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(Submarine No. 83: dp. 569 (surf.), 680 (subm.); l. 186'2"; b. 18'; dr. 14'6", s. 13.5 k. (surf.), 10.5 k. (subm.), cpl. 34 a.13",421"tt.;cl. R-1)
R-6 (Submarine No. 83) was laid down 17 December 1917 by the Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quiney, Mass.; launched 1 March 1919; sponsored by Miss Katherine Langdon Hill; and commissioned at Boston 1 May 1919, Lt. Comdr. Charles Milford Elder in command.
After fitting out at Boston, R B reported to Submarine Division 9 of the Atlantic Fleet at New London, Conn., 16 September 1919. She got underway 4 December for Norfolk and winter exercises with her division in the Gulf of Mexico
from 21 January to 14 April 1920. She returned to New London 18 May for 4 months of summer maneuvers, before sailing 13 September for Norfolk and overhaul.
With Division 9, R -6, designated SS-83 in July 1920, was ordered to the Pacific 11 April 1921, transited the Panama Canal 28 May; and arrived 30 June at her new base, San Pedro Calif. Due to a malfunction in one of her torpedo tubes, she sank 26 September in San Pedro Harbor, but was refloated 13 October by R-10 and Cardinal. From 26 February to 2 March 1923, R-6was used by Twentieth Century-Fox in making the motion picture, "The Eleventh Hour."
R~6 was transferred 16 July 1923 to Hawaii where she remained for the next 8 years engaged in training and operations with fleet units.
R~6 was recalled to the Atlantic 12 December 1930, transited the Panama Canal 18 January 1931, and arrived 9 February at Philadelphia where she decommissioned 4 May 1931.
Upon recommissioning at New London 15 November 1940 R~ was assigned to Division 42 and departed 10 December for the submarine base at Coco Solo, C.Z., where she remained until 16 June 1941. She was transferred to Division 31 at St. Thomas, V.I., on 22 June and operated out of there until returning to New London 8 October for a refit.
The submarine next joined the anti-U-boat patrol operating roughly on a line between Nantucket and Bermuda. Through 1942 she rotated between New London and Bermuda, conducting submerged periscope patrols by day and surface patrols at night to protect coastal traffic. From 1943 to mid1945 she was employed primarily in training destroyers and destroyer escorts in antisubmarine warfare. In August 1945 she moved south to Florida and operated in the Port Everglades-Key West area. R~6 decommissioned at Key West 27 September and was struck from the Navy list 11 October 1945. She was sold for scrap to Macey O. Scott, Miami, Fla., in March 1946.
The Chevrolet Silverado is a range of trucks manufactured by General Motors under the Chevrolet brand. Introduced for the 1999 model year, the Silverado is the successor to the long-running Chevrolet C/K model line. Taking its name from the top trim level from the Chevrolet C/K series, the Silverado is offered as a series of full-size pickup trucks, chassis cab trucks, and medium-duty trucks. The fourth generation of the model line was introduced for the 2019 model year.
- GMC Sierra
- Chevrolet Cheyenne (Mexico)
- VIA VTRUX
- VTA SolTRUX (South Korea and east Asia)
- International CV
The Chevrolet Silverado shares mechanical commonality with the GMC Sierra GMC ended the use of the C/K nomenclature a model generation prior to Chevrolet. In Mexico, heavy-duty versions of the Silverado use the Chevrolet Cheyenne name. Competing against the Ford F-Series, Dodge Ram, Nissan Titan, and Toyota Tundra, the Silverado is among the best-selling vehicles in the United States, selling almost 12 million examples since its introduction. [ citation needed ]
Chevy Blazer lands for 1969 to battle the Ford Bronco
1973-1991 K5 Blazer: A long second generation
A new Blazer with slightly more rounded off sheet metal arrived for 1973 offering carryover engines, the ability to spec out a one-, two- or five-passenger cabin and removable convertible top. However, the fully open cabin would go away in 1976 with the launch of the half-cab design that still featured a removable top, but one that began just after the first-row seats, meaning the front passengers stayed fully covered./> Enlarge Image
1977 Chevrolet K5 Blazer Chalet
The 1976 model year also saw the debut of the Blazer Chalet, which was basically a Blazer with a pop-up camper that bolted into the same holes used by the factory hardtop. Base versions of the Chalet slept two adults, had a sink, a two-burner propane stove, icebox and dinette table. Midlevel versions gained a propane heater and refrigerator, while top models had overhead fold-out bunks capable of accommodating two additional people.
In the mid-1980s, Chevrolet also produced a K5 Blazer-based vehicle known as the M1009 for the US military. Compared to the regular vehicle, the military spec model got a more robust suspension, special electrical system, front brush guard, rifle rack, lacked air conditioning and specific olive green, camouflage or tan paint jobs.
Throughout its lifetime, the second-generation K5 Blazer would undergo numerous styling updates on both inside and out and a handful of engine lineup changes that included the addition of a diesel option. The second-generation K5 Blazer completed its runs in 1991.
1969 Mopars: Plymouth Road Runner Six-Barrel / Dodge Super Bee Six Pack
A menace even to its Hemi big brother.
How many built: Road Runner A12: 1,412 Super Bee A12: 1,907
Starting price: $3,400
Nickname: ‘Six Pack’
Current value estimate: $79,000 to $144,000
For muscle-car fans who wanted a side of intimidation with their speed, the 1969 Dodge and Plymouth “Six Packs” delivered.
Bang-for-the-buck value and a cartoon-character image (including the p! Beep!” horn) drove the 1968 Plymouth Road Runner to quick success. There was, however, a huge gap between its standard 335-hp, 383 cu.-in. engine and optional 425-hp, 426 cu.-in. Hemi, which cost $714 more. Few chose it. The same went for the Road Runner’s corporate cousin, the Dodge Super Bee. (Plymouth and Dodge were divisions of Chrysler that offered essentially the same muscle cars with different styling.)
Read More: 8 Heroes of American Hot Rodding
To fill that gap, and to shock the segment as a bonus, Dodge and Plymouth issued the A12 option for 1969. At its heart was an extra-beefy high-performance 440 cu.-in. big-block engine, but with three Holley 2-barrel carburetors instead of the single 4-barrel. Plymouth tagged it Six Barrel, but everyone else called it by the name Dodge used: Six Pack. Dodge’s ad for the car famously proclaimed, “Six Pack to Go!” and Plymouth’s headline touted “Six Barrels on Tap.” The beer metaphors were probably unwise.
With 390 hp, the Six Packs were nearly as quick as their Hemi brethren, but much less expensive and easier to maintain. The A12 package made the cars drag-strip-ready with heavy-duty transmissions and chassis bits. Black-painted steel wheels and a matte-black lift-off fiberglass hood with huge air scoop conveyed a blatant street-racer vibe. Available colors like Limelight, Bahama Yellow and Vitamin C Orange, meanwhile, ensured maximum visibility at the burger drive-through.
(Credit: National Motor Museum/Heritage Images/Getty Images)
About the R.S. Prussia Company
Throughout its history, the R.S. Prussia company manufactured a wide range of china pieces and sets, including teapots, cups and saucers, plates, sugar bowls, and even chocolate sets. Most pieces were decorated with imitation opals, gold, or iridescent finishes and feature paintings of flowers, portraits, or scenes from nature which were applied through lithographic transfers. Later pitchers and vases pieces, influenced by Art Nouveau, had arms and handles with designs similar to the borders on posters by Alphonse Mucha.
According to the International Association of R.S. Prussia Collectors website, most of the historical information on this type of porcelain published prior to 1994 appears to be largely inaccurate. This includes large chunks of text in a few well-known book titles. Reinhold and Erdmann Schlegelmilch were long thought to be brothers jointly operating one factory, but they actually ran two different factories located in Suhl, Germany, in direct competition with one another.
The "Rhythm & Blues" term was created to replace the designation "race music," which until then was the standard catch-all phrase used in reference to most music made by Black people at the time. After the "race music" term was deemed offensive, Billboard began using the Rhythm & Blues name that Wexler created.
In the 1950s, Rhythm and Blues music was associated with Black youth in honky-tonks and after-hours clubs, and it was often dismissed as a lowbrow style of art compared to Jazz's more highbrow form of Black expression. As hip hop music arose and began to dominate the Black social scene, R&B became thought of as "a bunch of love songs".
By the 1970s, the term rhythm and blues expanded to become a blanket term that included both soul and funk forms of music. And today, the term can be used to loosely define most sung African-American urban music, even though soul and funk can be placed in categories of their own.
Eight hundred children are gassed to death at Auschwitz
On October 10, 1944, 800 Romani children, including more than a hundred boys between 9 and 14 years old, are systematically murdered.
Auschwitz was really a group of camps, designated I, II, and III. There were also 40 smaller “satellite” camps. It was at Auschwitz II, at Birkenau, established in October 1941, that the SS created a complex, monstrously orchestrated killing ground: 300 prison barracks four thhouses,” in which prisoners were gassed corpse cellars and cremating ovens. Thousands of prisoners were also used as fodder for medical experiments, overseen and performed by the camp doctor, Josef Mengele (“the Angel of Death”).
A mini-revolt took place on October 7, 1944. As several hundred Jewish prisoners were being forced to carry corpses from the gas chambers to the furnace to dispose of the bodies, they blew up one of the gas chambers and set fire to another, using explosives smuggled to them from Jewish women who worked in a nearby armaments factory. Of the roughly 450 prisoners involved in the sabotage, about 250 managed to escape the camp during the ensuing chaos. They were all found and shot. Those co-conspirators who never made it out of the camp were also executed, as were five women from the armaments factory𠅋ut not before being tortured for detailed information on the smuggling operation. None of the women talked.
Romani people, too, had been singled out for brutal treatment by Hitler’s regime early on. Deemed rriers of disease” and “unreliable elements who cannot be put to useful work,” they were marked for extermination along with the Jews of Europe from the earliest years of the war. Approximately 1.5 million Romani people were murdered by the Nazis. In 1950, as Romani people attempted to gain compensation for their suffering, as were other victims of the Holocaust, the German government denied them anything, saying, they "have been persecuted under the Nazis not for any racial reason but because of an asocial and criminal record.” They were stigmatized even in light of the atrocities committed against them.
The bike has a 6-speed transmission. Power was moderated via the wet, multiplate clutch.
It came with a 110/90-18 front tire and a 130/90-17 rear tire. Stopping was achieved via dual disc in the front and a expanding brake (drum brake) in the rear. The front suspension was a 37 mm cartridge fork 5.9-inch travel while the rear was equipped with a Pro-Link mono shock with air preload adjustability 3.9-inch travel. The VF750 Sabre was fitted with a 4.8 Gallon (18.17 Liters) fuel tank. The bike weighed just 505.08 pounds (229.1 Kg). The wheelbase was 65.0 inches (1651 mm) long.
The Honda VF750S is a motorcycle produced by Honda from 1982 to 1983.
Thirty-three years ago today, on February 12, 1983, the collier SS Marine Electric loaded with 24,800 tons of steam coal, capsized and sank in a storm 30 miles off the coast of Virginia. Thirty-one of the 34 crew members died. While nothing good can be said about the loss of 31 sailors, the aftermath of the Marine Electric tragedy led to important improvements in safety in the shipping industry.
The SS Marine Electric should have never left the dock. The ship was a T2 tanker built during World War II which had been jumboised with a new midbody and converted to a bulk carrier in 1961 by Marine Transport Lines (MTL). She had not been well maintained. When she sailed in February of 1983, there were holes in both her deck and her hatch covers, many of which patched with epoxy and duct tape. The chief mate had altered the company of the deficiencies, but nothing had been done. Inspections by the Coast Guard and the classification society, the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), were perfunctory and in some cases were simply falsified.
The Marine Electric was caught in a fierce storm off Virginia on the night of February 11. She began taking on water and developed a trim by the bow. When it was evident that the ship was sinking, in the early morning hours of the 12th, a distress call was sent out and the crew began to launch the lifeboats. Not long afterward, the ship capsized suddenly, throwing the crew into the 29 degree F Atlantic ocean waters.
A Coast Guard HH-3F helicopter was immediately dispatched, but by the time that they arrived, the ship had sunk and the crew was in the water. When they lowered a rescue basket, the survivors were so incapacitated by hypothermia that they lacked the strength to climb in. A US Navy helicopter and rescue swimmer were summoned. Navy Petty Officer McCann swam to the point of exhaustion in 40-foot seas. Conditions were so severe and the temperatures so cold that sea water on his facemask froze. He was able to save only three of the crew. Petty Officer McCann was awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his heroic efforts under impossible conditions.
Marine Transport Lines claimed that the ship was seaworthy and sank as a result of unreported grounding damage earlier in the voyage.
Fortuitously, one of the three survivors was Robert Cusick Jr., the chief mate who had previously alerted MTL on the condition of the ship. He was supported by USCG Captain Domenic Calicchio, as a member of the Marine Board of Investigation. Prior to joining the Coast Guard, Calicchio served in the merchant marine for twenty-three years and ended his career as captain for United States Lines. Also joining in the investigation were two Philadelphia Inquirer reporters, Tim Dwyer and Robert Frump.
In the investigation, it became clear that many of the inspection reports that MTL was using to claim that the Marine Electric had been seaworthy had been fabricated. Likewise, divers to the wreck of the ship confirmed that the steel of the deck and hatch covers was heavily wasted and that the deck and covers had allowed water to flood the ship. The investigation concluded that the most probable cause of the capsize and sinking was the wasted plating of the hatch covers and main deck.
In the aftermath of the sinking, the US Coast Guard established an enhanced inspection program on vessels over 20 years old, which resulted in 70 old ships, many dating to World War II, to be scrapped.
The Coast Guard also required that survival suits be carried on all winter North Atlantic runs.
In 1984, in response to the casualties on the Marine Electric, Congress established the Coast Guard Rescue Swimmer program. US Coast Guard rescue swimmers have saved countless mariners at sea and civilians in times of emergency. In the first five days following the devastation from Hurricane Katrina, Coast Guard crews performed more than 33,500 rescue and hoist operations of Katrina victims stranded on rooftops and in flood water.
Philadelphia Inquirer reporters, Tim Dwyer and Robert Frump, won the George Polk Award for their reporting on the loss of the Marine Electric. Robert Frump also wrote a book about the sinking, Until the Sea Shall Free Them.
In 2003, Coast Guard Captain Dominic Calicchio was posthumously awarded The Plimsoll Award by Professional Mariner magazine in part because of his role in the Marine Electric investigation.
In the video below, Chief Mate Robert Cusick Jr. describes the surviving the icy waters while singing Stan Roger’s “Mary Ellen Carter.”
Remembering the SS Marine Electric — a Tragedy that Made Us All Safer — 5 Comments
On that day I was an able seaman in SS Walter Rice, a Reynolds Metals ship. She was a of a very similar type to the Marine Electric. We had just finished loading coal in Philadelphia, bound for Rotterdam, but because of the extreme weather forecast, our captain delayed sailing. Since this all happened at night, many family members of the Rice crew thought the missing ship was ours. Most of the phone calls made in the early AM were a mixture of worry, fear, relief for us and profound grief at the loss of the Marine Electric crew.
I also remember the survival suit controversy. They were deemed too expensive to issue to the crews (management thought sailors would steal them) The unions solved that real quick, no payoff until survial suits turned in.
Blazing Saddle: A Visual History of the Chevrolet Blazer
From bare-bones off-roader to Camaro-inspired crossover . . . and everything in between.
When Ford came out with the 1966 Bronco, Chevrolet needed a competitor&mdashand stat. The result was the 1969 Chevrolet Blazer. Based on Chevy&rsquos C/K-series truck, the Blazer sat on a shorter wheelbase than its pickup counterpart and traded the truck&rsquos cab and bed for an open-topped body. Although the Blazer was conceptually similar to the Blue Oval&rsquos Bronco, it was noticeably bigger, affording the Chevy more interior room while somewhat limiting its off-road prowess. Instead of turning their backs to the monstrous Blazer, hardened trail trekkers and large swaths of consumers quickly embraced the charming rig. This early trail cred has propped up the Blazer name for years, even as the model later morphed into a mid-size SUV aimed at taking down vehicles such as the Ford Explorer and the Toyota 4Runner. After disappearing from the market altogether for a time, the Blazer is back&mdashand as a modern crossover, it&rsquos like no other Blazer before it. Click through to see the Blazer&rsquos path through history from classic four-by-four to today&rsquos futuristic, Camaro-inspired SUV:
Chevrolet introduces the Blazer as an addition to its 1969 model-year lineup. The SUV shares its front-end bodywork, suspension and frame components, and six- and eight-cylinder engines with the brand&rsquos C/K-series pickups. Every Blazer initially comes standard with four-wheel drive. That changes in 1970 when Chevrolet begins to offer a rear-drive variant of the SUV.
The second-generation Blazer arrives for 1973. The SUV&rsquos wheelbase grows by 2.5 inches, while its overall length swells by 7.0 inches. On V-8 models equipped with the automatic transmission, Chevrolet installs a full-time four-wheel-drive system. Styling is evolutionary, although the second-generation SUV&rsquos squared-off fender openings and integrated roll-down tailgate window are relatively radical additions.
Although the new Blazer is initially offered with a completely removable roof, the model sprouts a fixed steel roof over the front passenger compartment beginning in 1976. A removable roof cap over the rear means those seated in the back are still able to experience the wind in their hair should the mood strike. The new roof design allows Chevy to introduce the camping-friendly Blazer Chalet in 1977. This rare factory option includes a built-in camper unit aft of the front passenger area. Built by the Chinook Mobilodge Company, the fiberglass camper adds 26 inches to the SUV&rsquos overall length and offers up to six feet of headroom when its top is extended.
The second-generation Blazer receives its first extensive refresh for 1981. The following model year, Chevrolet adds a diesel-drinking 6.2-liter V-8 to the model&rsquos mix of gas-fed six- and eight-cylinder engines. The diesel is available only with four-wheel drive and mates to a new four-speed automatic transmission. The gearbox is offered throughout the lineup, except on rear-drive Blazers equipped with the standard 4.1-liter inline-six.
Chevy restyles the Blazer&rsquos front end again in 1989. The new look is inspired by the face of the new-for-1988 Chevrolet C/K pickup trucks.
Chevrolet expands the Blazer lineup for 1983 with the smaller S-10 Blazer. Based on the compact S-10 pickup truck, the S-10 Blazer is a whopping 14.5 inches shorter and 14.9 inches narrower than the full-size K5 Blazer. An 83-hp 2.0-liter inline-four is standard, and a 110-hp 2.8-liter V-6 is available as an option. A more powerful 4.3-liter V-6 is added to the mix in the late 1980s.
Expanding the Blazer family even further, Chevy adds a four-door variant to the S-10 Blazer. The truck rests on a 6.5-inch-longer wheelbase and transforms the model from a small off-road runabout into a family-friendly SUV. In the middle of 1992, Chevy offers both two- and four-door Blazers with a high-output 4.3-liter V-6 that makes 200 horsepower&mdashmore than 30 extra horses compared with the standard 4.3-liter V-6.
After nearly twenty years on the market, the full-size-truck-based Blazer is redesigned for 1992. The update coincides with Chevrolet&rsquos overhaul of the larger Suburban, and the two vehicles move onto common underpinnings. The new Blazer is markedly different from its predecessor, with a steel roof replacing the previous removable fiberglass rear portion. A 5.0-inch-longer wheelbase makes for a larger interior that offers more front and rear legroom. Power comes courtesy of Chevy&rsquos 210-hp 5.7-liter V-8. A five-speed manual is standard, while a four-speed automatic is available. Chevrolet strips the Blazer name from the big two-door SUV and rechristens it the Tahoe for model year 1995.
Chevrolet redesigns the S-10 pickup&ndashbased Blazer for 1995, dropping the S-10 part of the name and offering both two- and four-door body styles from the outset. Rear-wheel drive comes standard, and four-wheel drive is available. A new full-time all-wheel-drive system is offered on the top-of-the-line LT trim. We promptly take the new Blazer to Canada for a three-truck comparison test that also includes the Jeep Grand Cherokee and the Ford Explorer. The Blazer claims silver, falling four points short of the first-place Grand Cherokee.
Three years after coming to market, the Blazer is updated, embracing Chevrolet&rsquos then-fresh split-bar face that continues to define Chevrolet&rsquos truck offerings today.
Chevrolet introduces the TrailBlazer as a trim package on the 1999 Blazer. Three years later, the TrailBlazer becomes its own model. The body-on-frame TrailBlazer is unrelated to the Blazer&mdashwhich Chevy continues to sell until 2005&mdashand features a new 270-hp 4.2-liter inline-six. In short order, we pit the Chevy against the body-on-frame Ford Explorer and the unibody Toyota Highlander in a comparison test. The Toyota&rsquos carlike construction provides it with carlike dynamics that help the crossover take the podium over its American competitors. Nevertheless, the Chevy bests the Explorer, and we praise the TrailBlazer&rsquos strong engine, quick acceleration, and comfortable ride.
The TrailBlazer EXT is introduced for 2003. (Yes, we know, it&rsquos still not a proper Blazer, but it&rsquos worth a mention.) The EXT in its name references the 16-inch-longer wheelbase relative to the standard TrailBlazer, which opens up space for a third-row seat with room for two additional passengers, bringing seating capacity up to seven. Despite its additional versatility, the TrailBlazer EXT is a rather unfortunate-looking thing compared to the better-proportioned five-passenger TrailBlazer. It also is noticeably heavier. An example we test crushes our scales at 5196 pounds&mdash559 pounds more than the stubbier TrailBlazer. The extra pounds noticeably hold back the EXT&rsquos acceleration, and its 9.5-second zero-to-60-mph time is 1.6 seconds slower than that of the smaller model.
Attempting to give the longer TrailBlazer EXT a shot in the arm, Chevy adds an exclusive V-8 engine option. The 5.3-liter V-8&rsquos 290 horsepower and 325 lb-ft of torque provides the sizable SUV with a useful boost, and a rear-drive TrailBlazer EXT V-8 dominates its six-cylinder sibling at our test track, returning a markedly more acceptable 8.7-second zero-to-60-mph time. Of course, it doesn&rsquot hurt that the specific eight-cylinder EXT we test is 236 pounds lighter than the six-cylinder version we tested.
Chevrolet thoroughly revamps the TrailBlazer for model-year 2006. Alongside lightly revised exterior styling, Chevy plugs the TrailBlazer EXT&rsquos 5.3-liter V-8 under the hood of the standard-wheelbase TrailBlazer. The engine makes an even 300 horses and 330 lb-ft of torque. The 4.2-liter inline-six continues to serve as the base engine, now making 291 horsepower.
The highlight of the 2006 TrailBlazer line, however, is the new SS model. Based on the non-EXT TrailBlazer, the SS features a 395-hp 6.0-liter V-8 engine, a 1.0-inch-lower ride height, 25 percent stiffer springs, larger anti-roll bars, and bigger brakes. The TrailBlazer SS shares its V-8 engine with the TrailBlazer-based Chevrolet SSR convertible pickup that debuted for the 2003 model year. Alas, only the SSR is offered with a manual transmission&mdashTrailBlazer SS buyers are relegated to relying on a four-speed automatic transmission for their gearchanging needs.
Naturally, we pit the TrailBlazer SS against its closest rival: the 420-hp Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT8. Despite its 5.5-second zero-to-60-mph time being a full second behind the Jeep&rsquos, we ultimately award gold to the bow-tie-badged high-performance SUV, declaring it &ldquoa little less fun than the Jeep, but not by much. And when you factor in everything else the Chevy can do, it emerged the winner.&rdquo