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Temple of Hadrian at Ephesus

Temple of Hadrian at Ephesus


Temple of Hadrian at Ephesus - History

Temple of Serapis was built for the Egyptian merchants. It was located on the Commercial Agora near the western gate. There is also another entrance into the temple from the south-west corner of the Agora through stairs.

There are certain indications that suggest the temple was never finished fully. It is estimated that the construction of the temple was started in the 2nd century A.D.

There is a statue found inside the temple made by using the Egyptian granite. Also some inscriptions found inside the temple indicate that the temple was constructed for those who believe in Serapis. In Ephesus Museum there is a monument on which the main Goddess of Ephesians, Artemis, and the principal god of Egypt, Serapis, take place together with garland as a symbol of peace.

It is well documented fact that Ephesus had a very strong commercial link with the influential port city of Egypt, Alexandria. During these ancient times Egypt was the biggest producer of wheat. They exchanged wheat with other commercial items from Ephesus and other Ionian cities.

It was converted to a church during the following Christian period. There are remains of a baptisterium in the eastern corner of the temple.


Temple of Hadrian

This small temple was erected along Curetes Street and faces onto the street.

It was dedicated in 138 A.D . to the still-living emperor and to Artemis Ephesia by one P. Quintilius Galeria, at the invitation of the proconsul of Asia, Vedius Antoninu s, but must not be confused with the temple of the imperial cult, the majestic Hadrianeion , discovered in the northern part of the city.

This is a temple of an almost private nature, and has some unique architectural features: a simple tetrastyle pronaos, with two pillars and two columns, topped by a pediment with an arch in the center, decorated with a bust of Tyche the architrave is richly adorned with plant motifs and has a dedicatory inscription.
The entrance door of the small cell was topped by a lunette richly carved with a female figure emerging from acanthus leaves. Contrasting with the decoration of the façade, the interior of the temple must have been very simple against the back wall of the cell, aligned with the door, was the base of the cult statue.

© Photo credits by shankar s under CC-BY-2.0

To a later period belong the four bases with inscriptions situated in front of the pillars and columns of the pronaos, and the four reliefs decorating the walls of the vestibule. Indeed, the bases probably held the statues of the tetrarchs Diocletian, Maximianus, Constantius Chlorus, and Galerius, while the subjects of the reliefs show episodes from the legend of the foundation of Ephesus, including the killing of the boar by Androclus.
The Temple of Hadrian is a very significant example of Asian architecture during the Roman Age, with its alternation of rectilinear and curved structures and the particular taste for a building with just a single viewpoint, the façade, on which the viewer’s attention is focused.

Do you want to know more about the history of Ephesus and Pergamon?

Check out our guidebook to Ephesus and Pergamon, with detailed history and Past & Present images of their greatest historical and archaeological sites.


The Library of Celsus is one of the most beautiful buildings in Ephesus, the best known and most photographed. Built about 117 A.D, the two-story façade boasts Corinthian-style columns and three windows on the second floor. The Ephesus Library was the third biggest library after Alexandria and Pergamum. It could hold 12,000 scrolls, which were kept in wall niches.

The magnificent Library of Celsus is the highlight of visiting Ancient Ephesus


Contents

In the 1950s the temple was excavated by the Austrian Archaeological Institute under the direction of Franz Miltner . In order to make the ruins of Ephesus as vivid as possible for visitors, entire streets were exposed, including the Kuretenstrasse. With the numerous structural elements of the temple found, a partial reconstruction ( Anastilosis ) took place from 1957 to 1958 under the project management of the Viennese architect Karl Heinz Göschl. From 2009 to 2012 the archaeologist Ursula Quatember carried out new research on the architectural history of the temple.


Temple of Hadrian at Ephesus - History

One of the most attractive structures in Ephesus. T his was a marvelous structure on Curate's Avenue. In was erected in 138 at the latest. It forms a simple naos structure with a plain monumental pronaos. At the front of the pronaos are four Corinthian columns with triangular capitals. There was an arch over the two central columns. In the center of the arch was a bust of the city goddess Tyche.

The lentils of the temple door were decorated with pearl and egg motifs. The semicircular capital over the door there is a likeness of Medusa amidst acanthus leaves and flowers. The frieze on original lentil over the pronaos door is in the museum. When the temple was being restored copies were used in its place. The frieze is of four parts, the first three include gods and goddesses Andorcles, the protector of Ephesus. Hunting wild boar Amazon goddesses, and Amazons with Dionysius. The fourth part has Athena, the moon goddess Selene, a male Apollos, a female figure, Androcles, Heracles, and the wife and son of Theodosius. It is thought that this fourth block was taken from elsewhere and used here.

The temple was dedicated to the emperor Hadrian by P. Quintillus in 138. The inscription is on the architrave. Four pedestals with inscriptions were found in front of the columns. The inscriptions show the same date and held four statues of Roman emperors, being Diocletian, Maximam, Constantine Chlorus and Galerius.


Temple of Hadrian at Ephesus - History

Part 2: Frieze Block A and Block B

The two frieze reliefs on the left side of the porch interior

Four badly worn frieze reliefs from the top of the walls either side of the doorway inside the porch (pronaos) have survived. The front of each marble block has reliefs of groups of figures, most of which fill the height of the shallow recessed space between the frames along the top and bottom of the frieze. They are usually referred to as Blocks A-D. Most of the poorly sculpted and badly damaged figures have not been identified beyond doubt, and there have been various interpretations of the scenes. All the frieze reliefs now displayed in the building are copies the originals are in the Ephesus Archaeological Museum, Selçuk. Inv. Nos. 713-716.

The reliefs are thought to have been made in the third quarter of the 4th century AD for an unknown building, and shortly after, perhaps between 383 and 387 AD in the reign of Emperor Theodosius I (379-395 AD), they were taken to the "Temple of Hadrian" during its restoration following an earthquake. The original form of the frieze and the order of the relief scenes (perhaps a single continuous frieze) is unknown, and there may have been further scenes or panels. [1]

On the left side of the porch one relief is immediately to the left of the door frame (Block B), and a shorter relief (Block A) is above the adjoining side wall further to the left (see photos below). The scenes are thought to depict the founding of Ephesus by the mythical or legendary hero Androklos (Ἄνδροκλος) with the assistance of various deities and heroes (see below).

Block A, the frieze on the far left wall inside the porch.

To the right a rider, probably Androklos, whose horse rears above a fallen man (a Carian, Lelege or Lydian?) with a helmet, sword and shield a wild boar runs to the right (sorry about the scroll).

The horseman scene is similar to several hero-horseman reliefs (see Pergamon gallery 2, page 10) and depictions of Alexander the Great on horseback, such as the "Alexander Mosaic" from Pompeii and the "Alexander Sarcophagus" (see the Alexander the Great page in the MFP People section).

Block B, the frieze immediately to left of the porch doorway.

On the right, four female figures, three of which are shown with exposed right breasts, probably represent fleeing Amazons, according to some versions of myths the original inhabitants of Ephesus. There were also mythological stories in which the Amazons fled from both Dionysus (see Block C on the next page) and Herakles, and took refuge in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. [3] The leftmost figure carries a pelte (πέλτη), the type of shield held by the Amazons in Greek and Roman art (see also the figures on frieze Block C on the next page). The rightmost figure has fallen to her knees. As with the other frieze blocks, it is not known whether this scene continued on either side.

Original in the Ephesus Archaeological Museum, Selçuk. Inv. No. 714.
Marble. Height 60 cm, width 172 cm, depth 52 cm.

Androklos is mentioned as the ktistes (κτίστης, founder) of Ephesus on several Hellenistic and Roman period inscriptions found in the city. [5]

An oracle of Apollo had predicted that a fish and a boar would show where to build their new city. Following their arrival, as some fishermen were cooking their lunch near a spring, a burning fish popped out of the fire and ignited bushes in which there was a wild boar. The frightened boar fled and was chased and killed by the fishermen. This was seen as the fulfillment of the prophecy, and the new settlement was established and a temple of Athena built at the place where the boar had been killed, a hill known as Tracheia Mountain (Τραχεῖα, Rough).

The only surviving ancient literary source for this story is Athenaeus of Naucratis, who claims to be citing a certain Creophylus (Κρεώφυλος), about whom nothing else is known. [6]

"Creophylus, in Chronicles of the Ephesians, says that the founders of Ephesus, after suffering many hardships because of the difficulties of the region, finally sent to the oracle of the god and asked where they should place their city. And he declared to them that they should build a city 'whereso'er' a fish shall show them and a wild boar shall lead the way.

It is said, accordingly, that some fishermen were eating their noonday meal in the place where are the spring today called Oily [Hypelaios] and the sacred lake. One of the fish popped out with a live coal and fell into some straw, and a thicket in which a wild boar happened to be was set on fire by the fish. The boar, frightened by the fire, ran up a great distance on the mountain which is called Trecheia (Rough), and when brought down by a javelin, fell where today stands the temple of Athena.

So the Ephesians crossed over from the island after living there twenty years, and for the second time settled Trecheia and the regions on the slopes of Coressus they also built a temple of Artemis overlooking the market-place, and a temple of the Pythian Apollo at the harbour."

Athenaeus of Naucratis, The Learned Banqueters, Book 8, chapter 62 [7]

The oracle mentioned is usually taken to be that of Apollo at Delphi, which is known to have been consulted by Greek cities sending out colonies, although it is usually reported that colonists received the god's enigmatic advice before setting off. There was also an oracle of Apollo much nearer at Didyma, belonging to the Ionian city of Miletus, which was colonized by Greeks before Ephesus. [8]

The "Hypelaios" [9] appears to have been a spring among the olive trees, which may have later been contained by a fountain, the Hypelaion (Ὑπέλαιον Latin, Hypelaeum) mentioned by Strabo (see below). The "sacred lake" (ἱερὸς λιμὴν, ieros limin) is usually translated as sacred harbour, thought to be the old harbour of Ephesus which was silted up by the Roman period.

The folksy tale of ordinary fishermen cooking their lunch and causing the fulfilment of a prophecy may have been the root of the foundation myths of the city. It is notable that Androklos is not mentioned here, although it appears that he was later associated with the wild boar episode, as can be seen from the frieze in the Temple of Hadrian, other sculptures and coins from the Roman period (see below).

In the 5th century BC Herodotus, when discussing Ionia and the Ionians, briefly, indirectly and scathingly referred to the Ephesians' claim that their founder was Androklos, the son of Kodros of Athens. He also claimed that the Ionians were not pure Ionian Greeks, since many had come from other places, and the first colonists had brought no women with them but married the daughters, wives and mothers of the male natives they had dispossessed and killed:

". for it would be foolishness to say that these are more truly Ionian or better born than the other Ionians since not the least part of them are Abantes from Euboea, who are not Ionians even in name, and there are mingled with them Minyans of Orchomenus, Cadmeans, Dryopians, Phocian renegades from their nation, Molossians, Pelasgian Arcadians, Dorians of Epidaurus, and many other tribes,

And as for those who came from the very town-hall of Athens and think they are the best born of the Ionians, these did not bring wives with them to their settlements, but married Carian women whose parents they had put to death.

For this slaughter, these women made a custom and bound themselves by oath (and enjoined it on their daughters) that no one would sit at table with her husband or call him by his name, because the men had married them after slaying their fathers and husbands and sons. This happened at Miletus.

And as kings, some of them chose Lycian descendants of Glaucus son of Hippolochus, and some Caucones of Pylus, descendants of Codrus son of Melanthus, and some both."

Herodotus, Histories, Book 1, chapters 146-147. [10]

It should be pointed out that Herodotus was himself a Carian, and perhaps no great friend of Ionian supremacy.

The Greek geographer Strabo, writing in the early 1st century AD, cited the 5th century mythographer Pherecydes [11] as his source for the early history of Ephesus:

"According to Pherecydes, Miletus, Myus, Mycale, and Ephesus, on this coast, were formerly occupied by Carians the part of the coast next in order, as far as Phocaea, and Chios, and Samos, of which Ancaeus was king, were occupied by Leleges, but both nations were expelled by the Ionians, and took refuge in the remaining parts of Caria.

Pherecydes says that the leader of the Ionian, which was posterior to the Aeolian migration, was Androclus, a legitimate son of Codrus king of the Athenians, and that he was the founder of Ephesus, hence it was that it became the seat of the royal palace of the Ionian princes. Even at present the descendants of that race are called kings, and receive certain honours, as the chief seat at the public games, a purple robe as a symbol of royal descent, a staff instead of a sceptre, and the superintendence of the sacrifices in honour of the Eleusinian Ceres [Demeter]."

Strabo, Geography, Book 14, chapter 1, section 3 [12].

"The city of Ephesus was inhabited both by Carians and Leleges. After Androclus had expelled the greatest part of the inhabitants, he settled his companions about the Athenaeum, and the Hypelaeum, and in the mountainous tract at the foot of the Coressus. It was thus inhabited till the time of Croesus. Afterwards, the inhabitants descended from the mountainous district, and settled about the present temple, and continued there to the time of Alexander."

Strabo, Geography, Book 14, chapter 1, section 21 [12].

The second century AD travel writer Pausanias (who may have been from nearby Lydia) had more to say about the arrival of the Ionian Greeks and their conquest of Miletus and Ephesus. He also related that Androklos took Samos for a while, perhaps as long as 10 years. Androklos was even depicted on Roman coins of Samos during the 3rd century AD, perhaps due to a revival of interest in the hero sparked by the works of authors such as Pausanias. The founder hero was killed while fighting with the people of Priene against the Carians and was buried in Ephesus, on the road between road between the sanctuary of Artemis Ephesia and the Magnesian Gate via the Olympieion. [13] Pausanias' usual mix of myth, legend and heresay is apparent when he discusses the history of the sanctuary of Artemis.

". Medon and Neileus, the oldest of the sons of Codrus, quarrelled about the rule [of Athens], and Neileus refused to allow Medon to rule over him, because he was lame in one foot. The disputants agreed to refer the matter to the Delphic oracle, and the Pythian priestess gave the kingdom of Athens to Medon. So Neileus and the rest of the sons of Codrus set out to found a colony, taking with them any Athenian who wished to go with them, but the greatest number of their company was composed of Ionians."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 7, chapter 2, section 1. [14]

The Ionians of the Peloponnese had taken refuge in Athens after being driven out of their lands by the Dorian invasions. Neileus, the brother of Androklos, was the legendary founder of Ionian Miletus.

"When the Ionians had overcome the ancient Milesians they killed every male, except those who escaped at the capture of the city, but the wives of the Milesians and their daughters they married.

The grave of Neileus is on the left of the road, not far from the gate, as you go to Didymi. The sanctuary of Apollo at Didymi, and his oracle, are earlier than the immigration of the Ionians, while the cult of Ephesian Artemis is far more ancient still than their coming.

Pindar, however, it seems to me, did not learn everything about the goddess, for he says that this sanctuary was founded by the Amazons during their campaign against Athens and Theseus. It is a fact that the women from the Thermodon, as they knew the sanctuary from of old, sacrificed to the Ephesian goddess both on this occasion and when they had fled from Heracles some of them earlier still, when they had fled from Dionysus, having come to the sanctuary as suppliants. However, it was not by the Amazons that the sanctuary was founded, but by Coresus, an aboriginal, and Ephesus, who is thought to have been a son of the river Cayster, and from Ephesus the city received its name.

The inhabitants of the land were partly Leleges, a branch of the Carians, but the greater number were Lydians. In addition there were others who dwelt around the sanctuary for the sake of its protection, and these included some women of the race of the Amazons.

But Androclus the son of Codrus (for he it was who was appointed king of the Ionians who sailed against Ephesus) expelled from the land the Leleges and Lydians who occupied the upper city. Those, however, who dwelt around the sanctuary had nothing to fear they exchanged oaths of friendship with the Ionians and escaped warfare. Androclus also took Samos from the Samians, and for a time the Ephesians held Samos and the adjacent islands.

But after that the Samians had returned to their own land, Androclus helped the people of Priene against the Carians. The Greek army was victorious, but Androclus was killed in the battle. The Ephesians carried off his body and buried it in their own land, at the spot where his tomb is pointed out at the present day, on the road leading from the sanctuary past the Olympieum to the Magnesian gate. On the tomb is a statue of an armed man."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 7, chapter 2, sections 6-9. [14]

"Thus far Asius in his poem. But on the occasion to which I refer the inhabitants of the island received the Ionians as settlers more of necessity than through good will. The leader of the Ionians was Procles, the son of Pityreus, Epidaurian himself like the greater part of his followers, who had been expelled from Epidauria by Deiphontes and the Argives. This Procles was descended from Ion, son of Xuthus. But the Ephesians under Androclus made war on Leogorus, the son of Procles, who reigned in Samos after his father, and after conquering them in a battle drove the Samians out of their island, accusing them of conspiring with the Carians against the Ionians.

[3] The Samians fled and some of them made their home in an island near Thrace, and as a result of their settling there the name of the island was changed from Dardania to Samothrace. Others with Leogorus threw a wall round Anaea on the mainland opposite Samos, and ten years after crossed over, expelled the Ephesians and reoccupied the island."

A fragmentary marble statue of Antinous as Androklos (Ἄνδροκλος),
the legendary or mythical Athenian founder and first king of Ephesus.
Part of a statue group, perhaps depicting the legend of Androklos
with his dog hunting a wild boar.

Found in 1927 in the Vedius Gymnasium, Ephesus.
Roman period, 138-161 AD (perhaps around 150 AD).

Izmir Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 45.

After he drowned in the Nile, Hadrian deified him and erected many busts and statues of him at sanctuaries for his cult throughout the Roman Empire. He was often depicted in the guise of a local deity or hero such as Dionysus, Osiris, Herakles or Bellerophon.

Ephesian coins from the reigns of Hadrian (117-138 AD) to Gallienus (253-268 AD) show Androklos hunting a wild boar, a reference to the legend related by Athenaeus (see above). One of the earliest, from Hadrian's reign, shows a bust of Antinous with the inscription "Heros Antinoos" on the obverse side. The reverse shows a youthful Androklos standing in a heroic pose, naked apart from a chlamys (short cloak, as in the statue of Antinous above), in front of an olive tree, and the inscription "Ephesion Androklos". He holds a spear in his left hand and carries a dead boar in his right hand.

Coins from the mid 2nd to 3rd century show the head of the current emperor on the obverse side, and on the reverse a similar representation of Androklos, sometimes with a hunting dog. Others show Androklos hunting a boar either with a spear or on horseback, or standing next to the hero Koressos with both holding the dead boar.

Androklos is also shown on coins of other cities during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, standing to the right of the founder of that city (e.g. Alexander the Great for Alexandria and the hero Kyzikos for Kyzikos), either shaking hands or holding statuettes of their respective local deities (e.g the hero Pergamos with a statuette of Asklepios and Androklos with Artemis Ephesia).

See: Robert Fleischer, Die Amazonen und das Asyl des Artemisions von Ephesos (particularly the section Der Fries des Hadrianstempels). In: Jahrbuch Des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts, Volume 117, pages 185-216. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2002.

Fleischer treated the reliefs as parts of a single frieze, and suggested that it may have been made during the lifetime of Emperor Julian II (Julian the Apostate, 331/332-363, reigned 361-363 AD), who spent some time in Ephesus. He also wrote an influential study of the frieze:

R. Fleischer, Der Fries des Hadrianstempels in Ephesos. In: Festschrift für Fritz Eichler zum achtzigsten Geburtstag (Jahreshefte des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes (ÖJh), Beiheft 1), pages 23-71. Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut (ÖAI), Vienna, 1967.

Beat Brenk argued that the frieze may have been made during the priod of the Tetrarchy (284-312 AD).

See: Beat Brenk, Die Datierung der Reliefs am Hadrianstempel in Ephesos und das Problem der tetrarchischen Skulptur des Ostens. Istanbuler Mitteilungen Band 18, pages 238-258. Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Istanbul. Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, Tübingen & Berlin, 1968.

2. Nada Saporiti on the temple frieze

Nada Saporiti, A Frieze from the Temple of Hadrian at Ephesus. In: Lucy Freeman Sandler (editor), Essays in memory of Karl Lehmann, pages 269-278. Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, 1964.

3. Amazons at Ephesus

Pausanias doubted Pindar's claim that the sanctuary of Artemis Ephesia was founded by the Amazons, but appears to have taken as fact tales in which some of them lived at Ephesus, and claimed asylum in the sanctuary when they fled there from Dionysus, and later from Herakles.

"Pindar, however, it seems to me, did not learn everything about the goddess [Artemis Ephesia], for he says that this sanctuary was founded by the Amazons during their campaign against Athens and Theseus. It is a fact that the women from the Thermodon, as they knew the sanctuary from of old, sacrificed to the Ephesian goddess both on this occasion and when they had fled from Heracles some of them earlier still, when they had fled from Dionysus, having come to the sanctuary as suppliants. However, it was not by the Amazons that the sanctuary was founded, but by Coresus, an aboriginal, and Ephesus, who is thought to have been a son of the river Cayster, and from Ephesus the city received its name.

The inhabitants of the land were partly Leleges, a branch of the Carians, but the greater number were Lydians. In addition there were others who dwelt around the sanctuary for the sake of its protection, and these included some women of the race of the Amazons."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 7, chapter 2, sections 7-8. At Perseus Digital Library.

See also Strabo on the Amazon queen Smyrna and the foundation of Ephesus on gallery page 62.

Tacitus, (circa 56-120 AD), who was at Ephesus as proconsul of Asia 112-113 AD, also referred to the local myths concerning the Amazons, Dionysus and Herakles (see Selçuk gallery 1, page 3).

4. The name Androklos

Androklos (Ἄνδροκλος), brave and glorious. From andros (ἀνδρὸς), of a man, brave and kleos (κλέος), glory.

5. Ktistes

Ktistes (κτίστης), founder. From ktízein (κτίζειν), to make habitable, to settle, or to found, to set up. The word was used for the founders of cities, including legendary or mythological founders (e.g. Byzas for Byzantium), gods (especially Apollo) and divine heroes (e.g. Herakles). From the Hellenistic period it was also used for founders of games and other public institutions.

In Archaic and Classical Greece an oikistes (οἰκιστής) was a person chosen by the mother city (μητρόπολις, metropolis) to establish a new colony (ἀποικία, apoikia).

For further information about Greek colonization, see History of Stageira part 2.

6. Creophylus

Creophylus (Κρεώφυλος, Kreophylos) is also referred as Kreophylos of Ephesus (Κρεώφυλος ο Εφέσιος) because of Athenaeus' mention of his Chronicles of the Ephesians (or Ephesian Annals Ἐφεσίων ὧροι, Ephesion oroi), and it has even been speculated that he wrote in the Ionian dialect and may have lived in the 4th century BC. However, there is no evidence for this, and there is no mention of a historian named Creophylus by any other ancient author.

Kreophylos is also the name of a legendary Greek poet, usually referred to as Kreophylos of Samos (Κρεώφυλος ὁ Σάμιος), although he may have been from Chios. He may have lived in the 7th or 6th century BC and have been a contemporary of Homer. No works by him have survived, and evidence of his existence is just as elusive as that for Kreophylos of Ephesus. It is just as likely that Kreophylos of Samos wrote an epic poem on the legends and history of Ephesus.

7. Athenaeus on the foundation of Ephesus

Athenaeus of Naucratis (Greek, Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athenaios Naukratites Latin, Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian of the late 2nd to early 3rd century AD from Naucratis, the Ptolemaic capital of Egypt. His only surviving work is the 15-volume Deipnosophistae (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Banquet of the Learned or Scholars at the Dinner Table), written in Greek in the early 3rd century AD in Rome, most of which is still extant. The book is an account - probably fictional - of erudite conversations between diners at three banquets.

The Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus, Book VIII (Part 5 of 5), page 137. Volume IV of the Loeb Classical Library edition, Harvard University Press, 1930. At Bill Thayer's LacusCurtius website, University of Chicago.

Another translation: Charles Duke Yonge, The Deipnosophists: or, Banquet of the learned, of Athenaeus, Volume 2 (of 3), Book 8, chapter 62, pages 569-570. H. G. Bohn, London, 1854. At the Internet Archive.

The text in Greek, from the Loeb edition:

Κρεώφυλος δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς Ἐφεσίων ῝ Ὥροις οἱ τὴν Ἔφεσον, φησί, κτίζοντες καὶ πολλὰ ταλαιπωρηθέντες ἀπορίᾳ τόπου τὸ τελευταῖον πέμψαντες εἰς θεοῦ ἠρώτων ὅπου τὸ πόλισμα θῶνται. ὁ δ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἔχρησεν ἐνταῦθα οἰκίζειν πόλιν ᾗ ἂν ἰχθὺς δείξῃ καὶ ὗς ἄγριος ὑφηγήσηται.

λέγεται οὖν ὅπου νῦν ἡ κρήνη ἐστὶν Ὑπέλαιος καλουμένη καὶ ὁ ἱερὸς λιμὴν ἁλιέας ἀριστοποιεῖσθαι, καὶ τῶν ἰχθύων τινὰ ἀποθορόντα σὺν ἀνθρακιᾷ εἰσπεσεῖν εἰς φορυτόν, καὶ ἁφθῆναι ὑπ᾽. αὐτοῦ λόχμην, ἐν ᾗ ἔτυχε σῦς ἄγριος ὤν: ὃς ὑπὸ τοῦ πυρὸς θορυβηθεὶς ἐπέδραμε τοῦ ὄρους ἐπὶ πολύ, ὃ δὴ καλεῖται τρηχεῖα, καὶ πίπτει ἀκοντισθεὶς ὅπου νῦν ἐστιν ὁ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ναός.

καὶ διαβάντες οἱ Ἐφέσιοι ἐκ τῆς νήσου, ἔτεα εἴκοσιν οἰκήσαντες, τὸ δεύτερον κτίζουσι Τρηχεῖαν καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ Κορησσόν, καὶ ἱερὸν Ἀρτέμιδος ἐπὶ τῇ ἀγορῇ ἱδρύσαντο Ἀπόλλωνός τε τοῦ Πυθίου ἐπὶ τῷ λιμένι.

8. Oracles of Apollo

The situation at the Didyma oracle, which predated the arrival of the Greeks, at the estimated time of the Ephesian foundation is not known. Equally uncertain is the state of relations between Miletus and the Ephesian colonists. Would Androklos' small, embattled group have been able to send a mission all the way to Delphi, or would they have been able and just as happy to consult Apollo at nearby Didyma?

9. Hypelaios

Hypelaios (Ὑπέλαιος) has been translated in the Loeb edition as "Oily", while Yonge simply used the Latin "Hypelaeus". Few modern authors have attempted to translate or examine the name, Doctor Richard Chandler being a notable exception:

"The city of Androclus was by the atheneum or a temple of Minerva, which was without the city of Lysimachus, and by the fountain called Hypelaeus, or that under the olive tree."

Richard Chandler, Travels in Asia Minor: or an account of a tour made at the expense of the Society of Dilettanti, Volume I (of 2), page 146. Joseph Booker, London, 1817.

A German translation of Hypelaion (Ὑπέλαιον) in Strabo (Book 14, chapter 1, section 21) renders the word as "Ölbaumquelle" (literally, oil tree spring), olive tree spring.

Elmar Schwertheim, Kleinasien in der Antike: von den Hethitern bis Konstantin, page 38. C. H. Beck, München, 2005.

The suggestion by another author that hypelaios refers to the oily taste of the spring's water appears to be pure conjecture.

10. Herodotus on the Ionians

Herodotus, Histories, Book 1, chapters 146-147. At Perseus Digital Library.

11. Pherecydes of Leros

Pherecydes (Φερεκύδης) was a 5th century BC writer, referred to variously as Pherecydes of Leros (Φερεκύδης ὁ Λέριος) or Pherecydes of Athens (Φερεκύδης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος), with differing opinions on whether they were the same person. He is thought to have been a native of the island of Leros who spent much of his life in Athens.

His Genealogies (οι Γενεαλογίαι), also referred to as Histories, was a work of ten books in the Ionian dialect, recording the popular myths of Greek gods and heroes with a particular emphasis on their genealogies. It was possibly written as propaganda, to demonstrate the divine and heroic pedigrees of prominent families in Attica, who may have been his patrons. The original work is lost, but several passages were quoted or used as sources by later ancient writers.

12. Strabo on the foundation of Ephesus

Strabo, The Geography, Book 14. Translated by H. C. Hamilton and W. Falconer. George Bell & Sons, London, 1903. At Perseus Digital Library.

13. The tomb of Androklos in Ephesus

Helmut Engelmann, Das Grab des Androklos und ein Olympieion (Pausanias VII 2, 9). In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 112 (1996), pages 131–133.

Elisabeth Rathmayr, Die Präsenz des Ktistes Androklos in Ephesos. In: Anzeige der Phil.-Hist.Klasse, 145, Jahrgang 2010, pages 19-60. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, 2010.

For further information on the Olympieion at Ephesus, see the note on gallery page 21.

14. Pausanias on the foundation of Ephesus

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Hadrian’s Temple in Ephesus, Turkey

Hadrian’s Gate that you just saw was finished in 117 AD, the year Hadrian became Roman emperor. The tribute was probably meant for his predecessor Trajan. Construction of Hadrian’s Temple was completed in 138, the same year the emperor died at the age of 62. He was deified posthumously. Historians consider him one of the Five Good Emperors. They collectively ruled from 96 through 180 AD. The hollow façade of Hadrian’s Temple on Curetes Street is worthy of the emperor’s 21 year reign. Four marble Corinthian columns support a bold archway with a bas-relief of Tyche, the Greek goddess of good and bad fortune. The Roman equivalent was Fortuna. The frieze also portrays key moments in Ephesus’ history plus images of Apollo and Athena. Set back is a large, crescent-shaped carving of Medusa. According to Greek mythology, her curly hair was venomous snakes. Anyone who dared look at her was turned to stone.

Efes Harabeleri, 35920 Selçuk/İzmir, Turkey

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Temple of Serapis

The Temple of Serapis is located on the Commercial Agora near the western gate. Construction on the temple began in the 2nd century AD and there are indications that suggest it may never have been fully finished.

The temple would have been built for the Egyptian merchants that often visited Ephesus for trading. It is well documented fact that Ephesus had strong commercial ties with the Egyptian port city of Alexandria. The Egyptian merchants would have visited Ephesus often to exchange wheat, Egypt’s major export at the time, for other commercial items.

The temple would have been accessed either through a 24 meter wide and 160 meter. long stoa, or covered walk-way, along the western gate, or through a stairway on the south-west corner of the Agora. The main structure of the Temple of Serapis was a 29 meter wide square with thick walls to support the heavy stone roof. The entrance was supported by 57 ton granite columns that held a thick metal door. The door had to be opened and closed with a the help of a series of wheels located underneath.

Inscriptions in the temple indicate that it was a serapeum, a religious institution constructed for the worshipers of the Cult of Serapis. This god was a combination of the aspects of Osiris, god of the afterlife, and Apis, god of strength and fertility. Serapis was a popular humanized god during the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria. Archeologists found two statues inside the temple made from granite that would have been imported from Egypt. These statues represented the Egyptian god Serapis and the Ephesian huntress goddess Artemis. The two statues stood together with a garland as a symbol of peace.

The remains of a baptisterium in the eastern corner of the temple suggests that it was converted to a church during the 4th century AD when Rome converted to Christianity.


Temple of Hadrian at Ephesus - History

Ephesus terrace houses are located on the hill, opposite the Hadrian Temple. Also called as "the houses of rich", important for the reason give us information about family life during the Roman period. They were built according to the Hippodamian plan of the city in which roads transected each other at right angels.

There are six residential units on three terraces at the lower end of the slope of the Bulbul Mountain. The oldest building dates back into the 1C BC and continued in use as residence until the 7C AD.

Ephesus terrace houses are covered with protective roofing which resembles Roman houses. The mosaics on the floor and the frescos have been consolidated and two houses have been opened to the public as a museum.

They had interior courtyards (peristyle) in the center, with the ceiling open. They were mostly two-storied, upper stores have collapsed during time. On the ground floor there were living and dining rooms opening to the hall, and upstairs there were bedrooms and guest rooms.

The heating system of the terrace houses were the same as that in baths. Clay pipes beneath the floors and behind the walls carried hot air through the houses. The houses also had cold and hot water. The rooms had no window, only illuminated with light coming from the open hall, so that most of the rooms were dim. The excavations of the terrace houses started in 1960. The restoration of the two of the houses have been finished and can be visited today.

List of site sources >>>


Watch the video: Temple of Hadrian: Emperors temple still stands, in use - in the Campus Martius! Ancient Rome Live (January 2022).