements will be celebrated for centuries to come, can do just about anything.

Inscriptions reading “Bonaparte,” “Hannibal,” and “Karolus Magnus”(detail), Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps or Bonaparte at the St Bernard Pass, 1800-1, oil on canvas, 261 x 221 cm (Chateau de Malmaison, Rueil-Malmaison)

Napoleon was obviously flattered. He ordered three more versions to be painted a fifth was also produced which stayed in David’s studio. Reflecting the breadth of Napoleon’s European conquests, one was hung in Madrid, two in Paris, and one in Milan.


In 1801 David was awarded the position of Premier Peintre (First Painter) to Napoleon. One may wonder how he felt about this new role. Certainly David idolized the man. Voilà mon héros (here is my hero), he said to his students when the general first visited him in his studio. And perhaps it was a source of pride for him to help secure Napoleon’s public image. Significantly, he signs and dates Napoleon Crossing the Alps on the horse’s breastplate, a device used to hold the saddle firmly in place. The breastplate also serves as a constraint, though, and given his later huge commissions, such as The Coronation of Napoleon, one wonders if David’s creative genius was inhibited as a result of his hero’s patronage.

Jacques-Louis David, The Coronation of Napoleon, 1805-07, oil on canvas, 621 x 979 cm (Louvre)

In Napoleon Crossing the Alps, however, the spark is still undeniably there. Very much in accord with the direction his art was taking at the time, “a return to the pure Greek” as he put it. In it he molds the image of an archetype, the sort one finds on medals and coins, instantly recognizable and infinitely reproducible, a hero for all time.


Crockett, Norman L. The Black Towns. Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1979.

de Graaf, Lawrence B., Kevin Mulroy, and Quintard Taylor, eds. Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California, 1769 – 1997. Los Angeles: Autry Museum of Western Heritage Seattle: University of Seattle Press, 2001.

Franklin, Jimmie Lewis. Journey Toward Hope: A History of Blacks in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982.

Hamilton, Kenneth Marvin. Black Towns and Profit: Promotion and Development in the Trans-Appalachian West, 1877 – 1915. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Smallwood, James M. Time of Hope, Time of Despair: Black Texans During Reconstruction. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat, 1981.

Taylor, Quintard. In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528 – 1990. New York: Norton, 1998.

Leprosy Complications

Without treatment, leprosy can permanently damage your skin, nerves, arms, legs, feet, and eyes.

Complications of leprosy can include:

  • Blindness or glaucoma
  • Disfiguration of the face (including permanent swelling, bumps, and lumps) and infertility in men
  • Kidney failure
  • Muscle weakness that leads to claw-like hands or a not being able to flex your feet
  • Permanent damage to the inside of your nose, which can lead to nosebleeds and a chronic stuffy nose
  • Permanent damage to the nerves outside your brain and spinal cord, including those in the arms, legs, and feet

Nerve damage can lead to a dangerous loss of feeling. If you have leprosy-related nerve damage, you may not feel pain when you get cuts, burns, or other injuries on your hands, legs, or feet.


PubMed Health: "Leprosy," "Lepromin Skin Test."

Merck Manual Home Edition, online version: "Leprosy."

CDC: "Hansen's Disease: Leprosy."

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: "Hansen's disease."

World Health Organization: “Leprosy,” "Leprosy: The Disease," "FAQ Sheet," "Microbiology of M. leprae," "Leprosy: The Treatment."

UCSF Health: “Lepromin skin test.”

National Organization for Rare Disorders: “Leprosy.”

Health Resources and Services Administration: “National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program Caring and Curing Since 1894.”

Timeline of Key Events in Cuban History

These are key dates in Cuban history, from Columbus's arrival in 1492 to the present.

Christopher Columbus arrives in Cuba and claims the territory for Spain.

Spaniards under Diego Velzquez conquer Cuba and its aboriginal groups. Spain establishes settlements, colonizing Cuba. Havana's superb harbor makes it a common transit point to and from Spain.

Havana is founded as San Cristbal de la Habana by Velzquez.

Sugar, which will eventually become Cuba's largest crop, is first grown.

Slaves from Africa first arrive in Cuba.

Spain's King declares that tobacco, Cuba's main crop, cannot be sold to foreigners. Those who violate the decree could be executed.

Havana becomes the capital of Cuba.

About one-third of Havana's population dies of yellow fever.

Havana is captured by the British under Admiral George Pocock and Lord Albemarle during the Seven Years War. Cuba begins to export sugar to the British colonies.

The occupation of Havana ends as the city is returned under the Treaty of Paris.

Cuban authorities brutally suppress what they believe is plot by free blacks in Cuba to abolish slavery and end colonial rule. The suspected revolt is known as Conspiracy of La Escale. The crackdown is called the Year of the Lash. About 400 blacks were killed, some 600 jailed, and another 400 expelled.

Fed up with high taxes, restricted trade, and the lack of native Cubans in government, Cubans under revolutionary leader Maj. Gen. Calixto Garcia fight for independence from Spain in the Ten Years War. They fail to win independence in the long, bloody war. In the Treaty of Zanjn, Spain promised Cubans more representation in government and reforms, but failed to deliver.

Rebels launch a second bid for independence in the "Little War," which is also led by Maj. Gen. Calixto Garcia. Their resources depleted from the Ten Years War, the rebels suffered defeat.

Sugar prices drop precipitously, causing many Cuban sugar mills to fall into bankruptcy. U.S. businesses invest in the mills.

Slavery is abolished in Cuba.

Under the leadership of poet Jos Mart and Gen. Mximo Gmez y Bez rebels begin another revolt against Spanish rule.

Under Spanish general Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, the Spanish military forced Cuba's rural population into concentration camps, where thousands died from disease, starvation, and exposure. This, along with the toll the uprising was taking on U.S. investment in Cuba, "yellow journalism" exaggerating the atrocities committed by Spain in Cuba, and the strategic importance of the island, led the U.S. to consider intervention.

The Spanish-American War begins shortly after the sinking of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor.

The Platt Amendment, part of an army appropriations bill, established the conditions that U.S. could intervene in Cuba and allowed the U.S. to lease land to create a naval base in Cuba.

The U.S. ends its military occupation of Cuba. Cuba becomes an independent republic with Estrada Palma as its first president.

The U.S. and Cuba sign the Treaty of Reciprocity, which reduced the duty of products imported and exported between the two nations and set the tariff on certain products, including sugar.

President Estrada Palma defeats Liberal Party candidate Jos Miguel Gmez in the presidential election. Opponents claim Palma rigged the election to ensure victory.

Jos Miguel Gmez leads an uprising in Cuba against President Estrada Palma. The tumult prompts the U.S. to occupy Cuba. Charles Magoon, an American attorney, serves as governor of Cuba.

The U.S. occupation ends. Jos Miguel Gmez becomes president. His tenure is marred by accusations of corruption.

Black Cubans rise up and protest against discrimination. The U.S. military returns to Cuba to quell the uprising.

Conservative politician Mario Garca Menocal is elected president.

Mario Garca Menocal is reelected.

Menocal suppresses a liberal revolt led by Jos Miguel Gmez, called the Chambelona War. The liberals demanded that Menocal observe the constitution and that elections be free of fraud.

Cuba enters World War I on the side of the Allies.

Alfredo Zayas, a liberal who participated in the Chambelona War, is elected president. The elections was widely considered fraudulent.

Gerardo Machado, a businessman, is elected president. He ran on the "Platform of Regeneration," promising to invest in Cuba's infrastructure.

The Cuban Communist Party is established.

Under pressure from Machado, Congress passes an amendment extending the presidential term to six years. President Machado becomes increasingly repressive and several insurgent groups challenge him.

Cuba is affected the economic crisis in the U.S. The U.S. increases the duty on Cuban sugar, causing the market and production to drop. Cuba is hit by an economic depression.

Under pressure from the Cuban military and the U.S. government, President Machado resigns. Carlos Manuel de Cspedes becomes provisional president, but he is ineffectual and overthrown in a student-led coup led by Sgt. Fulgencio Batista. The uprising is called the "sergeant's revolt." The students form the Provincial Revolutionary Government with Ramon Grau San Martin as president. Batista becomes head of the army and in that capacity, the de facto leader of Cuba. The Provincial Revolutionary Government considers the Platt Amendment, which allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuba, no longer valid.

Amid the growing sense of nationalism in Cuba, the U.S. abrogates the Platt Amendment.

The Provincial Revolutionary Government is overthrown by members of the military and civilians loyal to Batista, who is backed by the U.S. He remains in control of the country behind a series of puppet presidents.

Democratic elections are held, and Batista wins the presidency. He implements a new constitution but runs a corrupt police state.

Batista leaves office. Former president Ramon Gray San Martin wins the presidential election. He implements a series of social and economic reforms before facing allegations of corruption.

With the backing of the army, Fulgencio Batista orchestrates another coup, ousting Carlos Pro Socarrs, who took office in 1948. He becomes increasingly repressive during his second term of office.

Fidel Castro leads a liberal uprising against the right-wing dictatorship of Batista.

Fidel Castro and Ernesto "Che" Guevara join forces in what they called the 26th of July Movement and launch a guerilla war against Batista's repressive regime. They are defeated by Batista's forces, but the movement gains in strength, numbers, and organization.

The U.S. halts military aid to Cuba.

Some 9,000 guerilla fighters led by Castro drive Batista out of Cuba. Castro becomes prime minister, his brother Raul Castro is named minister of the armed forces, and Guevara is third in command. within a few months, Castro established military tribunals for political opponents and jailed hundreds.

Castro confiscates U.S. assets, nationalizes U.S. businesses, and establishes Soviet-style collective farms.

A U.S.-backed group of Cuban exiles invades Cuba. Planned during the Eisenhower administration, the invasion is given the go-ahead by President John Kennedy, although he refuses to give U.S. air support. The landing at the Bay of Pigs was a fiasco. The invaders do not receive popular Cuban support and are easily repulsed by the Cuban military.

The Organization of American States expels Cuba.

The Cuban Missile Crisis brings the U.S. and Cuba to the brink of nuclear war. The Soviets attempt to install medium-range missiles in Cuba?capable of striking targets in the United States with nuclear warheads. Denouncing the Soviets for "deliberate deception," President Kennedy promised a U.S. blockade of Cuba to stop the missile delivery. Six days later, Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev ordered the missile sites dismantled and returned to the USSR in return for a U.S. pledge not to attack Cuba.

Cuba's only political party, the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations, is renamed the Communist Party of Cuba.

Guevara is executed in Bolivia.

Cuba joins the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, an international economic organization led by the Soviets.

Cuba sends troops to Angola to support the Marxist Movement for the Popular Liberation of Angola, one of three rebel groups fighting for independence from Portugal.

The Cuban Communist Party adopts a socialist constitution. Fidel Castro becomes president of Cuba.

Castro sends about 12,000 troops and aid to Ethiopia to support Communist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam in his campaign against against Eritrean secessionists, Somali rebels, and political opponents.

The U.S. establishes limited diplomatic ties with Cuba on Sept. 1, 1977, making it easier for Cuban Americans to visit the island.

Contact with Cuban Americans prompts a wave of discontent in Cuba, producing a flood of asylum seekers. In response, Castro opened the port of Mariel to a "freedom flotilla" of boats from the U.S., allowing 125,000 to flee to Miami. After the refugees arrive, it's discovered that their ranks were swelled with prisoners, mental patients, and others unwanted by the Cuban government.

Russian aid, which had long supported Cuba's failing economy, ends when Communism collapsed in eastern Europe. Cuba's foreign trade also plummets, producing a severe economic crisis.

The U.S. tightens its embargo against Cuba. In an attempt to revive the economy, Castro permits limited private enterprise, allows Cubans to possess convertible currencies, and encourages foreign investment in its tourist industry.

In an attempt to stem the flow of refugees from Cuba to the U.S., the two countries reach an accord that calls on Cuba to stop the exodus and for the U.S. to legally admit at least 20,000 Cubans each year.

The Cuban military shoots down two U.S. civilian planes operated by Cuban exiles. In repsonse, the U.S. makes permanent its embargo against Cuba with the Helms-Burton Act.

Pope John Paul II visits Cuba. He is the first pope to do so.

Elian Gonzalez, 5, is rescued by the U.S. Coast Guard in waters off Miami. The boy, his mother, her boyfriend, and 14 other Cubans had attempted to flee Cuba in a small aluminum motorboat. Gonzalez, who floated on an inner tube for two days before he was found, is one of three survivors. Relatives in Miami took in the boy and pleaded with the government to allow him to remain in the U.S. Gonzalez returned to Cuba in 2000 after the Supreme Court declined to hear an emergency appeal filed by the boy's Miami relatives, who desperately tried to keep the boy in the U.S.

The U.S. passes legislation allowing the sale of food and medicine to Cuba.

Russia and Cuba sign a deal to increase ties between the countries.

For the first time in 40 years, the U.S. sends food to Cuba. Cuba had requested the aid after the country was hit by Hurricane Michelle.

Terror suspects apprehended in Afghanistan in the U.S.-led war on terror are detained at the Guantanamo Bay prison.

U.S. Under Secretary of State John Bolton accuses Cuba of trying to develop biological weapons. He adds the country to the list of nations President George W. Bush said form the "axis of evil."

Former president Jimmy Carter visits Cuba. He criticizes the U.S. embargo against Cuba as well as Cuba's human rights record.

In March and April, Castro sends nearly 80 dissidents to prison with long sentences, prompting an international condemnation of Cuba's harsh supression of human rights.

The Bush administration again tightens its embargo against Cuba in June, allowing Cuban Americans to return to the island only once every three years (instead of every year) and restricting the amount of U.S. cash that can be spent there to $50 per day. In response, Cuba bans the use of dollars, which had been legal currency in the country for more than a decade.

Castro is hospitalized because of an illness and temporarily turns over power to his brother Ral. In October, it is revealed that Castro has cancer and will not return to power.

Fidel Castro, 81, announces his retirement in February. He held power for 49 years. Ral Castro succeeds his brother, becoming the 21st president of Cuba.

Foreign Minister Felipe Prez Roque in February signs the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. The Covenants ensure citizens' political and civil freedom, and gaurantee the right to work, fair wages, social security, education, and high standards of physical and mental health.

The government relaxes land restrictions for private farmers in July, in an effort to boost the country's poor food production and reduce dependence on food imports.

Hurricanes Gustav and Ike strike Cuba in August and September, causing devastating damage across the island.

The U.S. Congress votes in March to repeal restrictions on Cuban-Americans visiting Havana and sending money into the country.

In a government shake-up, Cabinet Secretary Carlos Lage and Foreign Minister Felipe Perez Roque, veterans of the Fidel Castro era, resign.

The Organization of American States lifts its 47-year suspension of Cuba. Cuba, however, said it would not resume membership in the organization.

Castro makes a surprise announcement in July that he plans to release 52 political prisoners. The prisoners?activists and journalists?have been held since a 2003 crackdown on dissidents.

With the economy in tatters largely a result of the 2008 hurricanes and the world financial crisis, the government announces massive cuts to public sector jobs.

Cuba makes the most significant change to its leadership in over 50 years in April, appointing Jos Ramn Machado to fill the second-highest position in the Communist Party. It is the first time since the 1959 revolution that someone other than the Castro brothers has been named to the position.

In October, buying and selling cars becomes legal. Raul Castro also starts allowing Cubans to go into business for themselves in a variety of approved jobs. The next month, government allows real estate to be bought and sold for the first time since the revolution.

The government pardoned more than 2,900 prisoners in December.

Pope Benedict XVI visits Cuba in March. He calls on Cuban officials to further expand human rights and on the U.S. to lift the trade embargo.

The government announces that beginning in early 2013 Cubans will no longer be required to acquire a costly exit visa when leaving the country.

Raul Castro is re-elected president in February. He says he will step down in 2018, the end of his second term in office.

In December, the Cuban government frees U.S. aid contractor Alan Gross, who had been in captivity for five years. Gross had been sentenced to 15 years in prison in 2011 after his effort to create a way to communicate outside of the Cuban government's control. In response, President Barack Obama announces that the U.S. would resume full diplomatic relations with Cuba, which includes opening an embassy in Havana. There hasn't been any diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba since 1961.

The U.S. lifts the ban on Americans traveling to Cuba.

The State Department sends a recommendation to the president that Cuba be removed from the State Sponsors of Terrorism List, a major hurdle in the path toward normalizing relations.

In April, President Obama and Cuban president Raul Castro meet at the Summit of the Americas in Panama. It is the first time the countries' leaders hold a face-to-face meeting in more than 50 years. According to news reports, Obama and Castro vow to open embassies in both countries. "Our governments will continue to have differences," Obama says. "At the same time, we agreed that we can continue to take steps forward that advance our mutual interests."


RED SEA (June 21, 2011) The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) transits the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the U.S. 5th Fleet area of responsibility. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Brooks B. Patton Jr./Released)

by Mass Communication Specialist 2 nd Class Eric Lockwood, Naval History and Heritage Command, Communication and Outreach Division

On March 6, 1822, a 12-gun schooner named Enterprise captured four pirate vessels in the Gulf of Mexico. The event is little known, not well documented, and it was one of her last operations before sinking in the West Indies a year later. But her actions on this day stand alongside a proud history in the legacy of the Enterprise.

There have been eight U.S. Navy ships named Enterprise, creating a legacy that will carry well into the future as PCU Enterprise (CV 80) is designed, constructed and joins the fleet a decade from now.

The first Enterprise was originally a British ship named George. Photo courtesy of USS Enterprise CVN 65’s official website.

ENTERPRISE I (1775-77)

The first Enterprise originally belonged to the British and was named George. She cruised on Lake Champlain and supplied English posts in Canada. On May 18, 1775, Col. Benedict Arnold captured the ship, outfitted her with guns and thereafter defended American supply routes in New England from British attacks. The ship was one of many that embarked more than 1,000 troops in August that year as part of an expedition against three Canadian cities: St. Johns, Montreal and Quebec. British reinforcements caused the Americans to retreat. Regrouping in October, Arnold’s soldiers disrupted the British invasion into New York. Enterprise was one of only five ships to survive the two-day battle. The following year, the British would be defeated at Saratoga, N.Y., which helped bring about a French alliance with the colonists, and with them, their powerful navy. Enterprise, however, wasn’t around for the Battle of Saratoga. The sloop had been run aground on July 7, 1777 during the evacuation of Ticonderoga and was burned to prevent its capture.

The second Enterprise was an 8-gun schooner. Photo courtesy of USS Enterprise CVN 65’s official website.


The second Enterprise, a schooner, was a successful letter-of-marque before she was purchased Dec. 20, 1776 for the Continental Navy. Commanded by Capt. Joseph Campbell, Enterprise operated principally in Chesapeake Bay. She convoyed transports, carried out reconnaissance, and guarded the shores against foraging raids by the British. Only meager records of her service have been found they indicate she was apparently returned to the Maryland Council of Safety before the end of February 1777.

USS Enterprise, circa 1799, a 12-gun schooner shown capturing a Tripolitan corsair in 1801. Drawing by N. Hoff. National Archives and Records Administration

ENTERPRISE III (1799-1823)

The third Enterprise was the schooner used to capture the pirate ships during the Barbary Wars. At her time of service, anti-piracy operations were a major part of the Navy’s mission. American shipping vessels were frequently attacked in the Caribbean, and the Navy was tasked with fighting them. It was her commanding officer, Lt. Stephen Decatur Jr., who pulled off the daring expedition to burn the frigate Philadelphia in the harbor of Tripoli in 1804. She would be refitted as a brig during the War of 1812. On Sept. 5, 1813, Enterprise chased down the British brig Boxer in a close-combat battle that took the lives of both ships’ commanding officers, Lt. William Burrows and Capt. Samuel Blyth. From 1815 to 1823, Enterprise suppressed smugglers, pirates and slavers until July 9, 1823, the ship became stranded and broke up on Little Curacao Island in the West Indies, without any loss of her crew.

The fourth Enterprise was a 10-gun schooner. Photo courtesy of USS Enterprise CVN 65’s official website.

ENTERPRISE IV (1831-1844)

The fourth Enterprise was a schooner built by the New York Navy Yard where it launched on Oct. 26, 1831. Its original complement was nine officers and 63 men and, for most of its life, it protected U.S. shipping around the world. After spending time guarding American interests near Brazil, the schooner spent time in the Far East (Africa, India and East Indies). She was back cruising South America until March 1839 when she left Valparaiso, Chile, to round the Horn, make a port call at Rio de Janeiro, and then head north to Philadelphia, where she was inactivated on July 12. Recommissioned a few months later, Enterprise sailed from New York back to South America on March 16, 1840. After four years, she returned to the Boston Navy Yard, decommissioned June 24, 1844, and sold four months later.

USS Enterprise off New York City during the early 1890s. NHHC photo

ENTERPRISE V (1877-1909)

The fifth Enterprise was a bark-rigged screw sloop-of-war. She was built at the Portsmouth Naval Yard in Maine by John W. Griffith, launched June 13, 1874, and commissioned March 16, 1877. Decommissioned and recommissioned several times, she primarily surveyed oceans, littoral areas, and river founts around the world, including the Amazon and Madeira Rivers. When not on hydrographic survey cruises, she spent time sailing the waters of Europe, the Mediterranean and east coast of Africa. From 1891 to 1892 Enterprise was the platform on which cadets at the Naval Academy trained and practiced. Then she was lent to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for duty as a maritime schoolship for 17 years. Returned to the Navy on May 4, 1909, Enterprise was sold five months later.

The sixth Enterprise was a 66-foot motor patrol craft purchased by the Navy on Dec. 6, 1916. Photo courtesy of USS Enterprise CVN 65’s official website.


The sixth Enterprise (No. 790), a 66-foot motorboat, was purchased by the Navy on Dec. 6, 1916. Placed with the 2 nd Naval District on Sept. 25, 1917, the noncommissioned motorboat performed harbor tug duties at Newport, R.I. before going to New Bedford, Mass., Dec. 11, 1917. The motorboat was transferred to the Bureau of Fisheries Aug. 2, 1919.

USS Enterprise (C 6), was the most decorated ship in U.S. Navy history when she was decommissioned in 1946.

ENTERPRISE VII (1938-1947)

Once again a proper warship, this time a Yorktown-class carrier, Enterprise (CV 6) earned her nickname—Big E. In World War II, she earned 20 battle stars, the most for any U.S. warship in World War II, for the crucial roles she played in numerous battles, including Midway, Guadalcanal, Leyte Gulf, and the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo. During the Battle of Guadalcanal, Enterprise took three direct hits, killing 74 and wounding 95 crew members. It was the Enterprise that took on the Hornet’s aircraft after that carrier was abandoned during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Island Oct. 26, 1942.

U.S. Navy ships firing at attacking Japanese carrier aircraft during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, Oct. 26, 1942. USS Enterprise (CV-6) is at left, with at least two enemy planes visible overhead. In the right center is USS South Dakota, firing her starboard 5/38 secondary battery, as marked by the bright flash amidships. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.
Catalog #: 80-G-20989

By the end of the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal on Nov. 15, Enterprise had shared in sinking 16 ships and damaging eight more. After an overhaul for much of 1943, Enterprise was back in the fight when, on Nov. 26, 1943, the Big E introduced carrier-based night fighter operations in the Pacific. The Big E suffered the last of her damage on May 14, 1945, after a kamikaze plane struck the ship near her forward elevator, killing 14 and wounding 34 men. The most decorated ship in U.S. naval history entered the New York Naval Shipyard on Jan. 18, 1946 for inactivation and was decommissioned Feb. 17, 1947. She was sold July 1, 1958.

USS Enterprise (CVN-65) Underway, probably in the 1990s. This photograph was received in 1998. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.


In 1954, Congress authorized the construction of the world’s first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, the eighth U.S. ship to bear the name Enterprise. The giant ship was to be powered by eight nuclear reactors, two for each of its four propeller shafts. This was a daring undertaking, for never before had two nuclear reactors ever been harnessed together. As such, when the engineers first started planning the ship’s propulsion system, they were uncertain how it would work, or even if it would work according to their theories. Three years and nine months after construction began, Enterprise (CVN 65) was ready to present to the world as “The First, The Finest” super carrier, and the construction was proven capable. Her long career, consisting of 25 deployments and 51 years of service to the United States, has been well documented and this space can’t begin to list her accomplishments, but those can be found here at the Naval History and Heritage Command’s website and in libraries across the country. The ship was inactivated Dec. 1, 2012 she is not expected to be decommissioned until 2016 following four years of nuclear defueling, dismantlement and recycling.

For more than two centuries, Enterprise Sailors have set the standard for excellence aboard the eight ships to proudly bear her name and will continue to do so upon the future commissioning of PCU Enterprise (CVN 80), the third Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carrier that is scheduled to be delivered to the fleet between 2025-27. деньги в долг

Watch the video: Sci Blizzard 20162017, la nuova gamma Quattro (July 2022).


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