History Podcasts

October 16, 2013 Day 270 of the Fifth Year - History

October 16, 2013 Day 270 of the Fifth Year - History



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

10:15AM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

12:30PM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet for lunch
Private Dining Room

2:25PM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet with Secretary of the Treasury Lew
Oval Office

3:05PM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet with Secretary of State Kerry
Oval Office


The statutes at large being a collection of all the laws of Virginia, from the first session of the legislature, in the year 1619. Published pursuant to an act of the General assembly of Virginia, passed on the fifth day of February one thousand eight hundred and eight

Addeddate 2008-01-02 16:20:37 Bookplateleaf 0006 Call number SRLF_UCSB:LAGE-4335854 Camera Canon 5D Collection-library SRLF_UCSB Copyright-evidence Evidence reported by Alyson-Wieczorek for item statutesatlargeb01virg on January 2, 2008: no visible notice of copyright stated date is 1823. Copyright-evidence-date 20080102162007 Copyright-evidence-operator Alyson-Wieczorek Copyright-region US External-identifier urn:oclc:record:1085329646 Foldoutcount 0 Identifier statutesatlargeb01virg Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t6nz84954 Identifier-bib LAGE-4335854 Openlibrary_edition OL7029690M Openlibrary_work OL517730W Pages 640 Possible copyright status NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT Ppi 400 Scandate 20080107180333 Scanfactors 55 Scanner scribe9 Scanningcenter la

A. Except as otherwise provided herein, any person violating any provision of § 18.2-266 shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor with a mandatory minimum fine of $250. If the person's blood alcohol level as indicated by the chemical test administered as provided in this article or by any other scientifically reliable chemical test performed on whole blood under circumstances reliably establishing the identity of the person who is the source of the blood and the accuracy of the results (i) was at least 0.15, but not more than 0.20, he shall be confined in jail for an additional mandatory minimum period of five days or, (ii) if the level was more than 0.20, for an additional mandatory minimum period of 10 days.

B. 1. Any person convicted of a second offense committed within less than five years after a prior offense under § 18.2-266 shall upon conviction of the second offense be punished by a mandatory minimum fine of $500 and by confinement in jail for not less than one month nor more than one year. Twenty days of such confinement shall be a mandatory minimum sentence.

2. Any person convicted of a second offense committed within a period of five to 10 years of a prior offense under § 18.2-266 shall upon conviction of the second offense be punished by a mandatory minimum fine of $500 and by confinement in jail for not less than one month. Ten days of such confinement shall be a mandatory minimum sentence.

3. Upon conviction of a second offense within 10 years of a prior offense, if the person's blood alcohol level as indicated by the chemical test administered as provided in this article or by any other scientifically reliable chemical test performed on whole blood under circumstances reliably establishing the identity of the person who is the source of the blood and the accuracy of the results (i) was at least 0.15, but not more than 0.20, he shall be confined in jail for an additional mandatory minimum period of 10 days or, (ii) if the level was more than 0.20, for an additional mandatory minimum period of 20 days. In addition, such person shall be fined a mandatory minimum fine of $500.

C. 1. Any person convicted of three offenses of § 18.2-266 committed within a 10-year period shall upon conviction of the third offense be guilty of a Class 6 felony. The sentence of any person convicted of three offenses of § 18.2-266 committed within a 10-year period shall include a mandatory minimum sentence of 90 days, unless the three offenses were committed within a five-year period, in which case the sentence shall include a mandatory minimum sentence of confinement for six months. In addition, such person shall be fined a mandatory minimum fine of $1,000.

2. A person who has been convicted of § 18.2-36.1, 18.2-36.2, 18.2-51.4, 18.2-51.5, or a felony violation of § 18.2-266 shall upon conviction of a subsequent violation of § 18.2-266 be guilty of a Class 6 felony. The punishment of any person convicted of such a subsequent violation of § 18.2-266 shall include a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of one year and a mandatory minimum fine of $1,000.

3. The punishment of any person convicted of a fourth or subsequent offense of § 18.2-266 committed within a 10-year period shall, upon conviction, include a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of one year. In addition, such person shall be fined a mandatory minimum fine of $1,000.

4. The vehicle solely owned and operated by the accused during the commission of a felony violation of § 18.2-266 shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture. After an arrest for a felony violation of § 18.2-266, the Commonwealth may file an information in accordance with § 19.2-386.34.

D. In addition to the penalty otherwise authorized by this section or § 16.1-278.9, any person convicted of a violation of § 18.2-266 committed while transporting a person 17 years of age or younger shall be (i) fined an additional minimum of $500 and not more than $1,000 and (ii) sentenced to a mandatory minimum period of confinement of five days.

E. For the purpose of determining the number of offenses committed by, and the punishment appropriate for, a person under this section, an adult conviction of any person, or finding of guilty in the case of a juvenile, under the following shall be considered a conviction of § 18.2-266: (i) the provisions of § 18.2-36.1 or the substantially similar laws of any other state or of the United States, (ii) the provisions of §§ 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, former § 18.1-54 (formerly § 18-75), the ordinance of any county, city or town in this Commonwealth or the laws of any other state or of the United States substantially similar to the provisions of § 18.2-51.4, or § 18.2-266, or (iii) the provisions of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 or the substantially similar laws of any other state or of the United States.

F. Mandatory minimum punishments imposed pursuant to this section shall be cumulative, and mandatory minimum terms of confinement shall be served consecutively. However, in no case shall punishment imposed hereunder exceed the applicable statutory maximum Class 1 misdemeanor term of confinement or fine upon conviction of a first or second offense, or Class 6 felony term of confinement or fine upon conviction of a third or subsequent offense.

Code 1950, § 18.1-58 1960, c. 358 1962, c. 302 1975, cc. 14, 15 1982, c. 301 1983, c. 504 1989, c. 705 1991, cc. 370, 710 1992, c. 891 1993, c. 972 1997, c. 691 1999, cc. 743, 945, 949, 987 2000, cc. 784, 956, 958, 980, 982 2002, c. 759 2003, cc. 573, 591 2004, cc. 461, 937, 946, 950, 957, 958, 962 2006, cc. 82, 314 2009, c. 229 2012, cc. 283, 756 2013, cc. 415, 655 2014, c. 707.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.


The Troubling Reason the Electoral College Exists

A s Americans await the quadrennial running of the presidential obstacle course now known as the Electoral College, it&rsquos worth remembering why we have this odd political contraption in the first place. After all, state governors in all 50 states are elected by popular vote why not do the same for the governor of all states, a.k.a. the president? The quirks of the Electoral College system were exposed in 2016 when Donald Trump secured the presidency with an Electoral College majority, even as Hillary Clinton took a narrow lead in the popular vote.

Some claim that the founding fathers chose the Electoral College over direct election in order to balance the interests of high-population and low-population states. But the deepest political divisions in America have always run not between big and small states, but between the north and the south, and between the coasts and the interior.

One Founding-era argument for the Electoral College stemmed from the fact that ordinary Americans across a vast continent would lack sufficient information to choose directly and intelligently among leading presidential candidates.

This objection rang true in the 1780s, when life was far more local. But the early emergence of national presidential parties rendered the objection obsolete by linking presidential candidates to slates of local candidates and national platforms, which explained to voters who stood for what.

Although the Philadelphia framers did not anticipate the rise of a system of national presidential parties, the 12th Amendment&mdashproposed in 1803 and ratified a year later&mdash was framed with such a party system in mind, in the aftermath of the election of 1800-01. In that election, two rudimentary presidential parties&mdashFederalists led by John Adams and Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson&mdashtook shape and squared off. Jefferson ultimately prevailed, but only after an extended crisis triggered by several glitches in the Framers&rsquo electoral machinery. In particular, Republican electors had no formal way to designate that they wanted Jefferson for president and Aaron Burr for vice president rather than vice versa. Some politicians then tried to exploit the resulting confusion.

Enter the 12th Amendment, which allowed each party to designate one candidate for president and a separate candidate for vice president. The amendment&rsquos modifications of the electoral process transformed the Framers&rsquo framework, enabling future presidential elections to be openly populist and partisan affairs featuring two competing tickets. It is the 12th Amendment&rsquos Electoral College system, not the Philadelphia Framers&rsquo, that remains in place today. If the general citizenry&rsquos lack of knowledge had been the real reason for the Electoral College, this problem was largely solved by 1800. So why wasn&rsquot the entire Electoral College contraption scrapped at that point?

Standard civics-class accounts of the Electoral College rarely mention the real demon dooming direct national election in 1787 and 1803: slavery.

At the Philadelphia convention, the visionary Pennsylvanian James Wilson proposed direct national election of the president. But the savvy Virginian James Madison responded that such a system would prove unacceptable to the South: &ldquoThe right of suffrage was much more diffusive [i.e., extensive] in the Northern than the Southern States and the latter could have no influence in the election on the score of Negroes.&rdquo In other words, in a direct election system, the North would outnumber the South, whose many slaves (more than half a million in all) of course could not vote. But the Electoral College&mdasha prototype of which Madison proposed in this same speech&mdashinstead let each southern state count its slaves, albeit with a two-fifths discount, in computing its share of the overall count.

Virginia emerged as the big winner&mdashthe California of the Founding era&mdashwith 12 out of a total of 91 electoral votes allocated by the Philadelphia Constitution, more than a quarter of the 46 needed to win an election in the first round. After the 1800 census, Wilson&rsquos free state of Pennsylvania had 10% more free persons than Virginia, but got 20% fewer electoral votes. Perversely, the more slaves Virginia (or any other slave state) bought or bred, the more electoral votes it would receive. Were a slave state to free any blacks who then moved North, the state could actually lose electoral votes.

If the system&rsquos pro-slavery tilt was not overwhelmingly obvious when the Constitution was ratified, it quickly became so. For 32 of the Constitution&rsquos first 36 years, a white slaveholding Virginian occupied the presidency.

Southerner Thomas Jefferson, for example, won the election of 1800-01 against Northerner John Adams in a race where the slavery-skew of the electoral college was the decisive margin of victory: without the extra electoral college votes generated by slavery, the mostly southern states that supported Jefferson would not have sufficed to give him a majority. As pointed observers remarked at the time, Thomas Jefferson metaphorically rode into the executive mansion on the backs of slaves.

The 1796 contest between Adams and Jefferson had featured an even sharper division between northern states and southern states. Thus, at the time the Twelfth Amendment tinkered with the Electoral College system rather than tossing it, the system&rsquos pro-slavery bias was hardly a secret. Indeed, in the floor debate over the amendment in late 1803, Massachusetts Congressman Samuel Thatcher complained that &ldquoThe representation of slaves adds thirteen members to this House in the present Congress, and eighteen Electors of President and Vice President at the next election.&rdquo But Thatcher&rsquos complaint went unredressed. Once again, the North caved to the South by refusing to insist on direct national election.

In light of this more complete (if less flattering) account of the electoral college in the late 18th and early 19th century, Americans should ask themselves whether we want to maintain this odd&mdashdare I say peculiar?&mdashinstitution in the 21st century.


Raw data for these calculations comes from the composite price index published by the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS). A composite index is created by combining price data from several different published sources, both official and unofficial. The Consumer Price Index, normally used to compute inflation, has only been tracked since 1988. All inflation calculations after 1988 use the Office for National Statistics' Consumer Price Index, except for 2017, which is based on The Bank of England's forecast.

You may use the following MLA citation for this page: “Value of 1950 pounds today | UK Inflation Calculator.” Official Inflation Data, Alioth Finance, 10 Jun. 2021, https://www.officialdata.org/uk/inflation/1950.

Special thanks to QuickChart for their chart image API, which is used for chart downloads.

in2013dollars.com is a reference website maintained by the Official Data Foundation.

About the author

Ian Webster is an engineer and data expert based in San Mateo, California. He has worked for Google, NASA, and consulted for governments around the world on data pipelines and data analysis. Disappointed by the lack of clear resources on the impacts of inflation on economic indicators, Ian believes this website serves as a valuable public tool. Ian earned his degree in Computer Science from Dartmouth College.


California

A herd of cows somehow got loose and wandered into a residential Pico Rivera neighborhood Tuesday night.

Huntington Beach-based Wetlands and Wildlife Care Center rehabilitated the injured birds.

Three California residents and the Animal Legal Defense Fund have sued the National Park Service, claiming dozens of tule elk at Point Reyes National Seashore died from starvation and dehydration because of negligence by park officials.

The Orange County grand jury identified several security lapses in Orange County jails in a report released this week.

Vanessa Bryant and other families of those killed on Kobe Bryant’s helicopter in January 2020 have settled a lawsuit with the chopper firm.

The Board of Supervisors approved a measure providing protections to renters in the largest county in America, with a small exception for landlords.

Mike Feuer said he was focusing on shutting off the supply chain.

California oil regulators have missed another deadline to release new rules aimed at improving health and safety measures for people living near oil and gas drilling sites

The Los Angeles Police Commission ruled that poor tactical planning contributed to a chaotic scene in which one officer shot another.

The Teamsters vow to help unionize Amazon

State Laws, Politics & Policy

A federal appeals court heard arguments Tuesday in a case that could determine the future of California’s 32-year ban on assault weapons.

The legal fight could continue for months and may be decided by the U.S. Supreme Court.

A federal appeals court decided unanimously to revive a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of a California law that bans all-male corporate boards.

California Gov. Gavin Newsom wants to spend $7 billion to build a state-owned broadband network along highway rights-of-way into communities up and down California.

More than 40 of the county’s law enforcement agencies have yet to provide the district attorney’s office names of officers who have histories of dishonesty and other misconduct that could affect their credibility in court.

Vanessa Bryant and other families of those killed on Kobe Bryant’s helicopter in January 2020 have settled a lawsuit with the chopper firm.

Ana Guerrero, chief of staff to Mayor Eric Garcetti, disparaged Huerta in Facebook comments reviewed by The Times. A Garcetti spokesman said Guerrero will be on “administrative leave for the foreseeable future, unpaid for a month.”

L.A.'s trillion-dollar rail boom has so far showed mixed results. Everyone is looking for a game changer. Will rail to LAX be it?

The Board of Supervisors approved a measure providing protections to renters in the largest county in America, with a small exception for landlords.

Your morning news in less than 5 minutes on smart speakers from the Los Angeles Times

The L.A. Police Commission requested the LAPD report on a possible COVID-19 vaccination mandate and the work assignments of its unvaccinated personnel.

Santa Clara County had the first recorded COVID-19 death in the nation. Now, more than 71% of its residents are at least partially vaccinated against the illness.

Coronavirus case rates for Black residents dropped by 13% and by 22% for Latino residents, while cases have dropped by 33% for white residents.

California has received nearly 70,000 forms by residents looking to correct or complete their vaccination information, the state Department of Public Health says.

It’s not clear how the coronavirus causes parts of the brain to shrink, if it’s due to the virus or COVID-19 symptoms, a former FDA official says.

This COVID-19 vaccination strategy is considered key to reopen the U.S.-Mexico land border crossing, which has been closed to nonessential travel.

L.A. County is reporting about two COVID-19 deaths a day, while the Bay Area is reporting four.

Unemployment in California fell to 7.9% in May, the fourth month state payrolls grew by more than 100,000 jobs. Still, full recovery will be slow.

Reopening lessons: Leave time to park. Don’t talk at the movies. Plus 10 other important things Angelenos may have forgotten during the pandemic shutdown.

Californians can now access a digital copy of their COVID-19 vaccination record as part of a new system unveiled by the state, officials said.

Fully vaccinated employees in most workplaces can now stop wearing masks in their places of employment.

With the pandemic waning, Californians who receive unemployment benefits will next month have to start showing that they are looking for work

A state board ends physical distancing requirements for California workers and says many fully vaccinated employees can stop wearing masks.

A report has excavated open secrets and long-buried trauma at the exclusive Thacher School, concluding it failed to protect its students.

Creative Artists Agency and a group of filmmakers such as George Clooney are creating an L.A. magnet school to help train high schoolers for jobs on movie and TV sets.

San Bernardino County school officials failed to provide proper oversight of millions of dollars meant for the neediest students, state officials said.

L.A. City Councilman Mike Bonin commits to removing homeless camps from the Venice Boardwalk by early August and says relocation will be offered.

The median home sales price hit a record $667,000 last month, but there are signs of a slowdown: One index of national home buyer demand is down 14% from an April peak.

‘Faces of Mankind’ exhibit at Anaheim’s Muzeo Museum and Cultural Center displays 35 portraits of unhoused and formerly unhoused people.

Redondo Beach addressed its homeless problem with a court diversion program that provides services instead of custody. When the pandemic brought it to a halt, the city came up with workaround. Now homeless court is held outdoors, in a police station parking lot.

A growing encampment has left significant damage in the freshwater marsh. But that’s no reason not to be sensitive to the needs of homeless people.

A San Clemente couple’s visit to Doheny State Beach to feed homeless people ended with the husband in handcuffs and his wife calling 911

A magnitude 3.5 earthquake was reported at 1:22 a.m. Friday 14 miles from El Centro, Calif.

A magnitude 2.7 earthquake was reported at 8:27 p.m. Thursday two miles from Redondo Beach, Calif.

Bay Area counties prep for extended drought, particularly Santa Clara, which had to drain water behind a key dam deemed vulnerable to earthquakes.

The temblor Sunday evening was 20 miles from Santa Rosa.

The single-engine aircraft caught fire after crashing.

Fake Chanel sunglasses and Cialis pills were among the thousands of items that U.S. Customs and Border Protection seized at the Port of Long Beach.

A Black man has filed a lawsuit over what he alleges was an unprovoked beating by six L.A. County sheriff’s deputies during a traffic stop last year.

Multiple evacuations have been issued, and at least one firefighter has been injured as crews battle early-season fires across the state.

The 16-year-old is the second Southern California teen to die in less than a week at the Arizona lake.

Diamond Valley Lake, an “inland ocean,” is Southern California’s prime defense against drought.

The Fresno Unified school board decided to reapprove contracts with the Fresno Police Department over the objections from community groups.

A man arrested on suspicion of domestic violence says he was shoved face first into a locker by a Hawthorne police officer, causing an injury that ruptured his right eye and left him blind. The incident was captured on video, which the city has yet to make public.

José Zelaya, the Disney Television Animation’s only Salvadoran designer and digital animator, as a boy dreamed he would “work for Mickey Mouse.”

Kansas City Chiefs defensive end and native Angeleno Frank Clark was arrested in Los Angeles after police say they saw a submachine gun in his car.

A wildfire in the city of Vallejo on Monday night triggered evacuation orders.

What should children be reading this summer? Anything that interests them. Librarians at the L.A. Public Library also gave recommendations for K-12 students.

Two women had followed the tortoise after they spotted him at Pacific Avenue and Bixby Road to make sure he wouldn’t get hit by a car.

The deputy, who has not been identified, has been placed on leave and is under investigation, sheriff’s officials said.

Mark Peel was Wolfgang Puck’s opening chef at Spago, but he was less a celebrity chef than an intellectually curious chef’s chef.

Gov. Gavin Newsom blocked the convicted murderer’s parole last week, marking the seventh time a California governor has done so.

The driver of the vehicle, which police say was stolen, lost control of the semitruck and struck a utility pole, several parked cars and a cinderblock wall before crashing into the house.

Aaron Harvey was one of 33 people accused in a sweeping 2014 conspiracy case targeting gang murders. He fought back and the charges were dropped.

Wherever there’s a fight for California’s future, this Mexican nerd will be there

The forces that shape California and animate our lives

City Beat: Moments in the life of L.A.

Insights from a California native

An expert view on California government and politics

People, politics and the quest for a more equitable California

California’s decision to close the prison in Susanville rocked the town, where the consequences could be dire for residents and businesses that depend on the economics of incarceration.

Los Angeles has reopened, but many first responders remain unvaccinated. Just over 50% of the city’s firefighters and police officers have gotten one shot.

Consumers are asked to limit their electricity use between 5 and 10 p.m. to avoid the shutoffs that happened during last year’s heat waves.

New research has found a 22% drop in humidity across the Southwest since the 1970s.

California fully reopened Tuesday, so residents who are fully vaccinated were able to go into many public places without masks, but many kept them on.

MacKenzie Scott announced donations of $2.7 billion to 286 organizations. More than three dozen of the recipients in Scott’s latest round of giving are California community colleges and universities, arts groups and nonprofits that work for social justice.

The stories shaping California

Get up to speed with our Essential California newsletter, sent six days a week.

You may occasionally receive promotional content from the Los Angeles Times.

Toward a more sustainable California

Get Boiling Point, our newsletter exploring climate change, energy and the environment, and become part of the conversation — and the solution.

You may occasionally receive promotional content from the Los Angeles Times.


October 16, 2013 Day 270 of the Fifth Year - History

This Act may be cited as the Bipartisan Congressional Budget Reform Act .

The table of contents for this Act is as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title. Sec. 2. Table of contents. TITLE I—Budget timeline and information Sec. 101. Revision of timetable. Sec. 102. Budget submissions by the President. Sec. 103. Baseline construction. Sec. 104. Report on debt to GDP targets. TITLE II—Biennial budgeting, contents of budget resolution, and bipartisan budgets Sec. 201. Biennial budgeting generally. Sec. 202. Contents of concurrent resolution on the budget. Sec. 203. Additional matters relating to concurrent resolution. Sec. 204. Committee allocations. Sec. 205. Section 303 point of order. Sec. 206. Permissible revisions of concurrent resolutions on the budget. Sec. 207. Procedures for consideration of budget resolutions. Sec. 208. Completion of House action on appropriation bills. Sec. 209. Reconciliation process. Sec. 210. Section 311 point of order. Sec. 211. Maximum deficit amount point of order. TITLE III—Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget Sec. 301. Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate. Sec. 302. Technical and conforming amendments. Sec. 303. References. TITLE IV—Special reconciliation instructions Sec. 401. Special reconciliation instructions. TITLE V—Congressional budget enforcement and accountability Sec. 501. Up-to-date tabulations of congressional budget action. Sec. 502. Surgical strike point of order relating to legislation dealing with the congressional budget. Sec. 503. Global waiver for general budget points of order. Sec. 504. Effective date. TITLE VI—Reports Sec. 601. Reports to the Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate and the Committee on the Budget of the House of Representatives. Sec. 602. Reporting on interest effects and budgetary effects. Sec. 603. Portfolio budgeting. Sec. 604. Budget contents and submission to Congress. TITLE VII—Modification of consideration of budget resolution Sec. 701. Modification of consideration of budget resolution. TITLE VIII—Effective date Sec. 801. Effective date applicability. I Budget timeline and information 101. Revision of timetable

Section 300 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 631 ) is amended to read as follows:

300. Timetable (a) In General

Except as provided in subsection (b), the timetable with respect to the congressional budget process for any Congress is as follows:

First Session On or before: Action to be completed: First Monday in February President submits budget recommendations. February 15 Congressional Budget Office submits report to the Committee on the Budget of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate. March 1 Committees submit views and estimates to the Committee on the Budget of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate. April 1 Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate reports concurrent resolution on the biennial budget. May 15 Congress completes action on concurrent resolution on the biennial budget. May 15 Appropriation bills may be considered in the House of Representatives. June 10 Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives reports last appropriation bill. June 30 House of Representatives completes action on appropriation bills. October 1 First fiscal year of biennium begins. December 1 President submits an administrative budget.
Second Session On or before: Action to be completed: February 15 Congressional Budget Office submits report to the Committee on the Budget of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate. February 15 Congressional Budget Office releases report on achieving debt to GDP ratio. March 15 President submits budget update for the second fiscal year of the biennium. April 15 Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate reports a special reconciliation resolution. May 15 Committees submit recommendations for special reconciliation bill. May 15 Appropriation bills may be considered in the House of Representatives. June 10 Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives reports last appropriation bill. June 30 House of Representatives completes action on appropriation bills. July 30 Congress completes action on special reconciliation bill. October 1 Second fiscal year of biennium begins December 1 President submits an administrative budget.
(b) Special Rule for certain first sessions

In the case of any first session of Congress that begins in any year immediately following a leap year and during which the term of a President (except a President who succeeds himself or herself) begins, the following dates shall supersede those set forth in subsection (a):

First Session On or before: Action to be completed: First Monday in April President submits budget recommendations. April 15 Congressional Budget Office submits report to the Committee on the Budget of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate. May 1 Committees submit views and estimates to the Committee on the Budget of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate. June 1 Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate reports concurrent resolution on the biennial budget. June 15 Congress completes action on concurrent resolution on the biennial budget. June 15 Appropriation bills may be considered in the House of Representatives. June 30 Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives reports last appropriation bill. July 15 House of Representatives completes action on appropriation bills. October 1 First fiscal year of biennium begins. December 1 President submits an administrative budget.
. 102. Budget submissions by the President (a) Definition

Section 1101 of title 31, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:

biennium has the meaning given that term in paragraph (12) of section 3 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 622 ).

The matter preceding paragraph (1) in section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, is amended to read as follows:

On or before the first Monday in February of each odd-numbered year (or, if applicable under section 300(b) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 631(b) ), the first Monday in April of an odd-numbered year), the President shall transmit to the Congress, the budget for the biennium beginning on October 1 of such calendar year. The budget of the United States Government transmitted under this subsection shall include a budget message and summary and supporting information. The President shall include in each budget the following:

Section 1105(a)(5) of title 31, United States Code, is amended by striking the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted and the 4 fiscal years after that year and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium for which the budget is submitted and in the succeeding 4 fiscal years .

Section 1105(a)(6) of title 31, United States Code, is amended by striking the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted and the 4 fiscal years after that year and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium for which the budget is submitted and in the succeeding 4 years .

Section 1105(a)(9)(C) of title 31, United States Code, is amended by striking the fiscal year and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium .

(5) Functions and activities

Section 1105(a)(12) of title 31, United States Code, is amended—

in subparagraph (A), by striking the fiscal year and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium and

in subparagraph (B), by striking that year and inserting that biennium .

Section 1105(a)(13) of title 31, United States Code, is amended by striking the fiscal year and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium .

(7) Allowances for uncontrolled expenditures

Section 1105(a)(14) of title 31, United States Code, is amended by striking that year and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium for which the budget is submitted .

Section 1105(a)(16) of title 31, United States Code, is amended by striking the fiscal year and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium .

Section 1105(a)(17) of title 31, United States Code, is amended—

by striking the fiscal year following the fiscal year and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium following the biennium

by striking that following fiscal year and inserting each such fiscal year and

by striking fiscal year before the fiscal year and inserting biennium before the biennium .

Section 1105(a)(18) of title 31, United States Code, is amended—

by striking the prior fiscal year and inserting each of the 2 most recently completed fiscal years

by striking for that year and inserting with respect to those fiscal years and

by striking in that year and inserting in those fiscal years .

Section 1105(a)(19) of title 31, United States Code, is amended—

by striking the prior fiscal year and inserting each of the 2 most recently completed fiscal years

by striking for that year and inserting with respect to those fiscal years and

by striking in that year each place it appears and inserting in those fiscal years .

Section 1105(a)(35)(A)(i) of title 31, United States Code, is amended, in the matter preceding subclause (I), by striking the fiscal years for which the budget is submitted and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium for which the budget is submitted .

Section 1105(a)(36) of title 31, United States Code, is amended, in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium for which the budget is submitted .

Section 1105(a)(37) of title 31, United States Code, is amended, in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium for which the budget is submitted .

(c) Recommendations To Meet Estimated Deficiencies

Section 1105(c) of title 31, United States Code, is amended—

by striking the fiscal year for the first place it appears and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium for

by striking the fiscal year for the second place it appears and inserting each fiscal year of the biennium, as the case may be, for and

by striking for that year and inserting for each fiscal year of the biennium .

(d) Capital Investment Analysis

Section 1105(e)(1) of title 31, United States Code, is amended, in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking ensuing fiscal year and inserting biennium to which such budget relates .

(e) Supplemental Budget Estimates and Changes

Section 1106(a) of title 31, United States Code, is amended—

in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking fiscal year and inserting biennium

in paragraph (1), in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking that fiscal year and inserting each fiscal year in such biennium

in paragraph (2), by striking fiscal year and inserting biennium and

in paragraph (3), by striking fiscal year and inserting biennium .

Section 1106(b) of title 31, United States Code, is amended by striking the fiscal year and inserting each fiscal year in the biennium .

Section 1106 of title 31, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:

On or before December 1 of each calendar year, the President shall submit to Congress an administrative budget for the fiscal year beginning in the ensuing calendar year, which shall include—

up-to-date estimates for current year and prior year data and

credit reestimates for the current year (as included in the Federal credit supplement of such budget).

Upon request of the Director of the Congressional Budget Office, agencies and other entities included within the budget shall immediately provide to the Congressional Budget Office all related backup tables and other supporting information, including underlying data, assumptions, and related information used in connection with creating the budget and estimates.

Section 1109(a) of title 31, United States Code, is amended—

by striking On or before the first Monday after January 3 of each year (on or before February 5 in 1986) and inserting At the same time as the budget required by section 1105 is submitted for a biennium and

by striking the following fiscal year and inserting each fiscal year of such period .

(h) Year-Ahead Requests for Authorizing Legislation

Section 1110 of title 31, United States Code, is amended by—

striking May 16 and inserting March 31 and

striking year before the year in which the fiscal year begins and inserting calendar year preceding the calendar year in which the biennium begins .

103. Baseline construction

Section 257(c) of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 ( 2 U.S.C. 907(c) ) is amended to read as follows:

(c) Exclusion of exempted spending

For the budget year and each outyear, the baseline shall be calculated by assuming that appropriations receiving designations under section 251(b)(2)(A) or designations created through a concurrent resolution on the budget that exempts designated spending from enforcement under section 302 or section 311 of the Congressional Budget Act ( 2 U.S.C. 633 , 642) shall not continue.

Section 202 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 602 ) is amended by adding at the end the following:

(h) Report on debt to GDP target

Not later than February 15 of each even-numbered year, the Director shall make publicly available a report estimating whether the target for the ratio of the debt held by the public to the gross domestic product of the United States by the end of the last fiscal year covered by the most recently agreed to concurrent resolution on the budget will be achieved.

(2) Discretionary appropriations

In producing each estimate described in paragraph (1), the Director shall assume discretionary appropriations are made available in the amounts specified under the most recently agreed to concurrent resolution on the budget.

For each report made available under paragraph (1), the Director—

shall include an estimate of the level of deficit reduction required to achieve the target for the ratio of the debt held by the public to the gross domestic product of the United States by the end of the last fiscal year covered by the most recently agreed to concurrent resolution on the budget and

in estimating the level of deficit reduction required, shall account for interest effects by reducing the target by the percentage equal to percent of deficit reduction stemming from interest changes assumed in the most recently agreed to concurrent resolution on the budget.

Section 2(2) of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 621(2) ) is amended by striking each year and inserting biennially .

Section 3(4) of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 622(4) ) is amended by striking fiscal year each place it appears and inserting biennium .

Section 3 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 622 ) is amended by adding at the end the following:

The term biennium means the period of 2 consecutive fiscal years beginning on October 1 of any odd-numbered year.

202. Contents of concurrent resolution on the budget (a) Section heading

The section heading of section 301 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 632 ) is amended by striking Annual and inserting Biennial .

(b) Contents of resolution generally

Section 301(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 632(a) ) is amended—

by striking the matter preceding paragraph (1) and inserting the following:

(a) Content of concurrent resolution on the budget

On or before May 15 of each odd-numbered year (or, if applicable under section 300(b), June 15 of an odd-numbered year), Congress shall complete action on a concurrent resolution on the budget for the biennium beginning on October 1 of such year. The concurrent resolution shall—

by redesignating paragraphs (1) through (7) as subparagraphs (A) through (G), respectively, and adjusting the margin accordingly

by inserting before subparagraph (A), as so redesignated, the following:

for any concurrent resolution on the budget, set forth appropriate levels for each fiscal year in such biennium and for at least each fiscal year of each of the ensuing 2 bienniums for the following—

in paragraph (1)(D), as so redesignated, by striking paragraph (1) and inserting subparagraph (A)

in paragraph (1)(F), as so redesignated, by striking for the fiscal year and inserting for each fiscal year in the biennium

in paragraph (1)(G), as so redesignated—

by striking for the fiscal year and inserting for each fiscal year in the biennium and

by striking the period at the end and inserting a semicolon and

by inserting before the matter following paragraph (1)(G), as so redesignated, the following:

for any concurrent resolution on the budget, include, in accordance with section 316, a clear statement of the appropriate level for the debt subject to limit under section 3101 of title 31, United States Code, as of the end of the second fiscal year of the biennium of the concurrent resolution on the budget

(c) Bipartisan budget resolution

Section 3 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 622 ), as amended by section 201, is further amended by adding at the end the following:

The term bipartisan budget resolution means a concurrent resolution on the budget for a biennium that—

meets the requirements under section 301 and

is ordered reported to the Senate by the Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget of the Senate by an affirmative vote of not less than half of the Senators that are members of the majority party in the Senate and not less than half of the Senators that are members of the minority party in the Senate.

Section 301(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 632(a) ) is amended by inserting after paragraph (2), as added by subsection (b) of this section, the following:

for a bipartisan budget resolution, include—

in accordance with section 316, a clear statement of the appropriate level for the discretionary spending limit for each fiscal year of the biennium of the concurrent resolution on the budget

the amount of health care spending by the Government

the amount of tax expenditures

the amount of discretionary appropriations (as defined in section 250 of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 ( 2 U.S.C. 900 )) and

(3) Consideration of bipartisan budget resolutions

Section 305 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 636 ) is amended by adding at the end the following:

(e) Procedures in the Senate for bipartisan budget resolutions

(1) Other expedited process (A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), in the Senate, upon the agreement of the majority leader and the minority leader, additional procedures to expedite consideration of a bipartisan budget resolution shall apply to consideration of the bipartisan budget resolution. The majority leader shall submit a written statement for the Congressional Record reflecting any agreement described in this paragraph.

(B) Inclusion and exclusion

An agreement described in this paragraph—

may include limiting the number of amendments upon which the Senate shall vote and

may not include the waiver of any points of order.

In the Senate, a bipartisan budget resolution shall only be agreed to—

if it complies with section 3(13)(A) and

upon the affirmative vote of not less than—

three-fifths of the Members, duly chosen and sworn and

15 Members that are members of the minority party in the Senate.

If a bipartisan budget resolution is not agreed to in accordance with subparagraph (A), the Senate shall be deemed to have agreed to a motion to recommit the bipartisan budget resolution to the Committee on Fiscal Control and the Budget.

(3) Conference reports and amendments between the Houses (A) In general

In the Senate, a conference report or an amendment between the Houses on a bipartisan budget resolution shall only be agreed to—

if it complies with section 3(13)(A) and

upon the affirmative vote of not less than—

three-fifths of the Members, duly chosen and sworn and

15 Members that are members of the minority party in the Senate.

If a conference report or an amendment between the Houses on a bipartisan budget resolution is not agreed to in accordance with subparagraph (A), a motion to reconsider the conference report or amendment between the Houses is in order in accordance with rule XIII of the Standing Rules of the Senate.

(4) Reconciliation under bipartisan budget resolutions

Section 310(e)(2) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 641(e)(2) ) is amended—

by inserting (A) before Debate and

by adding at the end the following:

In the Senate, a reconciliation bill reported under subsection (b) pursuant to reconciliation instructions in a bipartisan budget resolution, a House amendment thereto, and a conference report thereon shall be agreed to only upon the affirmative vote of not less than—

a majority of the Members voting, a quorum being present and

15 Members that are members of the minority party in the Senate.

(5) Automatic adjustment of debt limit and statutory caps

Title III of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 ( 2 U.S.C. 631 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following:

316. Automatic adjustment of debt limit and statutory caps (a) Definition

In this section, the term covered concurrent resolution on the budget —

means a concurrent resolution on the budget for a biennium adopted under section 301 that contains text in the form specified under subsection (b) of this section applicable to the type of concurrent resolution on the budget and

does not include a concurrent resolution on the budget described in section 304.

For a concurrent resolution on the budget that is not a bipartisan budget resolution, the form specified in this subsection is that, other than any short title, the first section of the concurrent resolution on the budget shall consist of only the following: For purposes of section 316(c) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, Congress specifies that section 3101(b) of title 31, United States Code, shall be amended by striking the dollar amount and inserting October 16, 2013 Day 270 of the Fifth Year - History,[nobr][H1toH2]

5th Grade Number Sequencing Worksheets

To continue each number pattern in this math worksheet, students determine which number to add to or subtract from the first number to total the second number, then check to make sure that the same operation turns the second number into the third. This worksheet includes increasing and decreasing number patterns.

In this worksheet, students need to continue each number pattern. In order to do so, students need to determine what number to add to the first number to get the total for the second number, and so forth throughout the pattern.

See what operation turns the first number into the second number, and the second number in to the third number. Then, continue the pattern of decimals or mixed numbers.

Help students learn and remember the second part of the six times table. In this math worksheet, students complete number sequences, recall multiplication facts, and answer horizontal multiplication problems.

Teach your students their 7 times tables then have them practice solving equations using what they had learned about multiplying by 7's.

Test your students memory of the eight times tables by having them solve each problem with a multiple of 8.

Help students learn and remember the latter part of the nine times table. In this math worksheet, students complete number sequences and look for patterns in the nine times table.


The Triple Whopper Environmental Impact of Global Meat Production

They look cute, but animals like these dairy cows can exert a major environmental toll

You may think you live on a planet, but really you live on a gigantic farm, one occasionally broken up by cities, forests and the oceans. Some 40% of the world’s land surface is used for the purposes of keeping all 7 billion of us fed — albeit some of us, of course, more than others. And the vast majority of that land — about 30% of the word’s total ice-free surface — is used not to raise grains, fruits and vegetables that are directly fed to human beings, but to support the chickens, pigs and cattle that we eventually eat.

Livestock production — which includes meat, milk and eggs — contributes 40% of global agricultural gross domestic product, provides income for more than 1.3 billion people and uses one-third of the world’s fresh water. There may be no other single human activity that has a bigger impact on the planet than the raising of livestock. But as a new study out today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) shows, there is tremendous variation in how we raise livestock around the world — and major differences in what that means for the earth and for us.

Researchers from the International Livestock Research Institute in Kenya, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) in Australia and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Austria produced a comprehensive assessment of the livestock industry around the world, in developed nations where factory farming is common and in developing nations where livestock are more likely to graze on grasslands. They dug up some striking statistics that underscore just how much meat production varies from region to region.

  • Each year the livestock sector globally produces 586 million tons of milk, 124 million tons of poultry, 91 million tons of pork, 59 million tons of cattle and buffalo meat, and 11 million tons of meat from sheep and goats. That 285 million tons of meat altogether — or about 36 kg (80 lb.) per person, if it were all divided evenly. It’s not — Americans eat 122 kg (270 lb.) of meat a year on average, while Bangladeshis eat 1.8 kg (4 lb).
  • Of the 95 million tons of beef produced in the world in 2000, the vast majority came from cattle in Latin America, Europe and North America. All of sub-Saharan Africa — a region with nearly three times as many people as the entire U.S. — produced just 3 million tons of beef.
  • 1.3 billion tons of grain are consumed by farm animals each year — and nearly all of it is fed to livestock, mostly pork and poultry, in the developed world and in China and Latin America. All of the livestock in sub-Saharan Africa eat just 50 million tons of grain a year, otherwise subsisting on grasses and on crop residue.
  • The poor feed quality in impoverished regions like sub-Saharan Africa means that a cow there may consume as much as 10 times more feed — mostly grasses — to produce a kilogram of protein than a cow raised in richer regions. That lack of efficiency also means that cattle in countries like Ethiopia and Somalia account for as much as 1,000 kg of carbon for every kg of protein they produce — in the form of methane from manure as well as from the reduced carbon absorption that results when forests are converted to pastureland. That’s 10 times higher than the amount of carbon released per kg of protein in many parts of the U.S. and Europe, where livestock production is much more intensive.
  • About that: in North America or Europe, a cow consumes about 75 kg to 300 kg of dry matter — grass or grain — to produce a kg of protein. In sub-Saharan Africa, a cow might need 500 kg to 2,000 kg of dry matter to produce a kg of protein, because of the poor feed quality in arid countries and because of the high mortality rates in herds of often undernourished and sick animals.
  • The highest total of livestock-related greenhouse-gas emissions comes from the developing world, which accounts for 75% of the global emissions from cattle and other ruminants and 56% of the global emissions from poultry and pigs.
  • The most climate-friendly meats comes from pigs and poultry, which account for only 10% of total livestock greenhouse-gas emissions while contributing more than three times as much meat globally as cattle. Pork and poultry are also more efficient for feed, requiring up to five times less feed to produce a kg of protein than a cow, a sheep or a goat.

So what does this all mean? While factory farming in the U.S. gets a lot of criticism for its cruelty, the danger it poses to public health through the overuse of antibiotics and the pollution it causes to air and water, it can be remarkably efficient. And given the fact that the planet isn’t getting any bigger while the global population and the global appetite keep growing, efficiency is going to matter when it comes to food production. The upside of inefficient livestock production in the developing world is that there is a lot of room to improve, given the right kind of help — which is exactly what the authors of the PNAS paper are hoping for.

“Our data can allow us to see more clearly where we can work with livestock keepers to improve animal diets so they can produce more protein with better feed while simultaneously reducing emissions,” said Petr Havlik, a research scholar at IIASA and a co-author of the study. What we need is “sustainable intensification” — efficiency but pursued in a measured way.

That’s not to say it would be advisable simply to export developed-world livestock practices to, say, desperately poor, climatically challenged countries, even if it were possible. The low livestock-feed efficiencies in sub-Saharan Africa is due to the fact that most animals in the region consist on vegetation that is not edible by human beings — a fact that’s fairly important in a region where grain is simply too precious to use for animals. Livestock also serves a different function in the developing world. “Cattle and poultry can be walking banks in the developing world,” says Mario Herrero, an agricultural-systems scientist at CSIRO and a co-author of the paper. “They provide manure to small-holder farmers. There’s a tremendous social role for livestock that can’t be ignored.”

Above all else, the study underscores that while meat production will need to change in the future, so will meat consumption. It’s difficult to get a full and proper accounting of the total environmental impact of livestock production. A 2006 report from the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that livestock were responsible for about 18% of human-caused greenhouse gases — a figure that has been criticized by the meat industry as too high and by some environmentalists as far too low. But what’s clear is that American levels of meat consumption can’t be sustainably adopted by the rest of the world, even if livestock management becomes more efficient globally. “Demand management has to be part of the solution as well,” says Herrero. For the environment — and for our hearts and waistlines too.


Placement preparation

Welcome to Infosys Placement Paper Infosys 2010. Here you will find Infosys Placement Paper Pattern and Download questions of Infosys Placement Paper 2010 with Answers & Solutions.
Infosys Placement Paper Pattern 2010:-
1) arithmetic and reasoning skills : 30 questions -----40 mins
2) verbal English grammar & comprehension) : 40 questions -----30 mins
Infosys Placement Paper 2010:- Arithmetic:-
1. There is a merry-go-round race going on.One person says,"1/3 of those in front of me and 3/4 of those behind me, give the total number of children in the race". Then the number of children took part in the race? (repeated from previous papers)
Ans: 13
[ Assume there are x participants in the race.In a round race,no: of participants in front of a person wil be x-1 an that behind him wil b x-1. i.e, 1/3(x-1) + 3/4(x-1) = x solving x = 13 ]
2. In an Island the natives lie and visitors speak truth. A man wants to know whether a salesman beside him in a bar is a native or visitor. He asked him to ask a woman beside him whether she is a native or visitor. He replied "she says she is a visitor". Then he knew that the salesman is a native or visitor. salesman is in which category , native or visitor? Ans: Native

Annie : Blue or Green
Bobby : Neither Blue nor Green
Cindy : Blue or Yellow
Danny : Blue or Yellow
colours of cards that are visible to all were Red, Blue, Green, Blue in order of their names. Exactly two of them are telling truth and exactly two of them are lieing. Can you tell the colour on other face of card for each player ? (6 Marks)
Sol : Annie : Yellow (Lieing)
Bobby : Yellow (Telling truth)
Cindy : Blue (Telling truth) Danny : Green (Lieing)


Watch the video: Oct 16, 2013 (August 2022).