The Royal Air Force had its own gallantry medals during World War One and these were used during the Battle of Britain. Up until 1993, officers and warrant officers received different styles of medals when compared to other ranks - officers being awarded a 'cross' of some description while non-officers a 'medal' of some description.
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Lord Kitchener Alexander Samsonov Sir Henry Rawlinson General Douglas Haig Erich von Falkenhayn Marshal Philippe Pétain Marshal Joseph Joffre Marshal Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Field Marshal Herbert Plumer General Hubert Gough Plumer versus Gough Field Marshall von Hindenburg General John Pershing Erich Ludendorff Military Commanders of World War One
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The Roman Army was extremely important in explaining the success of the Romans and the expansion of the Roman Empire. The Roman Army, at the peak of its power, conquered what we now call England/Wales, Spain, France, most of Germany, the northern coast of Africa, the Middle East and Greece. The Ancient Roman equivalent would be: Britannia England/Wales Gallia or Gaul France Germania Germany Hispania Spain Aegyptus Egypt Achaea Greece Italia Italy The Roman Army is recognised by historians as an extremely effective fighting machine.
Pressure Groups in America Types of Pressure Groups Pressure Group Tactics in Washington DC Pressure Groups and Government Bureaucracy Pressure Groups and the Judiciary Types of Pressure Groups Pressure Group Tactics in Washington DC Pressure Groups and Government Bureaucracy Pressure Groups and the Judiciary
Julius Caesar, one of Ancient Rome's most famous individuals, was born in 100 BC - or near to that year. Julius Caesar joined the Roman Army in 81 BC and was the first Roman army commander to invade England which he did in 55 BC and again in 54 BC. Caesar was born into a wealthy family and he was a well educated child who was good at sport.
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Medieval cathedrals dominated the skyline of Medieval England. Cathedrals were far larger than castles - symbolic of their huge importance to medieval society where religion dominated the lives of all - be they rich or peasants. As the photo above of Canterbury Cathedral shows, cathedrals were huge buildings - they were major long term building projects and their cost was huge.
King John was born in 1167 and died in 1216. Like William I, King John is one of the more controversial monarchs of Medieval England and is most associated with the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215. John was born on Christmas Eve, the youngest son of Henry II and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. As a child, John tended to be overshadowed by is older brother Richard.
As with all aspects of heraldry, heraldic terms were very important in that they described a very specific part of heraldry and had a very specific meaning. Accosted: side by side Addorsed: back to back Affronté: when an animal is seen in full front view Aislé: with wings Ambulent: walking Ancient Crown: a circlet with 4 fleurs-de-lis on it (3 visible) Apaumé: referring to a hand showing the palm Arched: like an arch Armed: referring to claws, teeth, horns or talons of animals/birds Armigerous: applied to people who possessed coats of arms Armorial bearings: another name for achievement of arms At gaze: applied to a stag with its face looking at you Attires: the horns of a deer Attired: referring to horns Augmentation: a special grant that allowed additions to a coat of arms often as a result of a special deed Banded: with a band or ribbon around Bars gemelles: barrulets placed in pairs Barbed and seeded proper: a heraldic rose with five leaves in a natural colour Beaked: referred to the beaks of birds and creatures like a griffin.
King John signing the Magna Carta The Magna Carta was signed in June 1215 between the barons of Medieval England and King John. 'Magna Carta' is Latin and means “Great Charter” . The Magna Carta was one of the most important documents of Medieval England. It was signed (by royal seal) between the feudal barons and King John at Runnymede near Windsor Castle.
Medieval Education in England was the preserve of the rich. Education in Medieval England had to be paid for and medieval peasants could not have hoped to have afforded the fees. When William I conquered England in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings, he took over a country where very few were educated - including the wealthy.
Nuns, like monks, lived a very structured day in Medieval England. A day in the life of a nun was built around services in the chapel as by entering a convent/nunnery, a nun had taken the decision to dedicate and devote their life to God. Religion dominated the life of a nun. Each convent would have had its own particular daily timetable for a nun but many would have been similar to the following: 02.