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Everything you wanted to know about Ohio, history, economy people and more - History

Everything you wanted to know about Ohio, history, economy people and more - History



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Basic Information

Postal Abbreviation: OH
Natives: Ohioan

Population 2019 11,689,504
Legal Driving Age: 18
(*16 w/ Driver's Ed.)
Age of Majority: 18
Median Age: 37.4

State Song: “Beautiful Ohio”
Lyrics: Ballad MacDonald
Music: Mary Earl

Median Household Income:$54,533

Capital..... Columbus
Entered Union..... Mar. 1, 1803 (17th)

Present Constitution Adopted: 1851

Nickname: Buckeye State
Mother of Modern Presidents

Motto:
“With God, all things are possible”

Origin of Name:
Taken from the Iroquis Indian word for “big/beautiful river”.

USS Ohio

Railroad Stations

Ohio Economy

AGRICULTURE: apple, cattle, corn, eggs,
hay, milk, poultry, sheep, soybeans,
vegetables, wheat, wool.

MINING: clay, coal, limestone, natural
gas, petroleum, salt, sand and gravel,
stone.

MANUFACTURING: electronic, food
processing, machinery, metals, paper
products, rubber products, steel.


Ohio Geography

Total Area: 44,828 sq. miles
Land area: 40,953 sq. miles
Water Area: 3,875 sq. miles
Geographic Center: Delaware
25 mi. NNE of Columbus Highest Point: Campbell Hill
(1,549 ft.)
Lowest Point: Ohio River
(455 ft.)
Highest Recorded Temp.: 113˚ F (7/21/1934)
Lowest Recorded Temp.: –39˚ F (2/10/1899)

The state of Ohio is mostly flat land, made of plains and gentle hills. Lake Erie forms most of the Northern boundary of the state. The Ohio River forms half the eastern and the entire southern border of the state.

Cities

Columbus, 892,533
Cleveland, 383,793
Cincinnati, 302,605
Toledo, 274,975
Akron, 198,006
Dayton, 140,640
Parma, 81,601
Youngstown, 66,982
Canton, 73,007
Lorain, 64,097

Ohio History

1748 A group of Virginians organized the Ohio Land Company with the goal of
colonizing part of Ohio.
1761 A Morovian missionary build a log cabin near Bolivar.
1788 Marietta is founded.
1789 The US army began construction of Fort Washington the site of present
day Cincinnati.
1794 General Wayne defeats the indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
1796 Moses Cleveland founds Cleveland.
1801 Ohio was admitted to the union as the 17th state.
1837 Oberlin College became the first to admit women.
1863 Confederate cavalry under the command of General Morgan raided Ohio,
Morgan was captured near Salineville.
1870 John D. Rockfeller organized the Standard Oil Company in Cleveland.
1886 The American Federation of Trades and Labor was founded in Columbus.
1971 Four anti-war protesters were killed by the National Guard on the campus
of Kent State.

Famous People


Neil Armstrong
George Armstrong Custer
Clark Gable
James A. Garfield
John Glenn
Ulysses S. Grant
Warren G. Harding
Benjamin Harrison
Rutherford Hayes
William McKinley
Paul Newman;
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Gloria Steinem
William H. Taft
Tecumseh
Orville Wright
Cy Young

Ohio National Sites

1) James A. Garfield National Historic Site
Located in Mentor Ohio a Cleveland suburb this home was James A Garfield’s the 20th President of the United States. The site contains the first Presidential library.

2) Mound City Group National Monument
Mound City is the burial ground of the Hopewell Indians. Nearly two thousand years ago the Hopewells buried their dead here in elaborate earthwork mounds

3) Perry Victory and International Peace Memorial
This 25 acres park on Lake Erie’s South Bass Island. Commemorates the victory of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry over the English on September 10, 1813 during the War of 1812.

4) William Howard Taft National Historic Site
This is the boyhood home of William Howard Taft, the 27th President of the United States and later the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.


Everything You Wanted to Know About Food on a U.S. Submarine

Submarine Cuisine is full of anecdotes, recipes, and fascinating details about culinary life on a U.S. Navy submarine.

The life of a U.S. Navy submariner is not easy. These sailors live for months in a steel tube cruising through freezing cold water, surrounded by explosives, flammable materials, and even nuclear weapons. In peacetime they run the risk of terrible accidents. In wartime they risk being hounded to destruction by enemy ships and helicopters.

But they eat famously well. If you don't believe me, then check out this out-of-print book on feeding submarine crews.

The 2004 book Submarine Cuisine was apparently commissioned by the Submarine Research Center, U.S. Naval Submarine Base Bangor, Washington. Detailing life on submarines dating back to World War II, it features interesting notes about the work of a cook aboard a sub how food is loaded, stored, and prepared and the kinds of dishes submarines crews could look forward to.

The book features stories from submarines reaching all the way back to the days when ships were named after fish such as the USS Hardhead, USS Bluegill, and USS Blenny. Contributions were also made to the book from sailors aboard modern submarines, including the ballistic missile submarine USS Alabama.

Modern American submarines, the book explains, feed crews three meals a day for the length of the submarine patrol, which could last weeks or even months without resupply. Omnipresent food distributor Sysco provided the food to Pacific Fleet submarines, while it&rsquos King&rsquos Bay for East Coast submarines. On fast attack subs, the food is lowered into the submarine at port by hand, one box of groceries at a time. On ballistic missile submarines, food is lowered through the escape trunk opening by crane in aluminum modules measuring six by six by five feet.

The book also has recipes for sauces, popular breakfast foods such as creamed eggs (which, admittedly doesn&rsquot sound all that great), corned beef and cabbage, ginger pot roast (now we&rsquore getting somewhere) and Maryland-style fried chicken. Naturally, navy bean soup is on the recipe list. The recipe list wraps up with desserts including cherry pie, rice pudding, and baked apples.

Submarine Cuisine spotlights the cook&rsquos role on board the submarine, one of the more service-oriented jobs on a U.S. Navy submarine. Submarine cooks are constantly under pressure to cook and clean, keep to their schedule, and maintain a monthly food budget. Keeping a tidy eating area is important. During non-meal time hours, the eating area is used by the crew for training.

The Navy&rsquos submarine force is known as the Silent Service, not only because submarines are meant to run quietly but because submariners rarely give up details of life on the boat. While not exactly top secret information, Submarine Cuisine is an porthole into the culinary life of a American submariners.


Fish Facts: Everything You Wanted to Know About the Common Carp But Were Afraid to Ask


Carp may be an invasive species, but many fly fishers love them.
Photo courtesy Mike Mazzoni

Unlike trout, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are unattractive, slimy, feed almost exclusively below the surface, and rarely inhabit clear mountain streams—choosing instead to live in turbid or brackish waters. For these reasons, the species was denigrated as a “trash fish” by generations of fly fishermen, who saw carp as somehow too unsophisticated for the long rod. But a small cadre of anglers realized that carp are actually difficult to hook, and once they are on the line, they fight with power an enough tenacity to test both tackle and an angler’s resolve. It is these qualities that earned the carp the nickname “freshwater bonefish.”

There are two variants of the common carp—mirror carp, which has much larger scales, and the leather carp, which has virtually no scales except near the dorsal fin. Native to Eurasia, common carp were an important food source, and the Romans built special ponds in which to raise the species near the delta of the Danube River in Romania. A more advanced kind of aquaculture was spread throughout the continent by monks between the 13th and 16th centuries, the beginning of the widespread introductions over the next few centuries that would result in carp populations in virtually every part of the globe, except the northern and southern extremities. Ironically, as this expansion of the carp’s range has gone on unabated, what is thought to be the original wild population, in the Danube, is now threatened.

There seems to be no definitive evidence of when carp first came to the U.S., but it was most likely in the mid 1800s, when fish were imported from Germany or France. By 1877, the U.S. Fish Commission was stocking carp in lakes and rivers across the country to serve as a food source, and the fish spread on their own from there. Modern introductions are mostly the result of anglers dumping bait-size carp into lakes. Every state but Alaska now has carp populations, with the heaviest concentrations in the Great Lakes Basin and large impoundments throughout the South and West.


Mike Sudal, Illustrator for Field & Stream shows off a Bronx River carp.
Photo by Rob Ceccarini, Fishing Manager, Orvis New York

Like largemouth bass, carp can inhabit a wide range of habitats, but they prefer lakes and slow moving rivers, especially those with turbid water. They can also live in brackish water in estuaries on both coasts and can withstand high water temperatures and a slew of pollutants and agricultural runoff. They travel in schools, usually of at least five, and spawn in the spring in shallow water—often by the thousands. The annual migration into Lake Michigan’s Grand Traverse Bay draws anglers from around the country to sight-fish for huge carp on the flats.

A member of the minnow family, carp can live for decades and achieve monstrous proportions. The all-tackle IGFA record is almost 76 pounds, but much larger fish have been landed, including a reported 91-pound behemoth caught in France this April. The official record for a fly-caught fish is 42 pounds, from Italy, with the U.S. record a 29 pounds, 8 ounce carp from Town Lake in Austin, Texas.

Carp are omnivorous—they can even be caught on mulberry or cottonwood-seed imitations when they are falling in the water—and most anglers use imitative nymphs, leeches, crayfish, and shrimp patterns. In shallow water, they tail just like bonefish, and you can track them by the puffs of mud. A delicate presentation is required to avoid spooking the fish, and they can be remarkably fickle, at times refusing to take any offering. Anglers who approach carp fishing thinking that it’s easy can be quickly humbled.

For much more information on carp and how to catch them, visit Orvis’s Carp Central page.


Temperance Movement

The Temperance Movement was an organized effort during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to limit or outlaw the consumption and production of alcoholic beverages in the United States.

During the early nineteenth century, many citizens of the United States became convinced that many Americans were living in an immoral manner. These people feared that God would no longer bless the United States and that these ungodly and unscrupulous people posed a threat to America's political system. To survive, the American republic, these people believed, needed virtuous citizens.

Because of these concerns, many people became involved in reform movements during the early 1800s. One of the more prominent was the temperance movement. Temperance advocates encouraged their fellow Americans to reduce the amount of alcohol that they consumed. Ideally, Americans would forsake alcohol entirely, but most temperance advocates remained willing to settle for reduced consumption. The largest organization established to advocate temperance was the American Temperance Society. By the mid-1830s, more than 200,000 people belonged to this organization. The American Temperance Society published tracts and hired speakers to depict the negative effects of alcohol upon people.

Many Ohioans participated in the temperance movement. In 1826, residents of Trumbull County formed a temperance society, and Summit County residents followed suit three years later. Many of the earliest temperance advocates were women. Most men believed that women were best suited for the home. It was, according to the men, a woman's responsibility to raise virtuous children. Many women used this argument against the men. If women were responsible for raising virtuous children, women, they contended, should also play a role in helping those people who have become consumed by immoral acts redeem themselves.

For the most part, temperance efforts in Ohio remained haphazard. Localities might form their own temperance societies, but the various groups did not make a united stand against alcohol usage. A statewide effort against alcohol did not happen until the early 1850s. On January 13, 1853, temperance advocates held a woman's temperance convention. The participants drafted a constitution and created the Ohio Women's Temperance Society. Josephine Bateman, editor of the Ohio Cultivator's "Ladies Department," served as the organization's first president. For the first time in Ohio, a statewide temperance organization existed.

The American Civil War (1861-1865) weakened the temperance movement both nationally and within Ohio, but concerns regarding alcohol usage quickly returned upon the war's conclusion. During the late 1800s, the United States was shifting from a national economy based principally on agriculture to a more industrialized one. As a result of this shift, urban areas, including Cincinnati, Cleveland, Canton, Akron, and Columbus experienced tremendous growth. Many Americans, including Ohioans, believed the social ills of the cities, including homelessness, high crime rates, and joblessness, all resulted from alcohol usage. Ohio temperance advocates, like others across the United States, began to use more radical tactics to stop the consumption of alcohol. For example, in Hillsboro, Ohio, in 1873, women marched through the town. They stopped at every saloon, approximately twenty of them, and prayed for the souls of the barkeepers and their patrons. The women also demanded that the owners sign a pledge to no longer sell alcohol. By 1875, there were marches in more than 130 other communities.

During the late 1850s, Westerville,Ohio residents began to earn a reputation for opposing the sale and consumption of alcohol. The town voters passed a law that banned the sale of "fermented spirits," becoming one of the first communities in Ohio to do so. Westerville appeared on the national stage in 1909, when the Anti-Saloon League moved its headquarters to the town from Washington, D.C. Westerville's long history of support for prohibition persuaded the organization's leadership to relocate. As a result of its association with the Anti-Saloon League, the community earned the nickname of the "Dry Capital of the World."

The temperance advocates faced some opposition for their activities. Columbus, Cleveland, and Cincinnati city governments passed laws forbidding the marches, claiming that they impeded traffic. Ministers of some churches chastised the women for not acting in a lady-like manner.

The temperance movement continued through the late nineteenth century and into the early twentieth century. Advocates during this time period became much more politically active, primarily through their support of the Progressive Movement. In 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution went to effect. This amendment outlawed the production and the sale of alcohol in the United States. Prohibition remained in effect until the Twenty-First Amendment in 1933. With the Eighteenth Amendment's repeal, organized temperance movements declined in popularity and in power.


Amish Schools and Education

Amish children attend one-room schoolhouses through the eighth grade. Worship services are held every other week in one of the member's homes. Socializing is an important part of their life. They have a strong sense of community spirit, and often come to the aid of those in need. Their barn-raisings are a good example. Neighbors freely give of their time and their skills to help one another.

They are generally private people and often find all the attention and curiosity about their lifestyle disturbing. They believe that the taking of photographs where someone is recognizable is forbidden by the Biblical prohibition against making any 'graven image'.

Please respect their desire for privacy when visiting here. With our society's current interest in restoring ' family values ', much can be learned from studying the way of life . Their devotion to family and community and their strong work ethic are good examples for our larger society.


Everything you wanted to know about Ohio, history, economy people and more - History

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is one of the world's major sources of instability. Americans are directly connected to this conflict, and increasingly imperiled by its devastation.

It is the goal of If Americans Knew to provide full and accurate information on this critical issue, and on our power &ndash and duty &ndash to bring a resolution.

Please click on any statistic for the source and more information.

Click here to see stats on the recent round of Israel-Gaza violence.

134 Israeli children have been killed by Palestinians and 2,172 Palestinian children have been killed by Israelis since September 29, 2000. (View Sources & More Information)

32 Israelis were killed in Palestinian rocket attacks and over 4,000 Palestinians have been killed in Israeli airstrikes since September 29, 2000. (View Sources & More Information.)

During Fiscal Year 2018, the U.S. is providing Israel with at least $10.5 million per day in military aid and in military aid to the Palestinians. (View Sources & More Information)

Israel has been targeted by at least 77 UN resolutions and the Palestinians have been targeted by 1. (View Sources & More Information)

0 Israelis are being held prisoner by Palestinians, while 6,279 Palestinians are currently imprisoned by Israel. (View Sources & More Information)

0 Israeli homes have been demolished by Palestinians and at least 48,488 Palestinian homes have been demolished by Israel since 1967. (View Sources & More Information)

The Israeli unemployment rate is 5%, while the Palestinian unemployment in the West Bank is 17.7% and 42% in Gaza. (View Sources & More Information)

Tell Congress: NO MORE MONEY TO ISRAEL. PERIOD. Your tax money enables the killing of Gazans and the destruction of their homes. If you have a problem with that.

Please give whatever you can to support our ongoing efforts to raise awareness and put an end to the attrocities of the Israeli occupation of Palestine.

U.S. media reports focus on Palestinian rockets fired into Israel from Gaza, but the reports leave out essential facts, making the aggressors seem like victims, and the victims like aggressors.

Congress member Kathy Manning (D-NC) wrote of her fear of Gazan rockets when she went on an Israeli tour to the town of Sderot. But it’s clear that Manning knows little about the history and current context of Gaza and Sderot, and is missing essential facts.

AP claims a Gazan rocket broke a weeks-long “cross border calm,” even though Israeli forces had fired missiles into Gaza, shot at Gazans, and invaded Gaza numerous times.

Since Israel’s founding in 1948, it has received (adjusting for inflation) more than $252.7 billion from the U.S. – an amount that the majority of Americans consider excessive. In spite of its consistent, long, documented history of frequent human rights violations (often not reported in US media) and discrimination, Congress seeks to reward Israel and chastise Israel’s victim.

While some Americans know that the U.S. gives Israel over $10 million per day ($7,000 per minute), they may be unaware that additional spending on behalf of Israel significantly increases the cost to American taxpayers…

A brief review of the history. Watch now

Order Against Our Better Judgment by Alison Weir on Amazon.com (Paperback: $9.93, Kindle: $6.95).

To invite Alison to give a presentation in your city, please contact us.

Associated Press is one of those news sources we expect to be objective and reliable. But when it comes to the subject of Israel-Palestine, things are not always as they seem. Read the article

In this short clip Alison talks about how she came to be aware of the Israel/Palestine conflict, America's role in it all, and about our ability and responsibility as U.S. citizens, to put an end to Israeli aggressions in the region. Full interview here

In 2018 If Americans Knew made a 15 minute video exposing Israel’s projects to censor the Internet. YouTube removed our video. We tried again. This time YouTube restricted it. Now we’re trying yet again. Watch it now

For two decades, some Israeli officials and Israel partisans have worked to embed a new, Israel-focused definition of antisemitism in institutions around the world, from international bodies and national governments to small college campuses in heartland America. This effort is now snowballing rapidly. As a result, advocacy for Palestinian rights is well on the way to being curtailed and even criminalized as “hate.” Read more

Israeli troops shoot dead young Palestinian mother

Alison Weir - Friday June 18, 2021

Mai Afaneh had earned her doctorate in psychology in Jordan, was happily teaching at a local university, and had a good family life with her husband and 5-year-old daughter. 'She was not politically affiliated. All she cared about was her studies. Read more

Israel on the defensive: Congress members demonstrate their true allegiance

[email protected] - Thursday June 17, 2021

When the occupied and abused Palestinians object and fight back to the best of their ability as they did from Gaza, which they are entitled to under international law, they are massacred and described conveniently as “terrorists.” When any. Read more

Greenwald: False narrative about Orlando shooting shows the power of media propaganda

[email protected] - Thursday June 17, 2021

Politicians & activists should stop ratifying the fiction that the shooter was motivated by anti-LGBT hatred. It dishonors the victims, purveys anti-Muslim misinformation, and obscures the real motive. Mateen, like so many others who committed. Read more

Thomas Friedman’s Last Gasp: The failure of liberal zionism

[email protected] - Tuesday June 15, 2021

Friedman's fear is that the debate is quietly shifting outside this framework – towards the recognition that Israel is a belligerent apartheid regime and the conclusion that one democratic state for Palestinians and Jews is now the only viable. Read more

Weir’s book on the hidden history of the Israel lobby published in Spain

[email protected] - Tuesday June 15, 2021

Alison Weir's best-selling book has been published in Spain and was recently featured in a major Madrid newspaper, the most-read Spanish-language newspaper on the Internet. Read more

Israel-Palestine Timeline: The human cost of the conflict records photos and information for each person who has been killed in the ongoing violence.

This website is printer-friendly. Please Print this article and share it with your friends and family.


Contents

The academic field of Sovietology after World War II and during the Cold War was dominated by the "totalitarian model" of the Soviet Union, [14] stressing the absolute nature of Joseph Stalin's power. The "totalitarian model" was first outlined in the 1950s by Carl Joachim Friedrich, who argued that the Soviet Union and other Communist states were "totalitarian" systems, with the personality cult and almost unlimited powers of the "great leader" such as Stalin. [15] The "revisionist school" beginning in the 1960s focused on relatively autonomous institutions which might influence policy at the higher level. [16] Matt Lenoe described the "revisionist school" as representing those who "insisted that the old image of the Soviet Union as a totalitarian state bent on world domination was oversimplified or just plain wrong. They tended to be interested in social history and to argue that the Communist Party leadership had had to adjust to social forces." [17] These of "revisionist school" such as J. Arch Getty and Lynne Viola challenged the "totalitarian model" approach to Communist history and were most active in the former Communist states' archives, especially the State Archive of the Russian Federation related to the Soviet Union. [16] [18]

According to John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, the historiography is characterized by a split between "traditionalists" and "revisionists." "Traditionalists" characterize themselves as objective reporters of an alleged totalitarian nature of communism and Communist states. They are criticized by their opponents as being anti-communist, even fascist, in their eagerness on continuing to focus on the issues of the Cold War. Alternative characterizations for traditionalists include "anti-communist", "conservative", "Draperite" (after Theodore Draper), "orthodox" and "right-wing." [19] Norman Markowitz, a prominent "revisionist", referred to them as "reactionaries", "right-wing romantics" and "triumphalist" who belong to the "HUAC school of CPUSA scholarship." [20] "Revisionists", characterized by Haynes and Klehr as historical revisionists, are more numerous and dominate academic institutions and learned journals. [19] A suggested alternative formulation is "new historians of American communism", but that has not caught on because these historians describe themselves as unbiased and scholarly, contrasting their work to the work of anti-communist "traditionalists", whom they term biased and unscholarly. [21]

According to Michael Scott Christofferson, "Arendt's reading of the post-Stalin USSR can be seen as an attempt to distance her work from 'the Cold War misuse of the concept.'" [22] Historian John Connelly wrote that totalitarianism is a useful word but that the old 1950s theory about it is defunct among scholars, arguing:

The word is as functional now as it was 50 years ago. It means the kind of regime that existed in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, the Soviet satellites, Communist China, and maybe Fascist Italy, where the word originated. [. ] Who are we to tell Václav Havel or Adam Michnik that they were fooling themselves when they perceived their rulers as totalitarian? Or for that matter any of the millions of former subjects of Soviet-type rule who use the local equivalents of the Czech totalita to describe the systems they lived under before 1989? It is a useful word and everyone knows what it means as a general referent. Problems arise when people confuse the useful descriptive term with the old "theory" from the 1950s. [23]

Early usage Edit

The notion that totalitarianism is total political power which is exercised by the state was formulated in 1923 by Giovanni Amendola, who described Italian Fascism as a system which was fundamentally different from conventional dictatorships. [13] The term was later assigned a positive meaning in the writings of Giovanni Gentile, Italy's most prominent philosopher and leading theorist of fascism. He used the term totalitario to refer to the structure and goals of the new state which was to provide the "total representation of the nation and total guidance of national goals." [24] He described totalitarianism as a society in which the ideology of the state had influence, if not power, over most of its citizens. [25] According to Benito Mussolini, this system politicizes everything spiritual and human: "Everything within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state." [13] [26]

One of the first people to use the term totalitarianism in the English language was the Austrian writer Franz Borkenau in his 1938 book The Communist International, in which he commented that it united the Soviet and German dictatorships more than it divided them. [27] The label totalitarian was twice affixed to Nazi Germany during Winston Churchill's speech of 5 October 1938, before the House of Commons in opposition to the Munich Agreement, by which France and Great Britain consented to Nazi Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland. [28] Churchill was then a backbencher MP representing the Epping constituency. In a radio address two weeks later, Churchill again employed the term, this time applying the concept to "a Communist or a Nazi tyranny." [29]

José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, the leader of the historic Spanish reactionary party called the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA), [30] declared his intention to "give Spain a true unity, a new spirit, a totalitarian polity" and went on to say: "Democracy is not an end but a means to the conquest of the new state. When the time comes, either parliament submits or we will eliminate it." [31] General Francisco Franco was determined not to have competing right-wing parties in Spain and CEDA was dissolved in April 1937. Later, Gil-Robles went into exile. [32]

George Orwell made frequent use of the word totalitarian and its cognates in multiple essays published in 1940, 1941 and 1942. In his essay "Why I Write", Orwell wrote: "The Spanish war and other events in 1936–37 turned the scale and thereafter I knew where I stood. Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it." He feared that future totalitarian regimes could exploit technological advances in surveillance and mass media in order to establish a permanent and world-wide dictatorship which would be incapable of ever being overthrown, writing: "If you want a vision of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face — forever." [33]

During a 1945 lecture series entitled "The Soviet Impact on the Western World" and published as a book in 1946, the British historian E. H. Carr wrote: "The trend away from individualism and towards totalitarianism is everywhere unmistakable" and that Marxism–Leninism was by far the most successful type of totalitarianism as proved by Soviet industrial growth and the Red Army's role in defeating Germany. According to Carr, only the "blind and incurable" could ignore the trend towards totalitarianism. [34]

In The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945) and The Poverty of Historicism (1961), Karl Popper articulated an influential critique of totalitarianism. In both works, Popper contrasted the "open society" of liberal democracy with totalitarianism and argued that the latter is grounded in the belief that history moves toward an immutable future in accordance with knowable laws. [ citation needed ]

Cold War Edit

In The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt argued that Nazi and Communist regimes were new forms of government and not merely updated versions of the old tyrannies. According to Arendt, the source of the mass appeal of totalitarian regimes is their ideology which provides a comforting and single answer to the mysteries of the past, present and future. For Nazism, all history is the history of race struggle and for Marxism–Leninism all history is the history of class struggle. Once that premise is accepted, all actions of the state can be justified by appeal to nature or the law of history, justifying their establishment of authoritarian state apparatus. [35]

In addition to Arendt, many scholars from a variety of academic backgrounds and ideological positions have closely examined totalitarianism. Among the most noted commentators on totalitarianism are Raymond Aron, Lawrence Aronsen, Franz Borkenau, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Robert Conquest, Carl Joachim Friedrich, Eckhard Jesse, Leopold Labedz, Walter Laqueur, Claude Lefort, Juan Linz, Richard Löwenthal, Karl Popper, Richard Pipes, Leonard Schapiro and Adam Ulam. Each one of these described totalitarianism in slightly different ways, but they all agreed that totalitarianism seeks to mobilize entire populations in support of an official party ideology and is intolerant of activities which are not directed towards the goals of the party, entailing repression or state control of business, labour unions, non-profit organizations, religious organizations and minor political parties. At the same time, many scholars from a variety of academic backgrounds and ideological positions criticized the theorists of totalitarianism. Among the most noted were Louis Althusser, Benjamin Barber, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Jean-Paul Sartre. They thought that totalitarianism was connected to Western ideologies and associated with evaluation rather than analysis. The concept became prominent in Western anti-communist political discourse during the Cold War era as a tool to convert pre-war anti-fascism into postwar anti-communism. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

In 1956, the political scientists Carl Joachim Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinski were primarily responsible for expanding the usage of the term in university social science and professional research, reformulating it as a paradigm for the Soviet Union as well as fascist regimes. [36] Friedrich and Brzezinski argue that a totalitarian system has the following six mutually supportive and defining characteristics: [36] [ page needed ]

  1. Elaborate guiding ideology. , typically led by a dictator. , using such instruments as violence and secret police.
  2. Monopoly on weapons.
  3. Monopoly on the means of communication.
  4. Central direction and control of the economy through state planning.

In the book titled Democracy and Totalitarianism (1968), French analyst Raymond Aron outlined five criteria for a regime to be considered as totalitarian: [37] [ page needed ]

  1. A one-party state where one party has a monopoly on all political activity.
  2. A state ideology upheld by the ruling party that is given status as the only authority.
  3. State information monopoly that controls mass media for distribution of official truth.
  4. State controlled economy with major economic entities under the control of the state.
  5. Ideological terror that turns economic or professional actions into crimes. Violators are exposed to prosecution and to ideological persecution.

Totalitarian regimes in Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union had initial origins in the chaos that followed in the wake of World War I and allowed totalitarian movements to seize control of the government while the sophistication of modern weapons and communications enabled them to effectively establish what Friedrich and Brzezinski called a "totalitarian dictatorship." [36] [ page needed ] Some social scientists have criticized Friedrich and Brzezinski's totalitarian approach, arguing that the Soviet system, both as a political and as a social entity, was in fact better understood in terms of interest groups, competing elites, or even in class terms (using the concept of the nomenklatura as a vehicle for a new ruling class). These critics pointed to evidence of the widespread dispersion of power, at least in the implementation of policy, among sectoral and regional authorities. For some followers of this pluralist approach, this was evidence of the ability of the regime to adapt to include new demands. However, proponents of the totalitarian model claimed that the failure of the system to survive showed not only its inability to adapt, but the mere formality of supposed popular participation. [38]

The German historian Karl Dietrich Bracher, whose work is primarily concerned with Nazi Germany, argued that the "totalitarian typology" as developed by Friedrich and Brzezinski is an excessively inflexible model and failed to consider the "revolutionary dynamic" that Bracher asserted is at the heart of totalitarianism. [39] Bracher maintained that the essence of totalitarianism is the total claim to control and remake all aspects of society combined with an all-embracing ideology, the value on authoritarian leadership and the pretence of the common identity of state and society which distinguished the totalitarian "closed" understanding of politics from the "open" democratic understanding. [39] Unlike the Friedrich and Brzezinski definition, Bracher argued that totalitarian regimes did not require a single leader and could function with a collective leadership which led the American historian Walter Laqueur to argue that Bracher's definition seemed to fit reality better than the Friedrich-Brzezinski definition. [40] Bracher's typologies came under attack from Werner Conze and other historians, who felt that Bracher "lost sight of the historical material" and used "universal, ahistorical concepts." [41]

In his 1951 book The True Believer, Eric Hoffer argues that mass movements such as fascism, Nazism and Stalinism had a common trait in picturing Western democracies and their values as decadent, with people "too soft, too pleasure-loving and too selfish" to sacrifice for a higher cause, which for them implies an inner moral and biological decay. He further claims that those movements offered the prospect of a glorious future to frustrated people, enabling them to find a refuge from the lack of personal accomplishments in their individual existence. The individual is then assimilated into a compact collective body and "fact-proof screens from reality" are established. [42] This stance may be connected to a religious fear for Communists. Paul Hanebrink has argued that many European Christians started to fear Communist regimes after the rise of Hitler, stating: "For many European Christians, Catholic and Protestant alike, the new postwar 'culture war' crystallized as a struggle against communism. Across interwar Europe, Christians demonized the Communist regime in Russia as the apotheosis of secular materialism and a militarized threat to Christian social and moral order." [43] For him, Christians saw Communist regimes as a threat to their moral order and hoped to lead European nations back to their Christian roots by creating an anti-totalitarian census, which defined Europe in the early Cold War. [44]

Saladdin Ahmed criticized Friedrich and Brzezinski's book as lending itself to "anticommunist propaganda more easily." For Saladdin, "[p]hilosophically, their account of totalitarianism is invalid because it stipulates 'criteria' that amount to an abstracted description of Stalin's USSR, rendering the notion predeterministic" by positing that "all totalitarian regimes have 'an official ideology,' 'a single mass party led typically by one man,' 'a system of terroristic police control,' a party-controlled means of mass communication and armed forces, and a centralized economy." For Saladdin, this account "can be invalidated quite straightforwardly, namely by determining whether a regime that lacks any one of the criteria could still be called totalitarian. If so, then the criterion in question is false, indicating the invalidity of their account." Saladdin cited the military dictatorship of Chile as a totalitarian example that would not fit under Friedrich and Brzezinski's defining characteristic, arguing that "it would be absurd to exempt it from the class of totalitarian regimes for that reason alone." [22]

Post-Cold War Edit

Laure Neumayer argued that "despite the disputes over its heuristic value and its normative assumptions, the concept of totalitarianism made a vigorous return to the political and academic fields at the end of the Cold War." [46] In the 1990s, François Furet made a comparative analysis [47] and used the term totalitarian twins to link Nazism and Stalinism. [48] [49] [50] Eric Hobsbawm criticized Furet for his temptation to stress a common ground between two systems of different ideological roots. [51]

In the field of Soviet history, the totalitarian concept has been disparaged by the "revisionist school" historians, some of whose more prominent members were Sheila Fitzpatrick, Jerry F. Hough, William McCagg, Robert W. Thurston and J. Arch Getty. [52] Although their individual interpretations differ, the revisionists have argued that the Soviet state under Joseph Stalin was institutionally weak, that the level of terror was much exaggerated and that—to the extent that it occurred—it reflected the weaknesses rather than the strengths of the Soviet state. [52] Fitzpatrick argued that the Stalinist purges in the Soviet Union provided an increased social mobility and therefore a chance for a better life. [53] [54] In the case of East Germany, Eli Rubin argued that East Germany was not a totalitarian state but rather a society shaped by the confluence of unique economic and political circumstances interacting with the concerns of ordinary citizens. [55]

Writing in 1987, Walter Laqueur said that the revisionists in the field of Soviet history were guilty of confusing popularity with morality and of making highly embarrassing and not very convincing arguments against the concept of the Soviet Union as a totalitarian state. [56] Laqueur argued that the revisionists' arguments with regard to Soviet history were highly similar to the arguments made by Ernst Nolte regarding German history. [56] Laqueur asserted that concepts such as modernization were inadequate tools for explaining Soviet history while totalitarianism was not. [57] Laqueur's argument has been criticized by modern revisionist historians such as Paul Buhle, who claim that Laqueur wrongly equates Cold War revisionism with the German revisionism. The latter reflected a "revanchist, military-minded conservative nationalism." [58] Moreover, Michael Parenti and James Petras have suggested that the totalitarianism concept has been politically employed and used for anti-communist purposes. Parenti has also analysed how "left anti-communism" attacked the Soviet Union during the Cold War. [59] For Petras, the CIA funded the Congress for Cultural Freedom in order to attack "Stalinist anti-totalitarinism." [60] More recently, Enzo Traverso has attacked the creators of the concept of totalitarianism as having invented it to designate the enemies of the West. [61]

According to some scholars, calling Joseph Stalin totalitarian instead of authoritarian has been asserted to be a high-sounding but specious excuse for Western self-interest, just as surely as the counterclaim that allegedly debunking the totalitarian concept may be a high-sounding but specious excuse for Russian self-interest. For Domenico Losurdo, totalitarianism is a polysemic concept with origins in Christian theology and applying it to the political sphere requires an operation of abstract schematism which makes use of isolated elements of historical reality to place fascist regimes and the Soviet Union in the dock together, serving the anti-communism of Cold War-era intellectuals rather than reflecting intellectual research. [62] Other scholars, among them F. William Engdahl, Sheldon Wolin and Slavoj Žižek, have linked totalitarianism to capitalism and liberalism and used concepts such as inverted totalitarianism, [63] totalitarian capitalism [64] and totalitarian democracy. [65] [66] [67]

In Did Somebody Say Totalitarianism?: Five Interventions in the (Mis)use of a Notion, Žižek wrote that "[t]he liberating effect" of General Augusto Pinochet's arrest "was exceptional" as "the fear of Pinochet dissipated, the spell was broken, the taboo subjects of torture and disappearances became the daily grist of the news media the people no longer just whispered, but openly spoke about prosecuting him in Chile itself." [68] Similarly, Saladdin Ahmed cited Hannah Arendt as stating that "the Soviet Union can no longer be called totalitarian in the strict sense of the term after Stalin's death", arguing that "this was the case in General August Pinochet's Chile, yet it would be absurd to exempt it from the class of totalitarian regimes for that reason alone." Saladdin pointed out that while Chile under Pinochet had no "official ideology", there was one "behind the scenes", namely that "none other than Milton Friedman, the godfather of neoliberalism and the most influential teacher of the Chicago boys, was Pinochet's adviser." In this sense, Saladdin criticized the totalitarian concept for being applied only to "opposing ideologies" and not to "liberalism." [22]

In the 2010s, Richard Shorten, Vladimir Tismaneanu and Aviezer Tucker argued that totalitarian ideologies can take different forms in different political systems, but all of them focus on utopianism, scientism or political violence. They think that both Nazism and Stalinism emphasized the role of specialization in modern societies and saw polymathy as a thing of the past. Both also claimed to have statistical scientific support for their claims which led to a strict ethical control of culture, psychological violence and persecution of entire groups. [69] [70] [71] Their arguments have been criticized by other scholars due to their partiality and anachronism. Juan Francisco Fuentes treats totalitarianism as an "invented tradition" and the use of the notion of "modern despotism" as a "reverse anachronism." For Fuentes, "the anachronistic use of totalitarian/totalitarianism involves the will to reshape the past in the image and likeness of the present." [72]

Other studies try to link modern technological changes with totalitarianism. According to Shoshana Zuboff, economic pressures of modern surveillance capitalism are driving the intensification of connection and monitoring online with spaces of social life becoming open to saturation by corporate actors, directed at the making of profit and/or the regulation of action. [73] Toby Ord has found Orwell's fears of totalitarianism as a notable early precursor to modern notions of anthropogenic existential risk, the concept that a future catastrophe could permanently destroy the potential of Earth-originating intelligent life due in part to technological changes, creating a permanent technological dystopia. Ord states that Orwell's writings show his concern was genuine rather than just a throwaway part of the fictional plot of Nineteen Eighty-Four. Ord notes how Orwell argued in 1949 that "[a] ruling class which could guard against (four previously enumerated sources of risk) would remain in power permanently." [74] Bertrand Russell also wrote in 1949 that "modern techniques have made possible a new intensity of governmental control, and this possibility has been exploited very fully in totalitarian states." [75]

The Economist has described China's developed Social Credit System under Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping's administration, to screen and rank its citizens based on their personal behavior, as "totalitarian." [76] [77] [78] [79] Opponents of China's ranking system say that it is intrusive and is just another way for a one-party state to control the population. The New York Times compared Chinese paramount leader Xi Jinping's cult of personality and his ideology Xi Jinping Thought to that of Mao Zedong during the Cold War. [80] Supporters say that it will make for a more civilized and law-abiding society. [81] Zuboff considers it instrumentarian rather than totalitarian. [82] Other emerging technologies that have been postulated to empower future totalitarianism include brain-reading, contact tracing and various applications of artificial intelligence. [83] [84] [85] [86] Philosopher Nick Bostrom has noted a possible trade-off, namely that some existential risks might be mitigated by a powerful permanent world government, but that such power could in turn enhance any existential risks associated with permanent dictatorship. [87]

Non-political aspects of the culture and motifs of totalitarian countries have themselves often been labeled innately totalitarian. In 2009, Theodore Dalrymple, a British author, physician and political commentator, has written for City Journal that brutalist structures are an expression of totalitarianism given that their grand, concrete-based design involves destroying gentler, more-human places such as gardens. [88] In 1949, George Orwell described the Ministry of Truth in Nineteen Eighty-Four as an "enormous, pyramidal structure of white concrete, soaring up terrace after terrace, three hundred metres into the air." The Times columnist Ben Macintyre wrote that it was "a prescient description of the sort of totalitarian architecture that would soon dominate the Communist bloc." [89] In contrast to these views, several authors have seen brutalism and socialist realism as modernist art forms which brought an ethos and sensibility in art. [90] [91]

Another example of totalitarianism in architecture is the panopticon, a type of institutional building designed by English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century. The concept of the design is to allow a watchman to observe (-opticon) all (pan-) inmates of an institution without their being able to tell whether or not they are being watched. It was invoked by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish as a metaphor for "disciplinary" societies and their pervasive inclination to observe and normalize. [92] Foucault's Panopticon theory has been criticized by David W. Garland for providing little theoretical basis for the possibility of resistance within this "totalitarian" prison. [93]


Populist Party

The People's Party, also known as the Populist Party, was an important political party in the United States of America during the late nineteenth century.

The People's Party originated in the early 1890s. It was organized in Kansas, but the party quickly spread across the United States. It drew its members from Farmers' Alliances, the Grange, and the Knights of Labor. Originally, the Populists did not form a national organization, preferring to gain political influence within individual states.

The Populist Party consisted primarily of farmers unhappy with the Democratic and Republican Parties. The Populists believed that the federal government needed to play a more active role in the American economy by regulating various businesses, especially the railroads. In particular, the Populists supported women's suffrage the direct election of United States Senators. They hoped that the enactment women's suffrage and the direct election of senators would enable them to elect some of their members to political office. Populists also supported a graduated income tax, government ownership of the railroads, improved working conditions in factories, immigration restrictions, an eight-hour workday, the recognition of unions, and easier access to credit. 

During the early 1890s, the Populist Party garnered numerous victories. The party won governors' seats in Colorado, Washington, North Carolina, Montana, and several additional states. The Populists gained control of state legislatures in Kansas, Nebraska, and North Carolina, and they succeeded in electing members to the United States House of Representatives in Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and California.

In 1892, the People's Party formed a national organization. The party selected James Weaver as its candidate for the presidency of the United States. The Populist platform called for government ownership of the railroads and the telephone and telegraph networks. It also demanded the free coinage of silver, an end to private script, a graduated income tax, direct election of senators, additional government and railroad-owned land being made available to homesteaders, and the implementation of secret ballots. The Populists won numerous political offices at the state and local levels, but Weaver finished a distant third to Grover Cleveland in the presidential election. By the election of 1896, the Democratic Party had absorbed many of the Populist ideals, causing the People's Party to cease to exist as a national organization.

In Ohio, the Populist Party remained a relatively insignificant force in politics. Thousands of Ohioans, especially farmers and industrial workers, agreed with the Populists platform, but they made up a minority of the states populace. John J. Seitz, a Populist, ran for Ohio's gubernatorial seat, but he received less than three-tenths of one percent of the votes cast in the election. The party performed significantly better in the gubernatorial race of 1895. Jacob S. Coxey ran as the Populist candidate and received fifty-two thousand votes. It was a respectable showing, but Coxey still lost the election. He ran again in 1897. This time he received just over six thousand votes, illustrating the declining popularity of the Populist Party.

The People's Party in Ohio helped Republicans tremendously, because the Populists tended to draw their supporters from the Democratic Party. To win back their former members, the Democrats in Ohio, as the party did nationally, quickly adopted many of the Populists ideals.


Donald Trump tells Toledo crowd Ohio had its ‘best year economically,’ even as the state lost jobs

TOLEDO, Ohio – Republican President Donald Trump told a crowd of thousands Thursday in Toledo that Ohio had its best year ever economically, even as the state lost jobs in 2019.

During a winding 90-minute speech in front of a packed crowd at the Huntington Center, Trump was fast and loose with much of the truth about the economy in the Buckeye State. He was also much more combative in defending his decision to order the drone strike that killed an Iranian general.

The president’s first rally of the year was a clear look at how he plans to handle the 2020 election.

The president said auto manufacturers and mining jobs were coming back to the state in droves, even using the same verbiage as a speech in Youngstown just before the Lordstown General Motors assembly plant closed shop, costing the area thousands of jobs.

“And just in case you didn’t know it, Ohio just had the best year economically in the history of your state,” Trump said. “That’s not bad. That’s not bad. And this year is going to be even better. Maybe much better.”

Last year was somewhat up-and-down, depending on how one breaks down the economic numbers. Calling it the best certainly seems like a hard sell, particularly for the manufacturing and mining sectors that Trump boasted about growing during his Thursday rally.

The unemployment rate dropped to 4% in June, the lowest since June 2001, but started rising in August to finish November at 4.2%.

The state also lost jobs from January to November last year, the first time that has happened since 2009. Yet, nationally during this same time, jobs were up 1.1%. For years, Ohio consistently has lagged the nation in jobs growth.

Trump’s claims about manufacturing, specifically the auto industry, seemed even bolder.

“We brought a lot of car companies into Ohio,” he said. “You know that, a lot of them coming in. A lot of them have already been brought in. They’re coming in from Japan. They’re coming from all over the world. … They’re all coming back.”

Trump’s claims might be déjà vu to some in the Mahoning Valley, and also stretched the truth.

In 2017, Trump hosted a rally in Youngstown where he infamously told the crowd to not sell their houses because factory jobs would be returning to the area. In fact, he used the exact same quote, telling the crowd, “They’re all coming back.”

The state shed manufacturing jobs over 2019, driven largely by the closure of the Lordstown General Motors facility in March. More than 1,400 jobs were eliminated overnight, though some workers relocated to other facilities across the country.

Lordstown Motors Corp., an electric car startup, announced it was purchasing the factory from GM with plans to make an electric truck there, promising 400 jobs, though questions remain about the viability of the company. GM announced it would build a battery factory in Lordstown, promising 1,100 jobs. Groundbreaking is expected sometime in 2020.

“The president has no idea what he is talking about,” said Youngstown-area Rep. Tim Ryan, a Democrat who ran for president last year. “While Lordstown Motors coming to our community is a silver lining, we are still reeling after the GM Lordstown closure. Our people need help. Not polarization.”

Trump also made the claim that the coal mining industry had rebounded in Ohio.

“We are putting our miners back to work,” Trump said bluntly.

The state shed mining jobs from January to November of last year. Ohio-based Murray Energy, one of the largest coal-mining companies in the country, also declared bankruptcy, though the company did not expect any layoffs.

The Trump campaign did not respond to an inquiry about which metric Trump was using when he made the claims about the Ohio economy having its strongest year ever.

Conceivably, Trump could have meant the gross domestic product of Ohio, which increased by $30 billion from 2017 to 2018, the most recent publicly available figures. That is the highest total dating back to 1997, but is not the highest increase in GDP even within the last 10 years.

Ohio Democratic Party Chairman David Pepper said Trump outright lied to Ohioans.

"Tonight Donald Trump came to Ohio -- where a little over two years ago he said that jobs were ɺll coming back' -- and straight-up lied about our state's economic situation,” Pepper said. “The jobs aren't all coming back. Ohio lost more than 4,000 jobs since January 2019, and the laid-off workers of GM Lordstown certainly don't think it was the best year in the history of the state. Ohio's soybean farmers don't think so either. It was the worst in a decade."


Soils

The volcanic belt of southern Guatemala contains some of the most productive soils nevertheless, the northernmost sector of this region is particularly subject to erosion induced by the prevalence of steep slopes and deforestation. Within the sierra region, heavier rainfall—combined with centuries of cultivation of the thinner soils on the steep slopes and the wanton destruction of forests—has led to widespread erosion there too. The limestone surface of the Petén produces shallow and stony soils that are difficult to farm.


Watch the video: Joseph Nye on global power shifts (August 2022).